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Full text of "The yellow fever epidemic of 1878, in Memphis, Tenn. Embracing a complete list of the dead, the names of the doctors and nurses employed, names of all who contributed money or means, and the names and history of the Howards, together with other data, and lists of the dead elsewhere. / By J.M. Keating"

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WHAT IS TO BE DONE WITH THE PROFITS FROM 
THE SALE OF THIS BOOK. 



Besolred, That the Howard Association of Memphis thanks Mr. 
J. M. Keating for the very generous gift of his work, entitled: "A 
History of the Yellow Fever," the copyright, and all rights, title 
to, or profits in which he has transferred to the Howard Association 
of Memphis ; and, 

liesolvcd, That the proceeds of the sale of such work, after the first 
edition of five hundred copies, which are hereby reserved for free 
distribution by the Association, shall, as he requests, be applied to 
the building of a Monument to the Physicians, Nui'ses, Members of 
the Howard Association and Citizens' Relief Committee, who died in 
Memphis during the epidemic of 1878. 

Adopted unanimoushj, January 6, 1879. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



THE 



YELLOW FEVER EPIDEMIC 



OF 1878, 



IN MEMPHIS, TENN". 



EMBRACING A COMPLETE LIST OF THE DEAD, THE NAMES OF THE DOCTORS AND 
NURSES EMPLOYED, NAMES OF ALL WHO CONTRIBrXED MONEY OR MEANS, 
AND THE NAMES AND HISTORY OF THE HOWARDS, TOGETHER WITH 
OTHER DATA, AND LISTS OF THE DEAD ELSEWHERE. 



By J. M. KEATING. 



"God is pleased with no music below so much as the thanksgiving songs of relieved widows, of supported 
orphans, of rejoicing, and comforted, and thanliful persons."— Jeremy Tavloe. 



MEMPHIS, TENN.: 
PRINTED FOR THE HOWARD ASSOCIATION. 
1 879. 



copykighted, 1879, 
By the Howard Association of Memphis. 




ELECTROTYPED AT 
PRANKLIX TYPE FOUXDBT, 
CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



WRIGHTSON i CO.. 
PRINTERS AND BJXDKRS, 
CINCINNATI, OHIO. 



DEDICATION. 



TO THE MEN AND WOMEN 

WHO VOLUNTEERED THEIR LIVES FOR THE FEVER-STRICKEN CITIZENS 
OF MEMPHIS IN 1878 ; TO ALL WHO CONTRIBUTED FOOD, CLOTHING, OR MONEY 
TO SUCCOR THE SICK, RELIEVE THE DESTITUTE, AND BURY THE DEAD, 
THIS HISTORY OF A TERRIBLE SCOURGE AND RECORD OF A GREAT 
PUBLIC CALAMITY, IS GRATEFULLY AND RESPECTFULLY 
DEDICATED, 

By J. M. Keating. 



GRATEFUL AND HEARTFELT THANKS. 



Towards the close of the epidemic of 1878, the Howard Association and tlie 
Citizens' Eelief Committee, in the name and in behalf of the dead, of the sick, the 
Convalescent, and the suiferiug citizens of Mempliis, thanked the jjeople of the 
world in terms of heartfelt gratitude for the kind consideration, sympathy, and 
generous charity of which, in common with their fellow-citizens of other cities 
and towns of the South, tliey had been the objects and recipients during the 
awful visitation. On the 28th of November, 1878, being Thanksgiving Day, 
at au immense mass-meeting composed of representatives of all classes of the 
lately returned people of Memphis, the following preamble and resolutions were 
unanimously adopted : 

WHEFiEAS, We, the citizens of Memphis, who were absent during the recent 
pestilence, mindful of the individual heroism displayed in behalf of our deeply- 
afflicted people, and of the generosity, consideration, and aid extended to them 
by a sympatlietic world, desire to testify our appreciation in a manner which 
will not only prove acceptable, but in a way by which it will be sure to reach 
all those to whom we owe so much ; therefore, on this the 28th day of Novem- 
ber, 1878 — a day set ap%rt by the President of the United States, and by the 
Governor of this State, as one of thanksgiving and prayer — we, deeming such 
day and such time most appropriate, and being in solemn mnss-meeting assem- 
bled, do hereby publicly express our gratitude — 

First, — To the President of the United States, the Secretary of War, and 
other members of his cabinet. 

Second, — To the Governor and Treasurer of the State of Tennessee. 

Third, — To the municipal authorities, merchants' exchanges, chambers of 
commerce, cotton exchanges, bankers and underwriters of the United States 
and Canada. 

Fourth, — To the commercial bodies of Europe, and the representatives abroad 
of the American Government. 

Fifth, — To the churches, Sunday-schools, and benevolent associations in. all 
sections of the Union. 

Sixth, — To the press of the United States. 

Seventh, — To the theatrical managers and members of the dramatic and 
musical professions. 

Eighth, — To the officers, members, nurses, and employes of the jNIemphis 
Howard Association. 

Ninth, — To the Howard Medical Corps, its officers and members. 

Tenth, — To the volunteer physicians and nurses from other sections. 

Eleventh, — To the officers, members, and employes of the Citizens' Relief 
Association. 

Twelfth, — To the officers and employes of the commissary departmer.t of the 
Citizens' Relief Association. 

(V) 



vi 



GRATEFUL AND HEARTrEl.T THANKS. 



Thirteenth, — To tlie clergy and religious orders of Memjjhis, and volimteers 
from abi-oad. 

Fourteenth, — To the employes in the Memphis post-office. 
Fifteenth, — To the Memphis daily press. 

Sixteenth, — To the working committees of the Odd Fellows, Masons, Knights 
of Honor, Knights of Pythias, Ancient Order of Workingmen, Independent 
Order of iNIutual Aiders, and other benevolent organizations. 

Seventeenth, — To the maj'or and other city officials, and to the police and 
fire departments of Memphis. 

Eigldee)itli, — To the military companies, uhite and cclored, who remained 
on duty during the pestilence. 

Nineteenth, — To the Memphis and Louisville, the IMemphis ar.d Charleston, 
the IMississi]ipi and Tennessee, and other railway lines ; and to the Memphis 
and Ohio River and the Anchor Line Packet Companies. 

Twentieth, — To the officers and employes of the Memphis banks, of the South- 
ern Express Company, and of the Western Union Telegraph Company. 

Twenty -first, — To the charitable of the known and unknown people not con- 
nected with any charitable or philanthropic association — persons from every 
walk and station in life, both lofty and humble ; and to the many who, sacri- 
ficing interest, safety, the ties of kindred f.nd the comforts of home, risked all 
in the humanitarian mission to which they had dedicated their lives. 

Tiventy- second, — To the women of America, whose hearts went out towards 
the sick and afflicted of the land. 

Twenty -third, — To the martyred dead, we feel but can not express our grati- 
tude; yet, in all tlie days to come, their memories shall be kept green, and their 
names go down in the annals of our city, honored, revered, and blessed. It 
w'oukl be a pleasing thougl; melancholy task to call the roll of our illustrious 
dead, and let our grateful hearts respond in fitting tribute to their many vir- 
tues: but to a list so long, wiiere every virtue is conspicuous, your Committee 
believes this to be not the time nor the place to mention individual merit. To 
do justice to the memory of any one of a hundred whose names might be sug- 
gested, w ould occupy more time than is now at your disposal ; hence it is we 
restrain our inclination to mention names, and leave to each of you the sacred 
privilege of recalling the pleasant memories which cluster around our hallowed 
dead. 



PREFACE. 



This history of the yellow fever, and record of the epidemic of 1878, in 
Memjihis, had its origin in the wish exjaressed ])y a large number of intelli- 
gent citizens, at home and abroad, who desired that the origin, progress, and 
results of the recent epidemic, esjjecially, might be rescued from the evanes- 
cent columns of the daily press and put in an enduring form — a monument 
testifying to the sufferings of the people of IMemphis, the unparalleled losses 
of life, to the humanity and overflowing charity of their fellow-countrymen of 
all the States, and the people of many of the nations of Europe ; and, above 
all, to the heroism of the women and the men who illustrated, as physicians 
and nurses, with a sublime self-abnegation, the first and chiefest of Christian 
virtues. 

All the known and well autlienticated sources of infiirmati(jn have been 
freely availed of, and it is believed that nothing has been omitted that could 
increase the value of the book as a history of the yellow fever and comijlete 
record of the epidemic of 1878, from the occurrence of the first to the date 
of the last known case. 

Tlie author has, it will be seen, confined himself to focts, and has not in- 
dulged, as he could wish, and tiiey deserve, in extended panegyrics of those 
who so nobly perished at the post of duty, or of those who, doing their duty, 
survived the ordeal of death. Want of space firliade. The nature of their 
employment will sufficiently speak the added danger, if any, encountered by 
each, whether Howard or citizen ; and the official station they filled will mark 
those for special remembrance by the Avorld, Avho, l)y their courage, zeal, and 
efficiency, were the life and inspiration of the comparative few who performed 
what, to them, was a sacred duty. 

(vii) 



viii PREFACE. 

All cause of jealousy, complaint, or offense has been studiously avoided, 
Avhile nothing has been omitted that was deemed essential to the "truth of 
history." The time allowed for the work has been brief, but it is hoped it 
will be found worthy alike of the living and the dead; a record of duty done, 
a history of those who have passed away, leaving us a lesson of' gentle minis- 
trations, of heroic warfare, of strained endurance, of patient resignation, of 
cool, calm courage, and of Christian fortitude. 

The epidemic of 1878, when the numbers exposed, the numbers who sick- 
ened, and those who died, are taken into account, must be set down as one of 
the gi'eatest calamities of modern times, marking an epoch in our history and 
expressing a period memorable for all time. 

Trusting that the lesson it teaches will not be lost upon those whom it most 
immediately concerns, the author commits his work to the considerate judg- 
ment of his readers, praying their indulgence for such demerits as to them 
may appear. 

Memphis, il/ay, 1879. 



CONTENTS. 



TAfi E 

HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER 11-7:^ 

CHRONOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER 75-9-S 

EPIDEMIC IN MEMPHIS, 1878 99-144 

INCIDENTS OF THE EPIDEMIC 145-194 

METEOROLOGICAL 195-206 

THE DEATHS OF 1878 207-266 

QUARANTINE AND SANITATION 267-326 

APPENDIX (Reports of Howards, etc.) 327-448 

INDEX 445-454 



HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



(xi) 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



I. 

The Yellov/ Fever, or, as Dowell prefers to term it, /e6ris typhus iderodes, 
or febris mm nigro vomito, tlie ficvre jaime of the Frencli, and negro vomito 
of the Spanish, was known to the Caribs, according to Breton, who wrote in 
1655, by the French equivalent of coup de barre, expressive of the muscular 
pains of the fever, as if produced by blows from a stick. Like Asiatic chol- 
era and the small-pox, it is assigned to that class of diseases known as xpnatie 
(from x'jma, the Greek word for yeast). These diseases are produced by in- 
visible germs floating in tiie atmosphere, which, taken into the blood tlirough 
the lungs, are afterward propagated by the excreta and invisible emanations 
of the patients. The yellow fever is claimed by some to have originated and 
to have prevailed epidemically* in Africa, though Cortez found it prevailing 
lu Mexico, to whose people it was known by the name of matzlazalumtl ; and 
the Indians of San Domingo and other West India Islands were decimated 
by it before and soon after the discovery of America. It is unknown in Asia, 
Australia, or the islands of the Pacific ; and it was unknown to Europe until 
after the discovery of America by Columbus. Dowell says that "it was un- 
doubtedly introduced from Africa to America [he does not say when, nor 
does he tell us why, if it is an African fever, the negroes in this country 
are so largely exempt from it] ; that it existed in Africa, eastern Asia, and 
southern Europe, long before the establishment of the Greek and Roman 
empires, is generally well established by Hertado, even running back a thou- 
sand years before Christ ; that it has now become endemic along the coasts, 
of Africa — both east and west — as well as in the West Indies and northern 
coast of South America, no one doubts [and he ought to have added the 



Epidemic diseases are those wliich attiick .nt tlie same time a great number of pec-, 
pie, depending on some temporary accidental and generally inappreciable canse: differ- 
ing, in this respect, from endemic diseases, or those developed under the inflnence of 
some constant or periodic cause. Many diseases, ordinarily sporadic, may become epi- 
demic (as* yellow fever) under certain ill-understood conditions; or some new disease, 
introduced by contagiim or other favorable circumst^mces, may spread epidemically. 

(13) 



14 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



coast of Mexico and Gulf and south Atlantic coasts of North America]; and 
that in all these districts its has its epidemic years and its years of nearly 
entire exemption is also well known." Dowler, on Avhose authority Dowell in 
other respects lays great stress, states that, on the contrary, "The slightest 
notice of yellow fever is nowhere found among ancient writers, altliough 
they have not failed to record, incidentally or directly, the time, place, 
and progress of numerous epidemics with more or less particularity, so that 
these characteristics may now, after the lapse of so many centuries, be 
ascertained. It is now nearly 3,000 years since the first temple arose in 
honor of ^sculapius; four or five centuries later, he was worshiped at Rome, 
where epidemics became both frequent and fatal. Homer opens his great 
poem by alluding to an epidemic that destroyed dogs, mules, and men : 
another, 430 years before Christ, most destructive at Athens, was very 
minutely described by Tliucydides, himself having suffered by it. An epi- 
demic also fell under the observation of Hippocrates, whose treatment of 
it was reckoned so successful, that he was presented with a massive ciown 
of gold and the highest public honors. Five years later, Athens was again 
visited. Many epidemics jjrevailed at Rome before our era. In 263 and 
212 (at the siege of Syracuse), and in 131 before Christ, the Roman and 
many other nations suffered from pestilential visitations, as mentioned directly 
or indirectly by ancient authors. Near the commencement of the Christian 
era, Celsus, and in the next century, Galen, gave the world their learnfed 
works on medicine. In the sixth century the plague was general; and, in 
A. D. 565, small-pox was first described in France, as it was in the tenth 
century by the Arabian physicians, Rhazes and Avicenna. Before the mid- 
dle of the 13th century, medical schools existed at Montpelier and Damas- 
cus. The Parisian College of Surgery soon followed. Descriptions of scurvy 
and plica were soon after recorded. Books on medicine, too, appeared in 
greater number; and some new diseases were described in the 14th and 
15th centuries, such as whooping-cough, the sweating sickness, and St. Vitus' 
dance, which later was epidemic dn the Rhine. During this lor.g period, 
so briefly sketched, yellow fever does not appear to have been noticed until 
the discovery of America by Columbus. Had it prevailed in ancient times, 
its jirominent features, so very remarkable, at least in its advanced stages, 
would, doubtless, have been recorded."* It is said to have made its fil'st 
appearance on this side of the Atlantic in the West Indies, in 1647; but the 
late Noah Webster has shown that it prevailed among the Indians of New 
England in 1618, and again in 1746, and at other periods. It is also said 
to have scourged Mexico many years before the Spanish conquest. It cer- 
tainly prevailed in Central America in 1596. Epidemics of it have occurred 
as far north as Quebec, as far south as Montevideo, as far east as Spain, and 
as far west as Mexico. It is endemic in Brazil, the West Indies, Venezuela, 
New Grenada, Mexico, the Gulf coast, and along the south Atlantic coast of 



* The weight of evidence is with Dowler, and yellow fever would seem to be an Amer- 
ican, and not an African fever. 



A HI3TORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 



15 



tlie United States, as far north as Clmrlcston. It is nncommon in elevntcfl 
regions, but deaths have occurred from it at New Castle, Jamaica, at tiie 
height of 4,000 feet; and, if the statement be true that ancient Mexico was 
visited by it, then it has been epidemic at a height of between 7,000 and 
8,000 feet above the level of the sea. Dowell says, " Tiiat along the sea 
coasts and in the islands of the troi>ics it has never occun-ed above 3,000 
feet, while under the equator it has occurred at 4,000 feet." (Since 1668 it 
has many times prevailed epidemically in the New England, the JMiddle, the 
Western, and tlie Southern States of the Union, at a fearful sacrifice of life 
and cost of money. Dowell, writing in the first part of 1878, before the 
dreadful visitation of that year, which cost the country more than 25,000 
lives and $200,000,000, says, "That yellow fever had [up to 1877] visited 
228 cities and towns and 28 States of the Union, appearing 741 times, and 
causing 65, 311 deaths" [of which we have record, and as many more, per- 
haps, of which we have not]. Dr. Bell, of Louisville, declares it an indisputa- 
ble truth that, beyond 45° north latitude and 23° south latitude, the disease 
is but rarely or never felt, and it is rigidly confined between 20° east longi- 
tude and 30' north. In the West India Islands, on the west coast of Africa, 
and the continent of America the ravages of yellow fever are most fre- 
quently felt. The conspicuous zones for it are Barbadoes on the east, Tampico 
on the west, Bio Janeiro on the south, and Charleston on the north. Within 
this area the disease is perpetually present at some {)oint." Dowell says, 
" That it can not live in a temperature above 212° nor below 32° Fahrenheit, 
or 100° centegrade; consequently, no patient will take the disease where the 
temperature is below freezing [see contradiction a few lines below], and you 
ma}'' steam a ship to boiling, and kill out all contagion, and make it clean and 
health}^ by raising the heat to 212° [or, as some others insist, by freezing it 
by the new refrigerating process of Gamgee] ; that he has known non-inter- 
course to prevent it; but, after a slight frost or two, the men. were permitted to come 
to toicn, and there occurred several cases and. one death, in 1865, January 5th 
[and yet he says no patient will take the disease at a temperature below freez- 
ing point]; and that the cause is increased by meteorological changes of months' 
duration; and this is the cause of the belief of some that it comes in the 
air. It develops in from two to nine days, but cases have been known 
where patients have had it in them 23 days. The true cause is an animal- 
culte, so small that we have been unable yet to develop it, though there are 
some efforts being made in that direction, which foreshadow success." But 
they have not yet made their appearance. Dr. Bennett Dowlcr, an authority 
who shares the esteem of all students of the subject with Stone, Flaget, 
Bell, and many others, declares positively that it has originated spontane- 
ously in more than one instance in the United States: and, so originating, 
has raged epidemically. The Commission appointed by the Board of Health 
of New Orleans in 1853, to inquire into the causes of the epidemic of that 
year, declared positively that it originated there, and was aggravated to a 
fearful intensity by the filthy condition of the city. The medical experts 
recently appointed by Congress, deny the position of Dowler, of the New 
2 



16 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Orleans Commission of 1853, and of Bell, although these, as ■v\ill be shown 
later on, are fully sustained by a weight of authority at least equal to 
that of the Commission, and by the fact that yellow fever has become nat- 
uralized in the West Indies,* in Mexico, in Brazil, and in New Orleans. 
They declare that " yellow fever is not domiciled in the United States, and 
that every epidemic that has occurred has been in chronological sequence 
to the countries south of us, with which we are in communication." They 
deny that it has ever originated indigenously in this country, and assert 
that it is always the result of importation, and invariably prevails in some 
sea-port before attacking the interior. Yet they say cases have occurred 
here where the specific poison, when hidden from the cold in sheltered 
places, has given rise the succeeding summer to scattered cases. It is 
transmitted, they also contend, by steam and sailing vessels, barges, per- 
sonal clothing, baggage, ordinary merchandise; also by yellow fever patients, 
who are responsible for more epidemics, they say, than all other causes, 
though instances are not wanting where they failed to occasion other cases. 

The yellow fever is a fever of one paroxysm continuoush' from 24 to 72 and 
and sometimes 96 hours. According to Dr. Faget, of the faculty of Paris, 
V>'ho, during a residence of 2b years in NeAV Orleans, has closely observed it, "it 
is strongly individual in its characteristics. For, whereas, in paludal fevers 
there are generally two or more paroxysms, sometimes a continued series of 
them, j^ellow fever has but one single parox3'sra. And, whereas, in the former 
the period of defervescence, during which the temperature regains its normal 
degree, is only from 30 to 48 hours, in the latter it averaged 96 hours. In 
2)aludal fevers there is a perfect concord between the line of the pulse and that 
of tlie temperature, while in yellow fever the line of the jiulse descends, but 
that of the temperature maintains itself or rises." According to the observa- 
tions of Dr. Faget and othere, made during the epidemic of 1870, in New 
Orleans, "it should be six or seven days (6 X 24 = 144 hours)." In summing 
up the march of the temperature. Dr. Faget says, the fever "is characterized 
by a unique paroxysm, with an effervescence of one to three days, followed by a 
defervescence of four to seven days, without any stationary stage." The duration 
of the yellow fever is stated by Dr. La Roche to be three days — "a febrile 
stage of about seventy hours' duration, more or less, is succeeded by a period 
of complete cessation of fever." 

Dowler declares it to be non-contagious and to result fi-om an antecedent 
Avholly unknown. And Dupuy de Chamberry, whom he quotes, states positively 
that "the yellow fever of this place (New Orleans) is a disease sui r/eneris, the 
product of local cavises, find is never contagious or exportable." Dr. Dowell, the 
latest medical writer on yellow fever, describes it "as an eruptive or exanthe- 
matous fever, infectious or contagious from persons or clothes under circum- 
stances not yet known." The medical experts appointed by Congress in De- 
cember, 1878, declare it to be a specific disease produced by the introduction 
into the human organism of a specific poison, and that, though this specific 



If it did not originate there or in Mexico. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



17 



poison has never been chonically or nilcrosco])ical]y (lenionstratecl, nor in any 
way made evident to the liiunan sense, tliey deem it safe to assume tliat it is 
material and particuhir, is endowed with ordinary properties, and is subject to 
the ordinary hnvs of material substances. They also hold that it is orp-anic — 
is endowed with the vital ])roj)erties of growth and reproduction; tliat it is not 
Tiialarial; but the concurrence of local conditions favorable to the evolution of 
it seems to be necessary to the evolution of yellow fever epidemics. Atmosj)heric 
air, they admit, is the usual me(jium through ^vhich the infection is received into 
the human system; it is not carried by atmospheric currents, they say, nor by 
any modes or vehicles of conveyance other than those coiniected witli human 
traffic and travel. The white race is most susceptible to it, and all colors inter- 
mediary between that and the negro less and less in degree as the}' approach 
the African, who suffers least of all from it. The period of incubation, tiiey 
hold, varies from two to five days — second attacks are of rare occurrence — 
and it can be destroyed by extreme heat and cold and by chemical disinfectants 
where they can be concentrated. Dr. L. S. Tracey, in the Popular Sclcitre 
Montldy, a publication of the highest scientific character, regards the germ and 
develo])ment theory with favor. He says: "Yellow fever occujiies a singular 
positi(m between the contagious and non-coutagious diseases. The poison is 
not, like that of small-pox, directly communicable from a sick person to a well 
one ; but, although the emanations of the sick are connected with the spread 
of the disease, they seem to require an appropriate nidus in which to germinate 
and develop. This nidus must be warm and moist, and there the germs, what- 
ever they are, lie and grow or, in some way, develop luitil they are able to mi- 
grate. The germs are poi'table, and may be conveyed in l^aggage or merchan- 
dise {fom'de-i) for hundreds or thousands of miles. If not so conveyed, its progi'ess 
is very slow. In 1822, in New York, when it gained a foothold in Rector 
Street, it appeared to travel aljout 40 feet a day until killed l)y tlie frost. It 
often leaves a house or a block intact, going around it and attacking those be- 
yond, with no assignable reason. A thin board partition seems to have stopped 
it on Governor's Island in 1856, and an instance is related where it attacked 
the sailors in all the berths of one side of a shij:) before crossing to the other. 
Such apparent vagaries are, in the present state of our knoAvledge, inexplica- 
ble." * Dr. William Schmoele, of Philadelphia, in an essay on the cause, the 
fusion, localization, prevention, and cure of cholera and yellow fever, holds to the 
same theory, but lays particular stress on propagation by the patient. He says: 
"The parasites causing the j^ellow fever, although also of exclusively tropical 
origin, appear somewhat capable to be reproduced, during the heat of summer, 
wherever the thermometer of Fahrenheit ranges above 86 degrees, in more 
northern latitudes, outside of the human alimentary tube, especially if impoi'ted 
by patients, and deposited with their excrements, in warm, damp, and filthy 
localities, presenting all the additional conditions of development of minute 
vermin. Their chief diffusion, however, in northern climes, is efiected by 



* They have always been characteristic of it. All the medical and ne'W!3paper records 
treat of them. 



18 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



reproduction of the seeds in the bowels of patients, and by their direct 
dissemination through the vapors of the excrements, Avhich deposit them on 
articles of food, or in the mouth of new victims, thence to be carried, with the 
food, into the digestive tube." Dr. Chopin, Health Officer of New Orleans, a 
medical authority of high repute and yellow fever expert, describes yellow fever 
most nearly in accordance M'ith the general experience in Memphis in 1878. He 
says "it is an exotic, and that its germ is a living organism capable of rapid 
reproduction under given conditions ; that it multiplies itself, first on surfaces 
and then in the atmosphere, until it becomes epidemic. It is a self-limited dis- 
ease, like all specific diseases; that it must run its course, and nothing that we 
know of can stop its progress. Like scarlet fever, measles, small-pox, and 
cholera, it will go on unchecked as long as the poison is in the system. Then, 
through the influence on the nervous system, tissue changes occur, which produce 
disorganization and death, unless it is checked." Dr. J. M. Clements, of Louis- 
ville, attributes the yellow fever poison to some order of fungus plants indigenous 
to the tropics, but as yet undiscovered, and says "that the germs or spores are 
transported by strips, and finding in the place attacked the conditions of filth, heat 
and moisture breeds in such numbers as to poison the air and lay human life under 
"contribution." He rests his theory upon the experiments of Prof. J. H. Salis- 
bury, of Cleveland, Ohio, who claims to have ascertained that intennittent and 
remittent fevers are caused by the introduction into the system of cells or spores 
emanating from certain species of algoid plants, called Palmellse, which belong 
to the lowest known vegetable organism. To these species of plants he applies 
the generic name, Semiasma, signifying earth miasm, and he also calls them 
ague j)lants. Prof. Salisbury claims that this discoveiy is based on the follow- 
ing facts: "A microscopical examination of the salivary secretions and mucous 
expectoration, in the morning, of persons living in a malarious region showed 
cells of an algoid type, resembling strongly those of the palmellae, to be the 
only bodies constantly present; and these bodies were invariably absent from 
the same secretions examined from persons residing above the summit plane of 
ague. The palmelloid cells were obtained by suspending plates of glass, over 
night, near broken ground, in places whence malarious emanations were known 
to arise. The so-called ague plants were invariably found in numerous localities 
in which intermittent fever prevailed, and in no instance were they found where 
this disease did not occur. Cakes of surface soil from a malarious locality, which 
were covered with the palmellse, were carried to a high, hilly district, situated 
five miles from any malarious locality, Avhere a case of malarial fever had never 
been known to exist. These cakes were exposed on the sill of an open second- 
story window, opening into the sleeping apartment of two young men, A plate 
of glass suspended over them during the night was found to be covered with pal- 
melloid cells and spores. Both the young men had intermittent fever, one on the 
12th day, the other on the 14th. No other members of the family were affected." 
The theory of Prof, Salisbury, accounting for the origin of remittent and in- 
termittent fevers, and which is thus advanced by Dr, Clements, of Louisville, 
to account for the origin of yellow fever, is sustained by the experiments of 
Dr, Emil Querner, of Philadelphia, whose investigations into the causes of 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOM" FEVER. 



19 



diphtheria leads him to the following coiielusions: "After a lahorioiis and scru- 
tinizing investigation into tlie cause of a large nunilier of cases of di]jhtheria 
that have come under my care during several years j^ast, I have almost arrived 
at the conclusion that tiie priuKuy infection of an individual comes from the 
fungi wliicli arc found as spots of different colors on the exterior of fruits, par- 
ticularly a])ples. As far a.s the j)o\ver of my microscope has shown, these fungi 
seem identical with the fungi from a diphtheritic ulcer, and last autumn I 
traced a number of c;uses, at one time five together in one family, back to the 
eating of apples picked from the ground in orchards without previously clean- 
ing the fruit by rubbing or washing. The 2>i'evalence of this dreadful disease 
in the last three decjides nia}^ be well accounted for by the fact that the appeai- 
ance and flourishing of lower vegetable and animal organisms is j^eriodical, of 
which we have examples in the potato-disease, the disease of the grape-vine, and 
cholera, wdiich latter has been ascribed to a fungus growing on the ears of rice 
in East India, and carried in the human bod}' as a contagion all over the globe, 
and in many other cases. Of course, any ^wrson infected with the disease from 
the primary cause may l)e the center of infectio)i for others. Why many per- 
sons eat fruit with fungi on them with impunity is explainable simply on the 
ground that the susceptibility for disease differs greatly in individuals, and that, 
for instance, for the propagation of fungi upon the nuicous mendirane upon 
the pharynx there may exist a previous catarrhalic affection, with a spongy 
condition of the same. It is my opinion that in times of epidemic diseases 
almost ever\^ one takes the contagion into his sj'stem, but that for the develop- 
ment of the disease a certain predisposition, or some additional cause, is neces- 
sary. Thus, cholera breaks out in an individual only after the cooling off of 
the abdomen ; and small-ix)x attacks timid persons often after being frightened 
by the sight of a pitted face of a convalescent patient from a distiince. Thus, 
alsf>, the impunity of physicians who treat such diseases with a zealous and 
investiLiating mind, and with a fearless interest in every case, may be ticcounted 
for; their nervous energy resisting the tendenej'of their vital power to succund) 
to the contagion. By this, I wish only to give a hint for further investigation 
in this matter, for certainly it is time that the mediial profession should discover 
more of the hidden causes of zymotic diseases, which bring so nmch havoc 
among the human race." 

Dr. J. P. Davidson, of New Orleans, very emphatically agrees with the ex- 
perts apjxMnted by Congress. He says "that yellow fever is exotic, and never 
originates locally except under peculiar circumstances of limited domestica- 
tion, as when an epidemic has prevailed, or in certain years when a few 
■cases have occurred, and periodically, after imjxirtation, the ensuing winter 
has Tteen so mild that the mercury has not fallen repeatedly below 32° — the 
special cause, germs, if you will, survive the winter, and when the sunnncr 
heat attains its nuiximum, they multiply sufliciently to impart the disease." 
He also holds "that it is due to a living, organized microscopicentity, vege- 
table or animal, which generateil out of pre-existing germs under favorable 
circumstances, propagates itself indefinitely when these peculiar and essential 
conditions exist." Dr. GaiUard, of Louisville, Ls of opinion that yellow fever 



20 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



■will not originate out of its zone ; that cai-ried beyond it and introduced into 
filthy cities, its favorite, if not essential nidus, it will spread and decimate, 
and will bring ruin and desolation in its train. Dr. Hapi)holdt, who was 
conspicuous as a volunteer jjhysician in Memphis during the epidemic of 
1873, and who had previously had an extended experience with yellow fever 
as Health Officer of Charleston, in a pamphlet historj' of that visitation, de- 
clares that "yellow fever is peculiarly a disease of cities, where large num- 
bers of persons are crowded together, and effete animal matters arc allowed 
to putrefy in the atmosphere ; but it is not proved that filth, garbage or nox- 
ious gases from rotthig animal or vegetable matter can any more produce 
yellow fever than they can small-pox; though it is almost certain that they 
do so vitiate the atmosphere as to render it a proper nidus for the reception 
and proliferation of the essential epidemic germ, be it what it may; whether 
of fungoid growths, or germinal masses derived from normal cells, or analo- 
gous to yeast or other ferment, which, by virtue of catalytic action, is capa- 
ble of producing deleterious changes in the constituents of the body. Assum- 
ing that all the destructive changes which the blood undergoes in yellow 
fever are due to the contact of certain infinitesimal j^articles, it may be read- 
ily conceived that after entering the organism and affecting its vital constitu- 
ents, they may reproduce themselves, and, from their extreme minuteness, 
permeate the tissues and escape from it by the skin, the breath, and the ex- 
cretions. When without the body, they may continue to multiply them- 
selves indefinitely if the surrounding atmosphere be in a favorable condition ; 
and floating about the air, impregnate water and food, and attach them- 
selves to clothing, bedding, or other material, and so admit of trans23ortation, 
and gaining access to the bodies of j^ersons suitable for their reception ; or 
these particles may lose a portion of their contagious vitality and be no 
longer capable of originating other germs that can propagate the disease, or 
being introduced into localities not favorable to their develoj^ment, occasion 
only a few sj)oradic cases. But ^\•e are not assured that all the germs perish, 
after the cessation of their action, by the intervention of cold weather. 
Many may but hibernate in sheltering situations to be revivified and aroused 
into action by warm weather and other favoring circumstances." Assistant 
Surgeon Harvey E. Brown, of the United States Army, holds that the yel- 
low fever is an acute, infectious disease, which originated in Africa,* and has 
become naturalized in the West Indies, and that it never has had an exist- 
ence in the United States except in consequence of the importation and sub- 
sequent development and production of its active or germinal principle. The 
nature of the germ is unknown, and he says that "the transmission of yel- 
low fever is not eflTected by means of a contagion or exhalation given off from 
the bodies of the sick, as is the case with small-pox, erysipelas, and the 
eruptive fevers, but the unknown poisonous principle probably exists in ex- 
tremely minute particles or germs which impregnate and render noxious the 



*He does not say when or in wliat part of Afiica, and in that regard is as vague and 
indefinite as the majority of liis brethren. 



A HI.STOrvY OF THE YELLOW FEVEPw 



21 



discharges from the stomach, bowels, ami skin of any jicrson undergoing an 
attack of the disease. Tlicse germs ii.ay attach themselves to clothing, bed- 
ding, carpets, and furniture in a sick-room ; they may penetrate the ■walls and 
M ood-work of a house, or the liokl of a ship ; when, by the general })reva- 
lence of the disease they become numerous, they may poison the a(mo^pl;cre 
of a street or even of a whole town ; they inay ccntaminatc and render dan- 
gerous drinking water, cess-pools, privy-vaults, and all places where the ofiiil 
of houses is thr(.)wn. They have tlie power of self-production outside of the 
luunau body ; hence but an infinitesimally small quantity of the original 
virus need be imported to produce a Avide-si)read epidemic, lliey are killed 
i>r rendered innocuous by certain substances known as disinfectants, among 
wliich may be mentioned a high degree of heat, carbolic acid, sul[)hate of 
iron (commercial cojjijeras), nitrous and sulphurous acid gases, cte. A tem- 
perature of 32° Fahrenheit destroys their vitality. Should any of these 
germs hil)ernate and survive through a winter, it is f(jund that on the return 
of warm wejither they are revivified, Init have parted with a portion of their 
vitality, and are no longer capable of self-rejiroduction ; hence in the second 
season they only give rise to isolated or sporadic cases, and do not produce 
an epidemic. It has been found by actual experience that those cities and 
towns exposed to the disease, which are neglectful of sanitary laws, those 
localities in towns which are the filthiest, and those individuals who are the 
most Ciireles.s or indifferent in their moral and physical habits are the greatest 
sufferers." It follows from the foregoing that while neglected streets, alleys, 
and yards, and defective drains and sewers, vaults, sinks, and cess-pools, 
rotten vegetable matter, or filth of any kind, can no more originate yellow 
fever than they can .small-pox, yet their presence in the vicinity of human 
habitations affords a richly-manured soil for the imported germ to arrive at 
its fullest malignancy. The danger to a community cognizant of and having 
a due regard for the well-Icnown laws of modern sanitation Ls reduced to a 
minimum, that to one ignorant or indifferent to them is intensified to a max- 
inmm. Dr. Hughes, of St. Louis, also contends for the germ theory and that 
an atmosphere below 32° kills. Dr. Mitchell, of Memphis, and nearly the 
whole corps of medical experts under him during the epidemic of 1878 took 
the same view. 

Dr. Ford, of St. Louis, believes, on the contrary, iii the principle of fer- 
mentation — that yellow fever was existent in the form, of dry particles of 
dust everywhere it had been once, but that the cold would repress their 
activity — in that cold would render the j)erson less receptive, and his body 
would not be in a condition to induce the fermentation of the dry dust. He 
says that "a person might go into a cold climate with the dry dust or active 
principle of yellow fever upon him, and while he remained in that cold climate 
he would not be afflicted with the disease, but if he went to a warm, malarial 
climate, he would be very apt to be stricken down. In other words, cold did 
not kill the vitality of yellow fever, but simply repressed it." He, however, 
admitted the efficacy of proper sanitary regulations to prevent a man's system 
from getting into the condition necessary to fermentation of the particles. 



22 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Professor P. StiUe, of Mobile, diffei-s from all the preceding authorities, 
and advances a novel theory to account fur the origin of yellow fever. 
He attributes it to the Gulf Stream. Calling attention to the equable 
atmospheric conditions of the tropical lands of both hemispheres, he says : 
" Coming up the south-east, across the torrid zone, is an ocean current which, 
where it sweeps around the north coast of South America, is called the Gui- 
ana Current. It makes its way directly into the Gulf of Mexico, where it 
takes the name of the Gulf Stream. After washing the smaller islands of 
the West Indies, it forces itself with great strength through the narrow chan- 
nel between Cuba and Yucatan, and rushes all around the shores of the gulf, 
taking its turn toward the east, and quitting the land immediately after pass- 
ing the southern point of Florida. Within the gulf its temperature stands 
at from 85° to 89°, but soon after having passed Florida its temperature 
goes suddenly down to 65°, and finally to 54° and 50°. Now, if we examine 
every part of the sea we shall find no other spot where a warm current 
washes the land at any thing like so high a temperature as is exhibited iu 
the Gulf of Mexico. A goodly portion of the time the temperature of the 
water stands entirely above that of the air, consequently a heavy mist is 
taken up. In other words, the atmosphere is completely saturated with 
moisture to such an extent as to render it too heavy to rise in obedience to 
the usual laws governing evaporation, the high temperature of the land pre- 
venting condensation. As a result, there lies upon the surface of the low 
country a thin stratum of air so heavy and so damp as to tempt us strongly 
into coining subaqueous as a designation by which to represent its condition. 
For proof that such conditions do arise in all cases where the water stands at 
a temperature higher than that of the air, we refer you to Fitch's F]iysical 
Geographij, page 142 ; and for proof that they exist in the West India 
Islands, see 'Humboldt's Island of Cuba, page 172. And here, in my humble 
judgment, we have arrived at a knowledge of the main conditions necessary 
to the propagation of the yellow fever: A stratum of atmosphere saturated 
with moisture to such an extent as can only occur under like circumstances as 
exist in the AVest Indies, and a tropical clime such as prevails there, and is 
every now and then, as I contend, carried into regions far above its natural 
lines. This thin stratum of heavy atmosphere is carried from the ocean 
equator and thrown upon our shores from the gulf breezes, so called, but in 
ordinary seasons the low temperature of the earth condenses the moisture per- 
manently before it has passed far inland. In seasons like the present, how- 
ever, when there have been two summers together, as it were, the earth with 
us is too warm to admit of permanent condensation. A portion of the moist- 
lu-e may fall as heavy as dew, but the I'ising temperature of the morning will 
take it up again, and hence it will be carried on, wave after Avave, as it were, 
until it has reached its final stopping point, possibly many degrees above the 
shores of the Gulf of Mexico. The immediate agent Avorking in yellow fever 
(be it living atom or fungus) is semi-aquatic in its nature, perhaps, and there- 
fore always finds itself at home in this peculiar character of heavy and wet 
atmosphere; hence it flourishes wherever a footing can be secured in it, and 



A IIISTORY OF THE YF-LLOAV FEYKE. 



23 



fattens upnn iis liiiniaii victims the more the furtlier it gets from its luirsery 
hed and fiids t'aem the less acclimated against its efll'cts. This heavy atinos- 
l)hcre theory would cxphiiu why yellow fever is mainly confined to the low 
grounds — in all cases waves of heavy atnicsphcre, like cuircnls of water, find 
their ways through the depressions upon the sui-f;ice of the carlli. If our 
Gulf breezes should drive them inland, they would very naturally I'oll uj) the 
valleys of our rivers." Dowlcr quotes a similar theory advanced hy the Fac- 
ulty of Paris, in 1G(J5, to account for the ravages of the black plague'- now 
threatening the world in southern Eussia and norlliern Brazil. He savs: 
"In France, the medical faculty of Paris assembled in order to find out the 
causes and devise sanitary measures to arrest the progress of the e])idoniic. 
The doctors, after due deliberation, in a solemn official manifesto, or medical 
l>ull, decided in the most positive manner that the epidemic was 'owing to 
the constellations which comliatted the rays cf the sun, and tlie warmth of 
the lieavenly fire which struggled violently with the waters of the sea, origi- 
nating a vapor in the great eastern sea of India, corrupted with fish, envelop- 
ing itself with fog. Should the same thing continue not a man would be left 
alive, except the grace of Christ preserve him. AVe are of opinion that the 
constellations, with the aid of nature, strive, by virtue of tlieir divine right, 
to protect and heal the hunuui race, and to this end, in union with the rays 
of the sun, acting through the jiower of fire, endeavor to break through the 
inist.' The faculty at the same time joredicted, in the most oracular manner, 
the future movements of the aforesaid constellations: 'Accordingly, Avithin the 
next ten days, until the 17th of the ensuing month of July, this mist will be 
converted into a stinking, deleterious rain, whereby the air will be much pu- 
rified. Now as soon as this rain announces itself by thunder or hail, every 
one of you should protect yourself from the air; and rs well as after the rain, 
kindle a large fire of vine wood, green laurel, wormwood, chamomile, etc., 
until the earth is again completely dry, and three days afterwards no one 
ought to go about; only small river fish should be used; rain-water must be 
avoided in cooking; bathing is most hurtful, and the least departure from 
chastity fi.ital "' 

Dr. Labadie, in his report of the epidemic of 1864, at Galveston, reviewing 
the existing theories as to the origin and means of propagation of yellow fever, 
rather favors the explosive theory. He says: "What causes the rise and prog- 
ress of this disease is a question hard to answer. Some say it is caused hy a 
mai-sh miasm, under an atmosphere of over 90° Faiireidieit. Others contend 
that it is a pectdiar sul)tle poison that explodes in the air, like an inflam- 
mable substance, communicates itself to certain points; and those who may 
hajiiien to inhale or swallow more or less of it come under its influence after 
a certain number of hours— to as long as twenty-four days — which, Avhen 
exploded in the stomach, or is absorbed by the blood from the lungs, finds 
its seat of infection in the stomach, which it first inflames to such a degree 
as to cause those vi(.)lent pains witnessed ; leaving its impress there, it soon 

* Which, Dowcll says, appears to resemble yellow fever in many respects. 



24 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



leaves to do its work. The system becomes so depressed, so exhausted, that 
all the muscular force is gone. The walls of the stomach, no longer pro- 
tected bj the muscular fibres, a degree of relaxation follows; the capillary- 
vessels relaxed soon bleed; this blood, mixing with a rank acid of the 
stomach or bowels, they neutralize each other, hence chocolate-colored vomit ; 
but if this blood meets a strong acid, it becomes black, and, perhaps, car- 
bonizes at times in small particles, hence black vomit more or less profuse." 

Dr. \Varren Stone, an authority held in as high esteem as any other, and 
a physician whose name in New Orleans was, for more than thiity years, 
as a houseliold word, in the course of a lecture, delivered in Bellevue Hos- 
pital in the winter of 1867, sustained the wave or cycle tlieory, but as to 
other points agreed with Dowler and Dowell. He says: "It is a disease 
peculiar to warm latitudes, but its limits could not be defined by any 
exact temperature or climatic conditions, for exceptions would frequently 
occur to falsify any such restrictions. Nothing more definite can be said 
than that it is a disease incident to warm climates, and induced by a pecu- 
liar poison, totally intangible, and disconnected from any known causes of 
disease. There is no combination of filth, no combination of circumstances 
calculated to deteriorate healtli and excite typhoid or typhus fevers that 
had any thing to do with the generation of yellow fever. This remark- 
able fact is not generally known. Some Federal oflicers have taken credit 
to themselves for keeping yellow fever out of New Oideans during their 
occupation of tliat city; but it is a notorious fact that the city was not 
cleaner then (1862) in the suburbs aud lower districts than it had often 
been before. The weather happened to be cooler, and there was less rain ; 
-but there was no material difference in any other respect. The city of 
New Oi-leans had been exempt from the fever for some j^ears previously, 
when there was no quarantine whatever. Yellow fever has existed upon 
high and healthy latitudes, and proved as virulent there as in low regions. 
The Magnolia ridge, back of New Orleans, is one of the healthiest regions 
in the world, yet the yellow fever has proved quite as destructive there 
as in less favored regions. Indeed, the disease has always been more 
violent in the country', when it once j^revails there, than in cities. In 
regard to the ietiology or causes of yellow fever, there has always been 
much dispute. It has been a question whether it is imported or is of local 
origin. It certainly has not been imported in ships. The epidemic influence 
is wafted through the atmosphere in waves or cycles, and always made grad- 
ual and regular ajiproaches ; so that in New Orleans we know when it is 
coming by its prevalence in the islands of the gulf and places south of us. 
In the year 1851 it began in Brazil, and after passing over the northern 
part of South America and the West India Islands, it reached New Orleans 
ni 1853. In 1855 it had traveled as far as Memphis, and was severe in 
many of the interior towns. Its history in New Orleans the present year 
is remarkable. It first appeared in a mild form, and in several places at 
once, in the month of June, and, although the weather was favorable to 
its spread, it did not increase in intensity, and only about nine cases 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLO'W FEVER. 



25 



occurred per week. These cases evidently oriL^inated in the city. But 
later in the season a fresh wave approached Iroin the direction of i\Iexico, 
appearing in a violent form in Indianola, Galveston, and New Iberia, and, 
lastly, iu New Orleans, where it appeared in a severe form and in increas- 
ing ratio, although the weather was of the kind considered unfavorahle to 
its propagation. This was the general history of the disease. It fixed 
upon a place and ran its course, increasing in a definite ratio, declining in 
the same way, and finally disappearing, but, lor the time boing, aflecting 
all who were subject to attack and exposed to its influence. Debility and 
other reasons render some persons more susceptible than otliers to the pecu- 
liar poison; but this is the case with all diteases." Dr. P. V. .Schenck, 
of St. Louis, in an exhaustive treatise, published during the epidemic of 
1(S78, also upholds the wave theory. He says: "Yellow' fever is an infec- 
tious disease, but it is neither miasmatic iior contagious. The poise n of 
yellow fever is not generated in the human system ; it is generated exter- 
nally; it attacks persons, and may be carried in vessels and trunks; lor tb.e 
presence of the disease an imported germ, or descendant f)f an imported germ, 
is necessary. The old discussions which have so long disturbed the profession 
are at an end, and the mind will lie no longer swayed like a pendulum be- 
yond the point of a stable equilibrium. Even when the Eoyal Academy 
of ]\Iedicine were undergoing a lively debate; and when Dr. Chevrin was 
on his six years' journey of investigation; and when Drs. Pym and Bryson, 
of England, were quarreling over the facts in the Bann and Eclair cases; 
Avhile the stupid Health Board of England were ti-ying to break down 
quarantine ; while old Dr. Hosack, of this country, was venting his wrath on 
those who believed in non-contagion, 'as juniors in knowledge and in years, 
and as the unfledged opinion and speculations of men of the closet, who have 
had but few ojsportunities to test them at the bedside,' — even then, if you 
"will carefully examine the facts, you will find it to be impossible, out of the 
many old epidemics, to affirm of any one of them that it had Ijeen intro- 
duced by contagion. Bancroft has brought a mass of testimony and fact 
upon this subject. Dr. Porter, w'ith his vessels, meets in mid-ocean with an 
infected vessel: his officers and crew intermingle, and they leave unharmed. 
A vessel lying at Havana, surrounded by infected vessels, in front of an 
infected city, is unharmed. The fourteen men who went to New York from 
Governor's Island, visited in the most thickly and filthy portions of that city; 
nine of them died, yet none of the citizens took the disease — indeed, so far as 
known, no case is on record in which a person having the disease in a pre- 
viously healthy quarter, has become the starting point of a local epidemic. 
In yell(jw fever we meet with a non-contagious disease; the living person, 
though sick, will not propagate it — it is not re])roduced in his system; the 
disease is of exotic origin, and, in order to become epidemic, it must be 
carried by the wave. It has its periods of rest and of activity. It travels 
three times as fast in tropical regions as it does higher up. It may hiber- 
nate, and resume its march the summer following; it may take one-half of 
a city this, and finish its work the next summer. It travels at the rate of 



26 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FLVE?.. 



about forty feet a day. Dr. Stone used to compare its course and mode of 
travel to a tax-collector — from house to house along a street before it diverges. 
It is most active in its operations near the surface of the earth, attacking a 
larger proportion of persons on the ground floor; it is more active at night 
than in the day-time; it may attack a single block or district in a city, as, 
for instance, in 1870, New Orleans suffered from yellow fever. It Mas con- 
fined to a portion of the second district, twelve blocks by four. In 1872 it 
was in the fourth district. In 1873 it appeared in all the districts in the 
city, and was epidemic, but disinfectants so modified the disease that it did 
not become a general epidemic, whilst higher up the river, Shreveport and 
Memphis passed through the terrors of a fatal epidemic. In 1874, New 
Orleans again escaped, while Pascagoula and Pensacola suffered. Walls may 
stop the progress of yellow fever; as, for instance, the inmates of the cala- 
boose in New Orleans generally escape; even a partition of boards may inter- 
vene, as reported by Dr. Nott, from Governor's Island, in 1867. Dr. Parkes 
says that in the West Indies it has re]3eatedly attacked a barrack, while no 
other place on the island was affected. At Lisbon, Cadiz, and many other 
j^laces, it has attacked only one side of a street. In the West Indies it has 
repeatedly commenced in the same part of a barrack. It has been known to 
attack every house in a neighborhood save one; to attack all the sailors in the 
berths on one side of a man-of-war before reaching over on the opposite side." 

Dr. W. A. McCully, of Independence, Mo. , a very intelligent physician, who 
volunteered and was devoted to the work in Memphis in 1878, writes of his ex- 
perience during that epidemic, and one that prevailed at Key West, Florida, in 
1864, while he .was a surgeon of volunteers in the Federal army. It will be seen, 
from what he says, that notwithstanding a strict quarantine, enforced by an ade- 
quate military force, there were some seemingly spontaneous cases of fever in 1865. 
He says : "In the winter of 1864 and 1865 stringent sanitary regulations were 
enforced on the island of Key West and Fort Taylor. In March, 1865, a strict 
quarantine was ordered by Brig. -Gen. John Newton, which I enforced with the 
assistance of the army and navy. A number of cases occurred during the sum- 
mer of that year, but all of a mild type, the mortality being but two per cent. 
The local conditions were such that the germs could not propagate, and in my 
opinion to them we must generally ascribe the malignancy of the disease. I 
left Key West in 1866, and never saw yellow fever again until the recent epi- 
demic at Memphis, Tenn. The disease there exhibited the same phenomena 
as at Key West and Havana, except that it was frequently comi:)licated with 
malarial fever. Patients sometimes would have intermittent fever precede, 
and at others follow yellow fever. Relapses were more frequent. A failure 
to treat the miasmatic complications was the cause of considerable mortality, 
I thought, at Memphis. I made thirty autopsies at Key West, and a number 
at Memphis, with almost identical results. The same lesions were observed 
in all, modified by malaria, suppression of urine, or some other complication. 
The observations made at these places lead me to the following conclusions : 

" 1st. That yellow fever is produced by a specific germ. 

"2d. That the impression on the individual organization is as specific as 



A IIISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



27 



that produced by typhoid or the eruptive fever, and protects it from subse- 
quent attacks. 

"3d. That race or acclimation affi)rds no protection against contractino- the 
disease. Tliat the African race sutlered less with small mortality, while the white 
race, especially tliose of sanguine temperament, suliered severely with heavy mor- 
tality. Being accustomed to the climate certainly diminished the mortality. 

"4th. That the germs propagate within and without the bodv; the spread 
of the disease depending on cess-pools, sewers, filth and persfinal contact, tiie 
temperature and other meteorological conditions being faYi)ral)le. 

" 5. That a temperature below 70° is unfavoraljle to the ])ropagation of the 
germs, and if continuous will destioy them. 

"6. That where the temperature produces frost suflicient to exterminate the 
germs it is probably a prevental)Ie disease by quarantine alone; but should it 
l)e intioduced, its benign or malignant type will depend entirely upon the 
sanitary condition of our villages, towns and cities. 

"7. I believe the disease may be introduced into any part of our country 
where there is a continuous daily temperature above 72° for two months." 

The Commission of x\llopatliic Pliysicians* appointed l)y the Congressional 
Committee to investigate and rej)ort upon the oiigin and causes of the yellow 
lever epidemic of 1878, state that "the concurrence of local conditions favorable 
to the evolution of the yellow fever poison seems to be necessary to the evolu- 
tion of yellow fever epidemics; but, as to the nature of these favorable local con- 
ditions, we have no positive knowledge. In a negative way, we know that yellow 
fever often fails to swell into epidemic pievalence when high summer heat, at- 
mospheric moisture, maish malaria, and abundant filth are all i)rcsent; so that 
there must be some conditio sine qua mm other than any or all of these. The 
discovery of this unknown factor in the generation of yellow fever epidemics 
would be a great boon to humanity." Dr. P. V. Schenck, of St. Louis, who, 
in a well-prepared paper — from which one quotation has already been made — 
shows that 3X'llow fever has a home lacking in sanitary conditions; it mi- 
grates ; it is carried in baggage and in the hold of ships, and by a wave 
power; and that it requires humidity and a continuously high temperature. 
But these are not causes. He says: "It is not generated by bilge- water; un- 
sanitary conditions won't produce it. Constantinople has filth and the plague, 
but no yellow fever ; India, heat and cholera, but no yellow fever. Heat 
and humidity exist without the disease. Mauritius, in the Eastern, compared 
with Jamaica in the Western, Seas, has a mean annual temperature (80° 
Fahrenheit) almost the same ; the fluctuations and undulations are not ex- 
cessive, and the humidity nearly the same. The rain-fall (sixty-six to seventy- 
six inches) is similar; the geological formations not dissimilar. Yet, with all 
these points of similarity, the diseases are very diflferent. At Jamaica the 

"The following are the names of the gentlemen composing the Commission : John 
M. Woodworth, M. D., President; Stanford E. Chaille, M. D., Secretary; S. M. Bemiss, 
M. D. ; .Terome Cochran, M. D. ; M. S. Craft, M. D. ; Samuel A. Green, M. D. ; Thomas 
S. Hardee, C. E. ; E. W. Mitchell, M. D.; Jacob S. Mosher, M. D.; W. H. Eandle, M. D. ; 
Louis A. Fulligant, M. D. ; R. M. Swearingen, M. D. 



28 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



yellow fever is often epidemic, at Mauritius it is u'.ikiiown. The ground is 
not tenable, therefore, that has been t.iken by some of the most eminent 
English practitioners in the West Indies, as well as prominent men, in this 
country, that the yellow fever may be occasioned through the agency of a 
tropical sun, independent of any other cause. Dr. Bryson, who has studied 
this question, thinks that yellow fever is not a distinct disease, but only an 
exaggerated bilious fever, and quotes the celebrated case of the ship Bann, 
where there was no fever when they left — the first case was nothing but 
malarial fever. The cases after this assumed the type of yellow fever, which 
became so bad that they were compelled to abandon the cruise and go to As- 
cension Island for relief. He also quotes the Leclair case ; and he accounts 
for these cases, that the disease, owing to local cause, changed its type. Dr. 
Fenner says that, in regard to yellow fever in New Orleans, the fevers there 
are intermittent, remittent, and continued, alternating in type, and running 
into each other. In summer and autumn they have a decided tendency to 
crisis by hemorrhage; this makes yellow fever. Dr. Hanson has observed 
that often malignant intermittent fevers precede the outbreaks of yellow fever 
epidemics.* The cause of miasmatic diseases is a specific excitant of disease, 
known as miasm, which propagates outside of, and is disconnected from, a pre- 
viously diseased organism. But this disease does not occur, like marsh fevers, 
at regular periods; it occurs where there is the least malaria; it avoids the 
country, with its marshes, and seeks the city. In Charleston the people flee 
to tlie marsh lands in order to avoid the disease. Others contend it is owing 
to decomposing animal or vegetable matter; in other words, to an unsanitary 
condition of our large cities. Under such circumstances the disease could be 
produced at will, but we find that sanitary measures, in the ordinary accepta- 
tion of the term, have no power to arrest an epidemic wave. Besides these 
migrations of yellow fever have not occurred when the most unsanitary con- 
ditions would tempt it. During the whole of the war of the Revolution, and 
of the late war, when the military and naval operations on our coast, and the 
communication with the West Indies, were greater than at any other time; 
when, during the Revolution, large bodies of troops were accumulated in the 
Antilles and landed in our country direct from there, and every circumstance 
seemed combined that could generate and propagate disease, still during that 
time yellow fever was a disease entirely unknown, and unknown at points where 
it previously and has since prevailed with terrific force. When we state that 
yellow fever will attack the healthy villages equally with the dirty alleys of 
cities, the jialace with the hovel, do not understand that a person placed un- 
der superior hygienic conditions is as liable to receive disease and that he will 
not recover from it sooner than one otherwise placed. From the earliest cul- 
tivation of medical science, certain states or conditions of the atmosphere 
have been recognized as powerfully influencing the production of the cause of 
disease. Hippocrates and Galen attributed to change in the air, though the 



" This was the cause in Memphis in 1873 and ]878. In the first named year cholera 
and small-pox also prevailed. 



A IIISTOKY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



29 



former speaks of unknown divine principle, to the operation of which lie 
supposed pestilential diseases might he owing. Some attrihute to an electric 
operation; others speak of the epidemic constitution of the air; othei's, to 
some hidden or occult qualities derived from exhalations of the bowels oi' the 
earth. But now these ideas are, since the discovery of germs, ^'ut down 
among the curiosities of our literature." 

The Homeopathic Commission, Avhose expenses were Itorne by that philan- 
thropic lady, Mrs. Tiiompson, of New York— who also paid the expenses of 
the Wood worth (or Allopathic) Commission — after some weeks of jiersonnl in- 
vestigation at the princii)al points affected by the fever in 1873, mad-c a report 
of fifty-six pages, which contains matter of great value, l)ut whicl) unfortu- 
nately is interwoven with much of aggressive criticism of allopathic treatment 
which, in tlie eyes of those at least who are attached to the old school, is re])re- 
hensible especially in view of the importance of the subject under investioati(jn. 
Treating of the causes of yellow fever this Homeopathic Commission * reports 
that it is a specific disease, entirely independent of malaria, occurj'ing I'ai'cly 
a second time in the same person, infectious and capable of transmission to 
any distance by means of fomites or infected material. The yellow fever 
germs — for we accept provisionally the germ theory of the disease — ai-e indige- 
nous to the West Indies and perhaps to the west coast of Africa, and have been 
thoroughly naturalized in many localities in the soutlicrn portion of the United 
States. They -Avere imported into New Orleans during the last quarter of t!ie 
eighteenth century, and have existed in tlie soil or atmosphere of that place 
ever since, either in a latent or an active condition. They may lie dormant for 
many years consecutively, and they require a concurrence of causes to develop 
them into a state of disease-producing activity. Some of the factors which seem 
to be favorable to the excitation of the yellow fever germ are the following ; 

Low, swampy ground, near the level of a tropical sea. 

Long continuance of very high temperature, following heavy rains. 

Long continuance of south and east winds. 

Aggregations of human beings with the excreta of their bodies in small 
spaces. A crowded and dirty shiji may be a nidus for yellow fever, as well 
as a crowded and dirty city. 

Long continuance of calm weather, nnbroken by thunder-stoi'ms. 

Exposure of decaying vegetable and aiiimal matter to a buiuing sun. 

Inefficient drainage and the general accumulation of filth, especially the 
city garbage. 

Deficiency of ozone in the atmosphere. 

Pestilential exhalations from an uj^turned soil. 

*This Commission was composed of tlie following named gentlemen: AVm. H. Hol- 
combe, ^I. D., of New Orleans, Chairman ; T. S. Verdi, M. D., of Washington City, Sec'y ; 
Buslirod W. James, M. D., of Pliiladelphia, Penn.; W. L. Breyfogte, M. D., of Louis- 
ville, Ky.; .J. P. Dake, M. D., of Nashville, Tenn.; E. H. Price, M. D., of Cliattnr,ooga, 
Tenn.; F. 11. Orme, M. D., of Atlanta, Ga. ; L. A. Falligant, M. D., of Savannali, Ga.; 
Ivucins I). ]\[orse, M. D., of Menipliis, Tenn.; W. J. Mnrreii, M. D., of Mobile, Alaljama; 
Thomas J. Ilaipcr, M. D., of Vicksburg, Miss. 



30 



A HISTORY OF THE YELI.O"SV FEVER. 



When the yellow fever germ hr.s been waked into activity by these causes, 
it may be transported to places where none of them exist. It seems that a 
certain concurrence of several of the above factors is necessary to the genera- 
tion of yellow fever. There is probably one combination in one epidemic, and 
a somewhat different combination in the next epidemic. An epidemic may 
be mild or severe according to the number and force of the concurring causes. 
There may also be other unknown but discoverable factors, which may be 
necessary at one time to produce an epidemic and not necessary at another. 
No one of the above suggested causes could excite an epidemic by itself, and 
it is not probable that they all ever concurred equally to the formation of the 
disease. The most extensive collections and comparison of facts are necessary 
to illumine the very great darkness which lies upon these complex questions. 
The naturalized yellow fever germs may receive so slight a stimulus as to 
produce only a few sporadic cases. Or they may be vitalized in certain local- 
ities to such a degree as to occasion quite an outbreak in those localities, not 
easily communicated to other quarters. Or, thirdly, the disseminated germs 
may be vivified in all directions, and a general epidemic excited. Or, lastly, 
the naturalized germs may lie entirely quiescent until fresh and active germs 
are brought in from foreign ports, which then act as sparks to ignite the in- 
flammable material already existing. We thus have four shades or degrees 
of yellow fever visitation : sporadic cases, local and limited outbursts, ejii- 
demics from naturalized germs, and epidemics from importation. In sporadic 
cases and limited outbreaks the specific nature of the fever is not clearly 
brought to liglit, and it is sometimes difficult to diagnose it from the dominant 
malarial or bilious diseases. The imported epidemic, whether from Havana 
to New Orleans or from New Orleans to Memj^his, etc., etc., is always a more 
quick-spreading and malignant disease than that arising from our naturalized 
germs. The comparative mildness of the late epidemic in New Orleans is 
one out of several reasons for believing that the disease was of local origin. 
The yellow fever of domestic origin can only be prevented by local sanitary 
measures. So long as the public authorities ignore the crying evils at home, 
and watch only for the enemy at the sea-side, we shall continue to be scourged 
with repeated epidemics of yellow fever. Quarantine may or may not keep 
out the tropical foe, but our utmost energies should be concentrated against 
the enemy which has been domiciliated in our households for nearly a century. 
Is there any personal prophylactic against yellow fever? None whicb has 
the least scientific value. Quinine is probably serviceable when malarial 
fevers are simultaneously prevailing, not because it has any power against yel- 
low fever, but because au attack of malarial fever, preventable by quinine, 
might, if allowed to occur, precipitate an attack of yellow fever. Quinine 
for intermittents, belladonna for scarlet fever, and vaccination for small- 
pox, are the only ^prophylactics which have commanded even the partial 
belief of the profession. They are all confessedly homeopathic in their ac- 
tions ; and Ave confidently believe, if prophylactics for yellow fever, or any 
other disease, exist, that they will be found only by study and experiment 
in that direction. The poison of the rattlesnake jiroduces an artificial dis- 



A HISTORY OF THE YET.T.OW FEVER. 



31 



ease bearing a reiiiarkuljle reseiubhiiu'e to yellow fever, and it lias proved 
a remedy of considerable value in the malignant forms of that affection. 
Lioculation with tin's poison was used extensively at Havana many years 
ago, under the auspices of an erratic genius who, it is said, assumed the vener- 
able name of Humboldt. The results are diHerontly stated by tlie friends and 
enemies of the experiment, but, as the quantity inoculated was entirely too 
great, and large doses of antidotal remedies were simultaneously adminis- 
tered, it may be fairly presumed that such an experiment had no real scien- 
tific value. Whether the poison, cautiously used, either hypodermically or 
in small doses by the mouth, may not ju-oduce a substitutive disease, which, 
for that season at least, might prevent an attack of yellow fever, is a (jues- 
tion certain to command further consideration." It will thus be seen that 
the liomeopathists do not bi'lieve in prophylactics, as little do the allo- 
pathists, who have had a wider and nun-e extended experience with the 
fever. Beyond the reach of successful contradiction, it may be asserted 
that there is no known preventive of yellow fever. This has been proven 
in every epidemic ; but especially in the last, that of 1878 in INIemphis, 
and so, strongly as to set tiie question at rest forever. Those who re- 
sorted to lime-water, to sulphur in the boots, shoes or stockings, to sulphur 
and gin, to regulated quantities of gin, to liver-pads, to garlic, to onions, 
to quinine, to cathartic \nlh, caloniel, chlorinated lime, or any thing else, 
invariably ^iroved easy victims, and died rapidly. The system Avas, by 
means of these poisons — for such they proved — either diseased or depleted; 
every additional dose or every additional eflbrt only increasing or intensify- 
ing the fear which induces a resort to prophylactics. One case of many 
such within the authoi-'s knowledge may be mentioned. It was that of a 
man who ordinarily enjoyed good health, who left the city at the outset of 
the fever, but returned for the purpose of transacting some business. By 
the time this was accomplished, shot-gun quarantines were established, and 
he was compelled to remain. Demoralized by this enforced imprisonment 
in the doomed city, he had recourse to garlic and onions, which he used 
three times each day; and to sulphur, which he used in his stockings; and 
to sul2:)hur and gin, of which he drank as his fears prompted. He was 
taken with the fever and died on the fourth day. All the physicians of 
experience advised against prophylactics, though there were not wanting a 
few of the faculty who had a pet preventive. Dr. Luke P. Blackburn, writ- 
ing of his experiences in Hickman, in 1878, says that "those who had been 
taking quinine as a preventive also fell an easy prey. Quinine was an 
irritant, and usually opened the system to the attack of the disease. In 
my opinion much of the mortality of Memphis, CJrenada, and other cities 
was due to the extravagant use of quinine and the saturation of the air 
with carbolic acid. Instead of the latter assisting in the suppression of the 
disease, it but increased the effect of the poison and made the fever more 
deadly. Those who had escaped easiest were those who lived temperately, 
were not frightened, and did not take ' i)reventives' too often recommended." 
A clergyman, who writes as if he had had some experience, says what every 
3 



32 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



sensible layman as Avell as physician must endorse, as follows: "For indi- 
viduals who are obliged to remain in an infected locality, there is no pre- 
ventive so effectual as keeping the system in a general state of good health. 
Let a man breathe fresh air as much as possible, eat nutritious food mod- 
erately and regularly, take plenty of sleep at seasonable hours, bathe freely, 
and above all avoid the use of stimulants; by so doing he will reduce the 
danger to a minimum and be likely to escape, -while strong men of irreg- 
ular habits are stricken down by his side. An equable mind, Avhich comes 
of a firm trust in God and an implicit reliance on His providence, is not the 
least valuable ijreventive of this as of every other disease." 



II. 

Spoeadic or epidemic yellow fever is not alwaj's to be attributed, to the 
same causes, notwithstanding Dr. Dowell, of Galveston, says that in nineteen 
cases out of twenty it will be found to have been introduced or imported. Dr. 
Bennett Dewier, in his excellent pamphlet, "The Epidemic in New Orleans," 
tells of an outbreak of it in Gallipolis, Ohio, in 1796, which killed one- 
half the army and the inliabitants in ten days. This place, which also sufiered 
in 1878, was at that time a new settlement, quite in the wilderness, and 
isolated from all others, having communication with the Atlantic cities only 
at long intervals and under favoring conditions of Aveather and of roads. 
Mr. A. Elliott, in his journal of a voyage down the Ohio in that year, 
referred to in the report of the surgeon-general of the army, says the dis- 
ease raged violently, the fatal cases being generally attended Avith black 
vomit. "The fever," he says, "could not have been taken there from the 
Atlantic States, as my boat was the first that descended the river in the spring. 
Neither could it have been taken from New Orleans, as there is no com- 
munication up the river at that season of the year." In the fall of 1823, 
yellow fever of a high grade suddenly appeared at Fort Smith, Arkansas, and 
prevailed epidemically, without so much as a suspicion of exposure to conta- 
gion, according to the official report on file in the ofBce of the surgeon-general 
of the army. The theory here suggested, that this disease, if not localized or 
indigenous to this country, may originate under favoring conditions, is borne 
out to some extent by a tabulated statement furnished in an article that ap- 
jDeared in De Boiv's Review for December, 1853, immediately after what was, 
until last year's experience in Memphis, considered the most dreadful of its 
visitations in this country. The table shows the number of cases and deaths, 
from the year 1822 to 1849, inclusive, which occun'ed in the Charity Hospital. 
The figures are perfectly authentic, having been taken from the official rec- 
ords. These figures bear very significantly upon the proposition with Avhich 
the writer prefaces his remarks, to wit: "That the yellow fever originates here, 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



33 



no instance of its ever having been imported being as yet well proved." The 
table, be it understood, represents only the cases and deaths at the Charity 
Hospital for the years resi^ectivcly mentioned: 





TOTAL CASES. DEATHS. 


YEARS. 


TOT.\L CASES. 


DEATrrs. 


182'2* 


337 


239 


i COD • , 


6 


5 


1823 


1 


1 


1837* . 


993 


442 


1824 


167 


108 


1838 


22 


17 


1825 


99 


49 


1839* . 


1,086 


453 


1820 


24 


5 


1840 


3 


3 


1827 


372 


109 


1841* . 


1,114 

425 


594 


1828 


290 


130 


1842* . 


211 


1829 


436 


215 


1843* . 


1,086 


487 


1830 


256 


117 


1844* . 


109 


83 


1831 


3 


2 


1845 


1 


0 


1832* . 


18 


26 


1846 


146 


96 


1833® . 


422 


210 


1847* . 


2,479 


895 


1834® . 


150 


95 


1848* . 


1,226 
1 ,055 


420 


1835* . 


505 


284 


1849 


545 






Total, 




. 12,913 


6,332 



It thus appears that during these twenty-eight years there were thirteen epi- 
demics in New Orleans, and at least five other seasons of heavy mortality from 
yellow fever when it did not please the authorities to declare an epidemic. It 
will be seen that there was not a single year in which the yellow fever did not 
appear at the Charity Hospital, and that the average number of deaths annu- 
ally from that cause was more than 200. The author of this article in De Bow 
argues from the statistics of the year 1853, and from those of all the preceding 
years as far back as 1822, that the yellow fever is indigenous to New Orleans, 
and that it depends ujion j^urely local conditions from year to year wdiether or 
not it will become epidemic. All accounts agree — and he quotes copiously fi-om 
the contemporaneous jwess — that the sanitary conditions in 1853 were unusually 
and unprecedentedly bad ; that at no time within the memory of man had the 
streets been as filthy and the policing of the city as negligently and criminally 
mismanaged. To these causes is attributed the frightful mortality of 1853 as 
comjiared with other years. Strengthening these conclusions, Dr. Simonds, of 
New Orleans, declared (and gave the figures to prove) that the yellow fever 
was treated in the Charity Hospital every year for thirty years, up to 1849. 
"So," as Dowler says, "that the stream of yellow fever, with whatsoever of 
contagion it may possess, is uninterrupted, no year having been wholly ex- 
empt in this institution, not to name the city at large." The commission 
appointed by the Board of Health of New Orleans, in 1853, to inquire into 
the origin, propagation, or mode of transmission of the then late ejjidemic 
of yellow fever, — sew-erage, quarantine, and the sanitary condition of that 
city, — after a long and laborious investigation, reached the same conclusion. 
They say "that yellow^ fever is not a disease personally contagious; that its 
infectious properties are only communicable in a foul or infectious atmosphere; 
that is, that a foul vessel or individual with the disease will only propagate it 
under atmosjiherical and local conditions similar to that which furnished its na- 



* The years marked (*) are those in which the fever was declared epidemic. 



34 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOV/ FEVER, 



tivity. That although vitiated or infectious air may be conveyed in goods and 
in various ways to distant places, ventilation speedily dissipates it; and that 
if disease results, where it is much concentrated, or with very susceptible in- 
dividuals, it extends no farther, except under the conditions above specified.* 
But further than this, the commission — after most careful scrutiny into the 
actual occurrences of the first irruption of the fever, its spread, the character 
of its localization, the persons most liable and suffering, from whatever class 
and country — have converted presumptive proof into positive certainty, that 
the fever originated with us; that its fatal malignity and spread were justly 
attributable to a very remarkable concurrence and combination of atmos- 
pheric and terrine causes, alwa) s particulaily fatal to human health and life." 
Dowler strengthens this indigenous theory by the citation of another instance 
of epidemic yellow fever which could not otherwise be accounted f )r. It occurred 
in 1797, at New Design, a small town fifteen miles from the Mississijipi River 
and twenty from St. Louis. It carried off* one-fourth of the inhabitants. Not 
even one person had visited the place from places where the fever prevailed. 
Still another instance is furnished hy the same distinguished author. He says 



*Dr. Drake, of Nasliville, at a meeting of the Davidson County Medical Society, on 
the lotli of March, of this year, 1879, in a speecli worthy of the subject and of the dis- 
tinguished body before whicli it was made, sustains the position taken hy the New Orleans 
Commission of 1853, and fortifies it by facts as follows: " Tlie testimony of Dr. Wilkes and 
others suggest some very important deductions. Dr. Webb returned from Memphis [in 
1878] to his home carrying the germs of yellow fever about his clothing. His wife and chil- 
dren took the disease and died, and yet he escaped. How was this ? His duties kept 
him in the open air, more or less, while the female inmates of his family were more or 
less confined to the house, where the germs found a lodgment from his cast-off clothing. 
In this room the poison evidently existed in the greatest quantity; and the constant oc- 
cupants were the first to suflfer. At Jackson, a gentleman who had been to Memphis [IS7S] 
hung up his clothes in a wardrobe, the weather being warm. After several days his wife 
opened the door and took tlie garments out. We would suppose that in a close, hot room 
the poison would multiply itself in this time until the air would be heavy with it; and 
so it seemed in this case, for the lady took the yellow fever and died, followed in due 
time by the rest of the family. Why was not the importer of the disease the first to take 
it ? He had the germs with him most certainly. Evidently, the poisoned atmosphere 
around him while cn route was too much diluted by fresh air to affect him beyond his 
poweis of ordinary resistance. The inmates of his house were differently situated; con- 
fined in-doors, they breathed the poisoned atmosphere generated in unwholesome quanti- 
ties, and so were the first victims, while his habits led him out into the open air, and lie 
only took the disease when he was confined at home ministering to the sick. Again: the 
inhabitants of the tents in the neighborhood of Memphis principally escaped for the same 
reason, namely, that they were not exposed to an atmosphere sufficiently charged with 
the poison to produce morbific effects. This seems to be the only solution; for, if the 
active malific cause was general in its operations — atmospheric, and not specific — then 
those people would surely have suffered and died as they did at the city a few miles 
away. So it seems, from all this, that the danger from yellow fever grows in proportion 
to the stagnation and confinement of the air in a given quarter. Infected rooms become 
dangerous in proportion to the want of ventilation; and cellars, for obvious reasons, 
would be charged to saturation. The holds of vessels und the apartments of freight cars 
would become particularly dangerous." 



A mSTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



35 



that e.irly in tlie siiinnier of 1800, " the tlien luteiidant of Cul)a, El Sr. Don 
Pablo Valieiite, chartered the sliip Dolphin to take himself, familj', and suite 
to Sixain, touched at Charleston, and, having anchored in the Bay of Cadiz, he 
■vveut ashore with his party two days after, on the 8th of July. A month later 
the yellow fever appeared in Cadiz; whci-eupon Yaliente was arrested upon a 
criminal charge, for having impoited yellow fever contagion fi'om Havana and 
Charleston. The former he left in ]\Iay, the latter he touched at on June 2d, 
and left eight days after. At neither place was there any yellow fever. No 
yellow fever appeared on board of the Dolphin during the voyage, though three 
of the sailors had died. The Intendaut, after eleven months' imprisonment, 
was acquitted at Seville, and was afterwards promoted by the government, 
probably as a compensation lor his wrongs." Another case is that of the vis- 
itation in Philadelphia, in 1853, which was attributed to the bark Maiularin, 
which had arrived from Cienfuego. An investigation by Dr. W. Jewell, of the 
College of Physicians, resulted in the declaration that — " 1st, No disease of a 
malignant type prevailed in the city previous to the arrival of the Mandarin; 
2d, That none of the seamen of the Mandarin sickened ; 3d, That none of the 
laborers employed in unloading the Mumlarin had taken the disease; . . . . 
6th, That in no case has the disease been coin niunica ted to any person visiting 
or engaged iu attendance upon the sick ; and, 7th, That not a single instance 
can be met with having its origin to the south of where the Mandarin lay last." 
Dr. Heustis — in his work on Ejiidemic Fevers, published at Cahawba, Alabama, 
in 1825 — in his account of the epidemic in Pensacola, in 1822, offers additional 
testimony in the same direction. He .says: "It was pretended by the advo- 
cates of imported contagion that the fever was brought in a vessel which arrived 
from New Orleans about the beginning of August. The captain of this vessel 
was among the first that sickened and died of the malignant fever, and this after 

his arrival in Pensacola The opinion of one of the most respectable 

physicians in Pensacola was, that the disease originated entirely from local 
causes. Such, al.«<j, was the conviction of tlie Board of Health." Dowell, on 
page 1.9 of his Yellow Fever, although favoring quarantine, says: "Yellow fever 
occasionally leaves its habitual, assumes a migratory character, traveling over 
great extents of country, not ini'requently breaking through the most rigid quar- 
antine. But in these migrations it seems to have a prescribed course, along 
which it paj^s no respect to any impediments placed in its way; but places in 
its line of travel [as in 1878] are often protected bv non-intercourse, and hence 
the importance of quarantine." Quoting from such high authorities as Doctors 
Warren Stone, J. C. Nott, Hunt, Jones, Fenner, and Bennett Dowlcr, Dr. 
Dowell continues: "These great migi-ating epidemics revolve in a wave, hurl- 
ing their terriljle influence in a great and sometimes very extended area, often 
continuing their march during successive years — as the one which coninienced 
in Rio Janeiro, in 1850, and culminated its devastating course at Norf ilk, in 
185C), putting to flight all tlieories about local origin and the protections of 
sanitary cordons or quarantine restrictions." Illustrating the irresistible force 
with which these great yellow fever epidemics sweep over the country, the 
following is cojjied from Dr. Bennett Dowler, j^erhaj^s the first among med- 



36 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 



ical authorities ou yellow fever. He says: "The geographical area of yellow 
fever ia 1853, as compared with former invasions, was greatly extended, in- 
cluding Florida, Alahama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas. Six 
States of the Union* — a vast territorial expansion of alluvial, diluvial, and 
tertiary formations ; valleys, dry prairies, elevated plateaus, irregular terraces, 
low undulating hills, bluiis, and pine woods, interspersed with bayous, lakes, 
shallow basins, shaking prairies, large bays, dense cypress swamjis, cane- 
brakes, colossal grasses, inundated plains — a vast region, undisturbed by vol- 
canic action, where the geological or telluric causes of disease, if such be really 
regarded as causes, must be nearly uniform. Of these States, five are washed 
by the almost tideless Gulf of Mexico, presenting a vast, depressed, marshy, 
sandy, shelly, rockless literal, which covers from the Rio del Norte to the 
peninsula of Florida, deejaly indenting the Temperate, yet approaching the 
Torrid Zone ; having low, outlying islands in front and numerous great rivers 
flowing through the background ; bringing detrital matter from the high lands 
and primitive formations of several mountain chains, with tertiary limestone 
and coral reefs trending along its eastern portion upon the Floridian peninsula." 
The British report on yellow fever and quarantine of 1852 enumerates ninety- 
six towns and villages of Spain wherein yellow fever has prevailed in this cen- 
tury, many of them far inland, high, dry, rocky, and hilly, and among the 
mountains; as, for instance, Gibraltar, where it has prevailed fatally. Ben- 
nett Dowler also mentions the fact that the yelloAV fever prevailed in Tam- 
pico and Vera Cruz in 1846, '7, '8, and in New Orleans in 1847; and that, 
though a large proportion of the American army, going to and returning 
from the Mexican war, passed through those places, they did not contract 
or spread the disease, nor did it prevail among the American shipping. Dr. 
T. J. Heard, of Galveston, who has treated yellow fever, and is one of the 
most eminent physicians of that city, says that from the " year 1839 to 
1853 he had no reason to believe in the communicableness of the disease, 
either by infection or contagion. In 1853, however, Mr. B. E. Eucker, 
Postmaster at Washington, on the Brazos River, was taken down with the 
fever. Washington at that time was a distributing point for the sur- 
rounding country, and the Galveston and Houston mails came to the town 
at night, Avhen Mr. Eucker would open them. Yellow fever was at that 
time raging in both Galveston and Houston, and Mr. Eucker undoubtedly 
caught the disease from infected mail-bags, f He conveyed the disease to 
his family, but further than this it did not spread. About the mid- 
dle of October, 1853, Mr. Eichard Niblett, now of Brenham, owned a 
drinking saloon in Washington. He received his ice from Houston every 
night, and opened it personally. He had a most violent attack of fever. 



"In 1878 it was confined to eight States (embracing five of the above six): Kentucky, 
Tennessee, Alabama, Missouri, Ohio, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. 

tTlie postmaster at Covington, Tenn., was the only person there who had the fever in 
1878. He died. He received a heavy mail that had been detained at the ISfemphis oflSce 
for some time, opened it, and from it inhaled the poison which in three days killed him. 



A HISTOEY OF THE YELLOV.' FEVEE. 



37 



About the last of the same moiitli, Joseph Brooks and wife, of Navascta, 
had the fever in New Orleans and came to Washington, stopping at the 
house of a Mr. Hurse, in the suburbs of the city. Mr. Huise, his Avife, 
and two children, caught the fever and died. In 18G3, about October 1, a 
man from Orange came to Houston with his wile and stoj^ied at a house 
near Kennedy's mill. When Dr. Heard arrived the man was dead, and 
his wife lay dying of yellow fever. The disease extended in the immediate 
neighborhood, and took a direct course along Buflalo Baycu, following the di- 
rection of the i^revailing wind. About Decendier 1, 1864, Mrs. Vincent, sis- 
ter of ex-Lieut. -Gov. Henderson, fled from Houston on account of the yellow 
fever. A negro left behind took the disease, and, as there was a great lack 
of blankets, au old carpet was used instead. On his recovery the carpet 
was stowed away in the garret. Six weeks afterward IMrs. Vincent returned, 
and, going into the garret, took the carpet out to air it. Four days after 
this she had a most violent attack." The Katdwz Democnd published the 
statement, during the epidemic of 1878, that the year 1819 was distin- 
guished by the prevalence of a remarkably malignant type of yellow fever: 
"The weather was generally hot and sultry, and there were few and light 
showei-s of rain. Unlike its usual course, the fever did not spread, but 
broke out in widely difierent localities at one and the same time, raging on 
the same day in Boston and New Orleans. The 2">estileuce ascended the 
southern rivci-s, attacking not only the large cities, but extending also into 
the countr}\ . . . Of the southern cities Natchez was the greatest sufferer. 
A destructive flood had lliat j-ear swept over the lower town and surrounding 
countr^^ and when the watei-s sid)sided they left the usual amount of sedi- 
ment and debris, covering hundreds of acres. This was not removed, and 
the heated rays of the sun i-eiidered it a putrid mass of infected matter. Be- 
sides, the streets weie overflowed and the cellars filled w ith water. Early in 
July intermittent and remittent fevers began to prevail, which gradually as- 
sumed a malignant tyjie. By September yellow fever was fully developed, 
and Ijecame so general and so deadly that as many of the population as 
possibly could fled, and only nine hundred and ten remained to take their 
chances. The pxir were removed to a more healthy locality, and cared for 
at the city's exj.ense. Those wlio remained suilercd terribly, and, as was the 
case with the epiJemie of 1878, no class escaj)ed. Many domestic animals 
were infected with th.e disease and died, and even the wild deer in the adja- 
cent forests are said to l.ave died from it." Dr. Labadie, of Galveston, says: 
" . . . Tiiat it takes its origin amnng-st us, I believe that all old settlers will 
agree with me; hence quarantine laws and regulations must always iDecome a 
dead letter. Our city Fathers did once pass a cpiarantine law, and built a 
hospital on Mosquito Island, now Fort Point. By day ar.d by night they 
had men and drays clearing yards, alleys, etc. Every blade of grass Avas 
pulled up. Never Avas a town more clean aiid nice. Whilst Ave Avere com- 
forting oui-selves in our happiness and certainty in our supposed security, and 
no steamship to arrive, as they had left for the North to be repaired, aud no 
arriA-ak from New Orleans or any other port, a serA'aut, a German girl, in the 



38 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



employ of W. J. Berlocher, living on the strand, was taken sick and died 
■\vith the black vomit before any one was aware of her real disease. She 
was a stranger, had not been out of the house for weeks, and had only been 
about four months at this place from Germany. About that time many were 
taken sick, and it went on increasing. The poison had inflamed all strangers 
and the atmosphere: our quarantine had become a dead letter. It spread out 
rapidly, destroying about 400 lives before i'rcst put an end to its eflects. A 
few years ago it bi'oke out in one house on Tremont Street, and, before three 
days had p:issed, two deaths were reported. On the following day seven new 
cases were reported, and it went on as usual, doing its Avork of death. There 
had been no communication within two weeks previous. The first victims 
had been living here only a few months. It carried many natives to their 
long home as Avell as 300 unacclimated persons. It is believed that yellow 
fever can not be personally communicated : it must be inhaled : it is an 
atmospheric poison. If so, the strong gulf wir.ds that visit us at this 
season seem to be unable to blow it away. If it proceeds from the soil, 
we have seen the waters of the gulf rise and wash over a great portion of 
our town to the bay ; much rain has fallen upon cur streets and yards, fill- 
ing every sink, washing the Avhole surface of the soil as clean as sand coidd 
be washed, yet the disease pi'ogressed in its direful work steadily, as if neither 
winds, thunder and lightning, overflows or rains, had visited us at all. It is 
attached to the sills and under-floors of our houses (perhaps so, in a shape 
most imperceptible to the eye). This matter or animalculse may be carried 
from place to place in goods, clothing, packages, etc., and, finding a suitable 
atmospheric pressure, may easily multiply or propagate itself in the air. So 
it may go on increasing, advancing slowly from place to place, even con- 
trary to strong currents of wind, and harbor in particular places to increase. 
In this belief quarantine regulations may be of service. This animalculis 
matter, or subtle poison, once inhaled, may be some days in the stomach or 
linings before it takes effect on the sj'stem ; hence a person may travel many 
days before he is taken sick. It matters little Avhere he goes, it will do its 
work sooner or later. I have read of cases of black vomit in Chicago being 
traced to New Orleans. I have seen cases in St. Louis of twenty-four days 
from New Orleans — in 1828; some often twenty days from that infected port 
die of black vomit. To see new cases of yelloAV fever ten, and even twenty, 
days after the appearance of a white frost, sustains me in the opinion that it 
is not possible to know who has inhaled or Avho has not inhaled the poison on 
leaving an infected place: and who can tell when this poison Avas inhaled? I 
dare say it Avill be difficult to contract the disease twentA' days after a white 
frost. Doubtless, a frost does destroy this matter, or this subtle poison, yet many 
times this mysterious and awful disease comes and goes Ave know not how. ... * 
For many years my thermometer has stood from 90 to 100°, j et no yellow 



* In Alexandria, La., the lieavy frosts of October and November, 1853, had no appre- 
ciable effect upon it. The epidemic, wluch almost decimated that town, went on to its 
limit of life regaidlcs.s of conditions. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



39 



fever appeared among us. Wlieii writers say it requires a heat of 90° or 
upward to produce the poison, there must be other conditions in the atmos- 
phere to iDriiig it about, or to cause tliis matter to hatch and nndtiply. Does 
it not require a peculiar state and exposure to the atmosphere to cause Aveevil 
to breed in a grain of corn or in a barrel of flour? Some years these are 
more in number than usual. If it is in the air or atmosphere, has it a cen- 
ter to hold itself? can not the strong gulf winds that we have blow it away? 
We know they have uo influence oyer it whateyer. Tiie present epidemic 
has passed away from us without a frost, yet we witness no peculiar change 

in the season from any other It has appeared for several years in 

succession after hard frosts and winters ; it has followed or continued its 
deadly march after very, mild winters; hence, we haye no possible means 
of telling what portion of the South will be exempt. It comes without giv- 
ing warning, and we only know it is among us by seyeral cases being taken 
down within a week, and by its unmistakal)le marks on the body after death, 
and by black yomit." Dr. J. M. Reuss, accounting for the e])idemic of In- 
dianola, Texas, in 18C7, says the feyer was introduced by a pair of second- 
hand blankets,* sold by some 2:)ersons connected with a small craft which had 
ari'iyed from Vera Cruz, where it was raging a few days before the 20th of 
June. Two young men, avIio had only examined these blankets, vere at- 
tacked, and one of them died of black vomit. A negro woman, who nursed 
one of them, also died of well-maiked yellow fever. A lad}^ from New Orleans, 
where the fever also raged, vas taken sick at the hotel, and is supposed to 
haye been another medium for its spread. Besides, as was the case in ]\Iem- 
phis in 1873 and 1878, feyer of a continued and dangerous form j^reyailed, 
which confused the physicians. Dr. Reuss says he himself had several cases 
of feyer of a more malignant type than the common climatic feyers of that 
region. The first death occurred on the 24th of June, and in less than a 
Aveek the whole business part of the town was struck down as by lightning, 
there being by that time between 125 and 150 cases, out of a population of 
1,000. It reached its acme in two weeks, and lingered in the suburbs for 
oyer a month. The poison was most fatal at night, and generally took hold 
of nurses and doctors when it reached their places of residence. Dr. S. W. 
Welsh, of Galyeston, traces the origin of the epidemic in that city in 1867 
to a young German, who arrlyed from Indianola on the 28th, and to a per- 



Dr. Jacob S. West, of Texas, cites two cases where the yellow fever was introduced 
by sacks of cofiec. ISoth occurred in 18(57. At Liberty, Texas, a sack of coffee landed 
two miles from the town, from the steamboat Ruthven, wliich, coming from Galveston, 
■was refused permission to land at the town. This sack of cotTee was taken to Liberty on 
a drav, through an atmosphere, up to that time, perfectly healthy; but all who shared 
the coffee were taken with yellow fever, which spread with disastrous effects. The second 
case was that of a sack of coffee hauled fifteen miles iu an open wagon, from Corpus 
Christi, where the fever prevailed, to a point near Meansville, where it was divided 
among the pui-chasers. Not one of these escaped ; all of them were seized with yellow 
fever, and many of them died. But those who did not so share were, singularly enough, 
exempt. The conditions necessary to its .spread were not there. 



40 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



SOU who arrived on the 22d from New Orleans. In a few days the fever had 
complete i^ossession of about a square mile of the city, "while," he says, "its 
origin would not seem to be connected with any particular meteorological con- 
ditions adequate to account for the disease, it is unquestionably true that the 
climatic conditions were highly favorable to its spread, given a starting point. 
The month of May Avas temperate, showery, pleasant, and remarkably exempt 
from all febrile diseases; nor was there anf thing to be observed in the type 
of diseases to foreshadow yellow fever. June, however, was a month of un- 
interrupted hot weather, the thermometer ranging daily from 85° to 90,°, 
with a breezeless and stifling atmosphere. Toward the close of the month, 
from the 20th of June to the 5th of July, a period of two weeks, there was 
heavy falls of rain daily, literally floodiug the streets, and accompanied by 
unusual electrical phenomenon. In the intervals the sun shone brightly and 
with intense heat. The city was in good sanitary condition, and every pre- 
caution taken, and every thing had been done by the authorities that could 
Avard off the dreadful visitation. Notwithstanding this, by the end of July 
the fever prevailed epidemically. It spreard to Houston and to all the 
towns on the Central Railroad, committing ravages far beyond decimation. 
The popular and oft-expressed belief that a frost was absolutely required to 
put an end to — to arrest and extinguish — an epidemic of yellow fever, Avas 
falsified by the events of this season. There Avas, up to the 8th of Janu- 
ary, more than tAvo months after the cessation of the epidemic, no frost, no 
freeze, and only a few days of cool north Avind. YelloAV fcA'er obeys, I am 
l^ersuaded, certain laws, as fixed and immutable as those Avhich goA^ern the 
groAvth, development, and decay of organized matter. In the execution 
of such laws, the rise and fall of the thermometer can exert only a limited 
and temporary influence, can only retard and hasten the march of epidem- 
ics. Look to Havana, Vera Cruz, and other localities Avhere yellow fever 
is indigenous, and Avhere the temperature ncA-er falls to the freezing point, 
and yet in those cities the disease, after having run its course, obeys the 
laAVS Avhich must everywhere control it, subsides, and finally disappears in 
the latter part of summer or first of autumn, to return Avith rencAved viru- 
lence the succeeding spring, and run its destined course and subside as before." 
Dr. Welsh, concluding his report, extended so as to cover all the points 
in Texas attacked in 1867, says: "The remarkable uniformity in all the 
reports from all parts of the epidemic district, as respects the range of tem- 
perature, Avinds, and rains, must have arrested the attention of the reader. 
The Avinds Avere, with few exceptions, from the north, north-east, and south- 
Avest. The Aviud from these quarters during the summer months are not 
Avhat are knoAvn as northers proper, Avhich are, as a rule, associated Avith a 
low range of temperature, and blow Avith great force continuously for tAVO 
or three days, and are very dry, having been Avrung of their moisture in 
their course over the high range of mountains between Texas and the 
Pacific ; but are mere puffs alternating Avith dead calms, the temperature be- 
ing at the same time extraordinarily high, and the atmosphere saturated 
Avith moisture. Singular influences clearly obtained throughout all the region 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



41 



of the State denominated the epidemic district There seems to 

1)6 but one opinion, so far as I have l)een able to extend my inquiries, 
as respects the putrid state of the atmosphere in all the localities attacked 
hy the fever. The odor, which was broadcast in the atmosphere of the cities 
and towns where the epidemic raged, Avas offensive in the extreme. This 
is an odor so peculiar as that, to be appreciated, it must be experienced. 
It is not confined to houses, but often pervades the atmosphere of certain 
districts of the infected locality, where it most seemingly c(jnccntrated ; then 
a larger proportion of the susceptible are attacked and the disease is most 
malignant. Is this one of the sensible properties of yeIIov> fever poison, or 
does the poison determine certain chemical laws with an atmosphere reeking 
with almost every imaginable impurity consequent on active dccDmposition 
and exhalation of animal and vegetable matter, tliat result in the produc- 
tion of this odor ? Is this the subtle and mysterious intluence which, while 
it casts a death-like torpor over the vaso-nervous system, determines the 
most intense hypenesthesia of the nerves of common sensation ? Time and 
future observation must resolve the problem. I infer a relatively small 
amount of ozone to exist in such an atmosphere." Dr. R. H. Harrison, in 
his account of the epidemic at Columbus, Texas, in 1873, says: "The 
health of the town was much worse than usual. During June, July, and 
August the Avind was steady from the south, sweeping whatever of malarial 
or other poison might have been developed along the river away from the 
town. Intermittent, remittent, and bilious fevers prevailed, with nothing 
unusual to mark their course. In one or two instances there was a marked 
hemorrhagic tendency. One such case ended in black vomit. Cases after 
this continued to multiply, aggravating, perhaps, the cause of the visitation. 
The low lands near the river had been overflowed four or five times between 
the months of April and Xovember. One of these, occurring about the 25th of 
August, was remarkable for the enormous quantity of dead fish which floated 
down stream. The column of floating putridity was scarcely l)roken for two 
days and nights, and, the current being strong, the quantity which passed is 
altogether beyond computation. Occasionally they were floated away from 
the main current and lodged in the drift-wood of the overflowed land, where, 
coated with a thin sediment from the midday flood, vast quantities of them 
■were left to swelter and decay. The source from whence they came and 
the cause of their death are questions that, up to the present time, have 
defied scrutiny. On the 2d of October the last of these (Overflows occurred. 
The weather was hot and sultry, and although there was no dead fish to 
be seen in the turbid waters, the stencli from it was intolerably nauseating — 
the odor of rotting fish and weeds comliined. Occasionally the skeleton of 
a fish with fragments of flesh in an advanced state of decomposition might 
be seen floating just beneath the surface. Otlier carcasses were also floating 
down the muddy torrent in abundance, some in advanced states of decompo- 
sition, and others but recently dead. The condition of aflliirs was now cal- 
culated to excite the most alarming apprehensions in all reflecting minds. 
Surrounded by a flood of filthy, stinking waters; the streets and vacant lots 



42 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



of the town covered with a rank growth of matured weeds, which were 
falling down and rotting rapidly under the influence of repeated rains and 
a high temperature; numbers of carcasses of dead hogs and dogs were found 
decaying in various parts of the town; privies were unpoliced; and, to aggra- 
vate this multitude of evils, a city government that, whenever it was 
addressed upon the subject of a sanitary police, insisted upon establishing 
quarantine against some 2)lace that it imagined had yellow fever. And, as if 
intent to precipitate us into an epidemic, at this juncture this government 
passed an ordinance requiring the hogs, our only scavengers, to be removed 
from the streets, thus leaving the offal from our kitchens to add its noisome 
effluvia to the mass already on hand. The result is not difficult to imagine. 
While the city government continued from time to time to adopt quarantine 
ordinances, the health of the town grew gradually worse, the number of cases 
increased, and the attacks were more A'iolent, frequently terminating on the 
seventh or ninth day. By the 7th of October every member of the faculty 
was busy, and, by the 18th, yellow fever was announced, and the usual de- 
moralization of the whole population set in. Calvert was prepared for the 
yellow fever in 1873 by the prevalence, during July and August, of malarial 
fever of an obstinate and unyielding character. While in this condition a 
young man named Hughes arrived from Shreveport, who was taken down with 
the yellow fever a few nights after his arrival, and in a few days died. Dr. 
Coleman, who attended him, made an attempt to have his bedding burned and 
the room fumigated, but the bedding, instead of being burned, was thrown upon 
the roof of a little house almost at the foot of Main Street, and left there 
three weeks in the sun. The prevailing wind blowing u]) the street, the whole 
town soon became impregnated with the poison." Dr. McCraven insists that 
the yellow fever which prevailed epidemically in Houston in 1848 originated 
there; that the city was badly drained and filthy, and there was not much 
rain during the latter part of summer, making it remarkably dry. He be- 
lieves that no one had a second attack, as did Dr. Stone, of New Orleans ; 
and he believes that animal filth is the food of the yellow fever, and that it 
will not spread in a clean city. Dr. Bennett Dowler declares that, from 
1796 to 1853, it is almost certain that several cases of yellow fever have 
occurred every year in New Orleans, often only four or five. Baron de Ca- 
rondelet, in 1801, recommended that the stagnant waters of the city be drained 
into Canal Carondelet : he regarded them the cause of much mortality from 
fatal fevers, amoifg which he included yellow fever. Dr. Cartright and 
Dr. Merrill (lately of Memphis) state that, in their opinion, the epidemic 
of 1823 originated in Natchez, and was not imported. In 1853, according 
to Dowler, the heavy frosts at the close of October and beginning of No- 
vember did not appear to have any marked influence upon the epidemic. 
He also says that about the 25th of October — and until frost apjjcared for a 
few nights at many of the interior towns of Louisiana, but which did not 
in a marked degree arrest the march of the epidemic — warm weather, how- 
ever, soon returned, but this did not revive the epidemic in places where it 
had declined, — as in New Orleans and many other places, where the return 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



43 



of absentees and the influx of strangers did not reproduce the epidemic. 
In Clinton, La., Avhere the fever began a montli before the frosts above 
alluded to, the fever did not disappear ; on tlie contrary, after the lOtli of 
December many persons died, among them several negroes. "All the les- 
sons of philosopliy teach," says Dowler, " tiiat yellow fever has a cause or 
combination of causes, without which it can not a])pear; witli which, it can 
not fail to appear, being not tlie less certain because unknown in the 
present state of science. Its antecedents and sequences must prove when 
known as invariably connected and simple as any part of pliysics. Fortu- 
nately the conditions if not the causes of yellow fever are to a considerable 
extent known: for example, it is known to be connected, no matter liow, 
with the warm season of tlie year; with uuacclimated constitution?;- with 
aggregations of people in towns and villages, and it rarely attacks rural 
populations unless they crowd together so as to become virtually towns." 

And he might have added, tliat it is subject to a law of periodicity, tliat 
it reaches its zenith in a given time and declines without regard to climatic 
conditions or other influences, such as the continued unsanitary state of the 
public highways. In New Orleans, in 1853, the climax was reached on the 
53d day of the epidemic; in 1858, on the 5Gth day; in 1867, on the 56th 
day; and in 1878, on the 57th day. In INIemphis, in 1867, the fever reached 
its climax on the 40lh day; in 1873, on the 40th day; and in 1878, on the 
44th day — in every instance declining in the same ratio as it advanced. 

That yellow fever can be imported and may be engrafted by conditions 
which, if they do not originate, certainly promote it, is apparent in the case 
of Louisville, from which we have this tardy confession in the Age, a weekly 
paper remarkable for its candor, for its freedom from sectional or political 
bias, from personal considerations or control, and that is amongst the best 
of our current publications for fair dealing, truth-telling, and trenchant, 
fearless criticism. It says, in the number for February 22, that "Many 
credulous persons in Louisville, relying implicitly upon the opinions of the 
doctors and the solemn assurances of newspapers last summer, laughed at 
the idea that indigenous yellow fever existed in the city. It is we believe 
with a single excej)tion admitted now, however, that the dreadful disease 
not only existed here, but proved quite fatal in a number of cases. Fortu- 
nately it was not developed until late in the season, and the cool weather 
of September, followed by the frosts of October, retarded its propagation. 
It is hiteresting to discover the methods that were adopted to mislead the 
j'jublic. One of our most prominent physicians, writing in a late number 
of the Medical Xews, frankly discloses how the result was accomplished secun- 
dum artcm. 'W. M. ,' says he, 'had all of the usual symptoms of yellow 
fever, well marked, and died on the fifth day,' but, 'knowing that a puljlic 
announcement of a death from this cause in a citizen would be disastrous to 
the business interests and social quiet of Louisville, it was decided to call the 
disease ' gastro enteritis.' The death certificate, however, was brought to the 
physician in charge, ' filled out as malarial fever,' and the physician signed it. 
The cloud was a camel, a weasel, or a whale, any thing to suit the exigencies 



44 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



of the case." And here it is proper to remind all the communities north of 
Memphis, even so for as St. Paul, that yellow fever has many times prevailed 
epidemically even in bleak and cold New England ; that it only needs condi- 
tions to prevail again and play havoc among the people of the Northern cities 
as it has within the past forty years among the people of the Southern. It 
must be remembered that the conditions necessary for the propagation of the 
disease one day are not those of another, hence the best doctors, like Chopin, 
of New Orleans, are not ashamed to confess that they know nothing about it, 
save as it develops itself in patients. 

From the j)receding it Avill be seen that, on the best authorities, every 
theory advanced touching the birth in Africa and origin in America, 
or its islands, of yellow fever, has been contradicted, and that the 
theories of geographical or zone limit, of altitude, of germ or fermentation 
origin, of development, of contagion or infection, of its naturalization in the 
United States and the effect of sanitary conditions to increase and intensify 
it, all have partisans who contend for each with zeal, every one of them 
furnishing more or less data Avith which to fortify positions that are taken 
only to be destroyed by others. It only remains, then, to furnish a case, or 
cases in contradiction of the power of frost to kill it, and the conclusion of 
Dr. Chopin, of New Orleans, is irresistible, that we really hioiv nothing about yel- 
low fever; that it is a law unto itself in its tenacity of life as ivell as in its incep- 
tion, groivth, and progress in development, hoiv long it takes to incubate in the human 
system and the strength it must reach to jirevail epidemically, to leap, as it did in 
Memphis in 1878, in three days, from one to one hundred cases. First, Ave have 
the case of Mr. Joyner, a well-known merchant of Memphis, who had not been in 
the city during the epidemic, and who went down to George Hunt's plantation, 
near Horn Lake, Miss., to look after the estate of a deceased relative, late in 
December. He slept, it is said, in a bed occupied by a person who had died 
of the fever during the epidemic. However that may be, he contracted the dis- 
ease in that place, and died at his home in Memphis, Avhither he had been re- 
moved. There had been much cold Aveather for a month before, the thermom- 
eter ranging loAver than 32°, and the house Avhere the disease Avas contracted, 
like nearly all houses in the South, Avas built more Avith a view to comfort in 
the heats of summer than to repelling the extreme colds of Avinter, so that it 
must have been thoroughly exposed and brought under the influence of the 
very Ioav temperature Avhich prevailed before his arrival. New Orleans fur- 
nishes another case that shames the temperature theory (an exceptional case, 
to be sure, like that of Joyner's), still a case that can not be ovei-looked. The 
New Orleans Times made a full report of it, giving names, locality, date, and 
the temperature of the room of the patient before and after the attack, and 
during sickness. It said: "Probably the most remarkable case of yelloAV 
fever ever recorded, and one which stands seriously in the Avay of many 
accepted theories, is that Avhich has recently occurred in this city, in the per- 
son of Nellie, daughter of Mr. S. E. Carey of this city, aged fi\'e years. 
After an absence from the city of seven months, the child left Chicago De- 
cember 18, Avheu the temperature Avas 0 — 2° Fahrenheit, in the sleeping-car 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



45 



'Autocrat,' which, ^vith bedding just waslied, had been exposed to the intense cold 
f )!• fifty-one hour^. She arrived in this city at noon, December 21, and 'was im- 
mediately conveyed to Mr. Carey's residence. No. 199 Louisiana Avenue. The 
house had been thoroughly cleaned in the spring, freshly kalsomined and 
frescoed, and moreover had not had a case of fever in it during the summer. 
On the 26th, Dr. Joseph Scott was summoned. He found the child suffering 
from severe supra-orbital, temporal, and e]iigastric pains; surface of liody cool 
and slightly perspiring; pulse, 120; temperature (lietween teeth and check), 
104f°. Temperature of the room, 41°. He visited her five times during the 
next twenty-four hours, pursuing the usual exjicctant treatment. Shortly after 
the last of these visits he was hastil}' resummoned, and found that black vomit 
had supervened. Dr. Josej^h Jones examined the discharge and pronounced it 
to be from true yellow fever. Dr. Scott speedily checked the vomit. The 
fever lasted eighty-one hours, ■with thermal and sphygmic lines horizontal; then 
the pulse and temperature gradually declined to noimal. On the second and 
third days albumen was found, and the sclerotics were imbued with the usual 
tint. In fine, every pathognomonic symptom of yellow fever was strongly 
marked, so much so that this might be regarded as a tyjiical case. The 
theory that yellow-fever poison is destroyed by a temperature of 32° Fahren- 
heit is strongly controverted in the fact that the house had been exposed to 
even greater cold. The view that a temperature of at least 60° is required 
for its development finds contradiction in that the temperature of the room 
where the child sickened was only 41°. Surely it can not be urged that the 
period of incubation extended from May to December; and on the other 
hand, what might have been the fomites conveying the germ, M'hen it is an 
assured fact that there had been no fever in the house during the summer, 
and that neither had the child been outside the house nor had any one 
visited it. In fact, all accepted etiological and semeiological princijiles in 
yellow fever science seem to have been utterly set at defiance in this truly 
remarkable case. It surely can not be claimed that this was a case of bilious 
remittent fever, or of malarial type, wdien every symptom was in perfect 
accordance with the most marked type of yellow fever in its monoparoxysmal 
form. Here avc have strong confirmation of the germ theory, and the 
alleged power of the seeds to hibernate; evidence adverse to the theory that 
cold will kill the poison, or that a test of 60° is necessary to develoj) it; and 
fiicts strongly pointing to the spontaneous rejiroduction of the disease at all 
times, even in cleanly and healthy localities. So clear and easily attainable 
are the circumstances surrounding it, that it is eminently worthy of rigid 
investigation and of being placed upon the records of science." 



46 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



III. 

Having thus given many, if not all, of the various theories advanced touch- 
ing the origin, causes, propagation or means of transmission of yellow fever, 
the diagnosis and treatment of it are next to be considered. Dr. Happoldt, 
before referred to as a physician of high standing, gives the following as the 
result of his experience in Memphis in 1873: "Most cases," he says, "of 
whatever nature, were ushered in by a chill, followed by a fever, with a pulse 
and temperature to which the succeeding phenomena would correspond. The 
attack was so violent in some cases that death occurred within thirty-six hours. 
Great prostration was frequent from the beginning, in serious cases. The eye 
did not often exhibit the bloodshot, glistening appearance, and inquisitive, 
anxious stare; but frequently presented a mere sufi'usion with an expression 
of apathy; sometimes there was pain in the eye-balls, with intolerance of light. 
The face was sometimes injected, pale or waxy. The tongue was rarely furred 
at first; it would become red, cracked, and dry in hemorrhagic cases, and 
sometimes became darkly discolored, even when black vomit did not occur. 
Headache and rachialgia were generally constant during the first and second 
days; and pains in tlie joints common in children; and sometimes in adults 
they would simulate those of gout, rheumatism or dengue. The skin was 
most generally moist from the beginning, and became more so as the disease 
progressed; in some cases the perspiration was profuse and clammy, emitting 
a peculiar, disgusting odor; but its abundance afforded no relief to the 
patient — not apparently affecting the temj^ei'ature. Insomnia and restlessness 
were constant during the febrile paroxysm. Delirium — mild or furious — 
was not uncommon, especially in female and nervous persons. Thirst was 
frequently an nrgent symptom from the first. Anorexia was constantly 
present throughout the disease ; the loathing of food was sometimes so great 
that liquid nourishment would induce nausea in many instances, even in those 
which terminated favorably. Pain and tenderness over the region of the 
stomach were sometimes distressing, even in favorable cases, and occasionally it 
would extend to the abdomen. In some cases, chiefly among adults, nausea and 
vomiting of bilious matter occurred in the inception of the disease, generally 
followed by biliary dejections, and accompanied with an icterio hue of the skin ; 
pain in the region of the spleen usually attended these symptoms. Hemorrhages 
occurred, generally, late in the disease, mostly passive, and from the mucous sur- 
faces. Uterine hemorrhage was constant in menstruating females; many miscar- 
riages occurred ; some women were delivered of still-born children at their full 
term. The temperature frequently fell during convalescence much below the 
normal standard. The pulse, whatever may have been its force and frequency, 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW PEVEE. 



47 



after it had declined, generally became weak and slow, sometimes falling be- 
low forty beats to the minute. In these cases convalescence was jirotracted ; 
the appetite was perverted ; and dyspeptic symptoms, with a weak heart, 
remained for months afterwards. Cutaneous eruptions of various kinds 
ajjpeared in many cases after the subsidence of the febrile paroxysm, and also 
during convalescence. In some instances the eruption was confined to jiartic- 
ular parts of the body — generally to the thorax, back, arms, and thighs; and 
sometimes to the brow alone. Tlie urticarous, roseolous, and eczemous were 
the most common. The eruptions which appeared during and after convales- 
cence were the most annoj'ing, continuing longer than a week, and giving 
rise to intolerable itching ; and in some cases the desquamation of the cuticle 
was as great as that occurring in a pronounced case of scarlatina. During 
and after convalescence boils and abscesses frequently made their appearance; 
they were confined to no particular part, and were sometimes so numer- 
ous, and gave rise to so much discomfort, as to confine the patient in-doors 
for several weeks. Swellings of the salivary glands, gums, and tongue were 
of common occurrence during the latter part of the disease. Suppuration of 
one of the parotid glands occurred in several cases ; but in one case only, in 
the practice of Dr. W. J. Armstrong, did ' both of the parotid glands become 
inflLimed quickly after the attack of the fever ; and rapidly went on to sup- 
puration and total destruction of the glandular structure, with sloughing of the 
parenchymatous tissues, leaving a cavity behind each angle of the lower 
maxilla an inch deep, by three-fourths of an inch in diameter.' In some cases 
a typhoid condition substituted convalescence ; in many, an icteric hue of the 
skin and eyes remained for weeks. Bright's disease and albuminuria were 
among the sequelae ; generally occurring some weeks after convalescence, and 
were of the most serious character. Relapses occasionally occurred, and 
were almost always fatal. Death appeared to be due to feebleness of the 
heart. The greatest number of fatal cases appeared to be due to the direct 
sedative action of the poison of the disease. Death l)_y coma and convulsions 
was most common in women and children. Uraimic poisoning, with or with- 
out black vomit, was most generally the outlet of life among adults, whose 
stomachs and kidneys had been impaired in function or structure from habit- 
ual dietetic indiscretions, from pernicious drugs, or from having undergone 
super-sudation. Whatever views may have been entertained of the special 
pathology of individual cases, occurring during the epidemic, it was from 
the master poison that the greatest danger was to be apprehended, and to 
which all efforts were to be directed. Every kind and variety of diseased 
action would wear its livery; and it was folly to burden the mind with use- 
less distinctions, and attempt to tieat any other disease Mithout being ever 
conscious that the exhibition of special means sht)uld not be these inimical 
to the medical constitution existing at the time. For reasons before staled, 
a diversified treatment was required, according to the character of the ciise 
presented ; and remedies were as varied as the diverse opinions entertained 
of the nature of the epidemic. Mercury and quinine were relied upon 
chiefly by some. Dr. Mallory, in his account of the epidemic, str.tcs liiat 
4 



48 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



he gave a cathartic dose of calomel in the commencement ; and that ' after 
purgation, the remedy was continued in small doses until ptyalism was in- 
duced.' His patients 'recovered without manifesting any inconvenience, in 
many instances, from its employment. Suppression of the urine did not 
appear in a single instance among the eightj'-one patients on whom this 
treatment was employed.' One of those who used quinine in all cases, gave 
it in one-grain doses, in combination with the same quantity of calomel, 
every hour, until ten doses had been taken ; and then gave the quinine 
alone every two hours until the fourth day, when stinnilants were given as 
required. Dr. Luke P. Blackburn, of Louisville, who had charge of the 
Walthall Infirmary, believing yellow fever to be similar to the exanthemata, 
treated it with warm drinks and foot-baths, with sufficient covering. Neither 
purgatives nor diuretics were given until convalescence was established ; 
though the vinous and stronger alcoholic stimulants were freely allowed. 
He believed that the poison Avas eliminated by the skin solely; and he 
looked upon 'the fsecal matter, coated over with bile, as being the most 
soothing coat which the bowels can have in the first stage of the disease.' 
According to his judgment, quinine was fatal in yellow fever. Some phy- 
.sicians employed neither mercury nor quinine, using gentle purgatives or 
aperients at first, and enemata when needed later in the disease. During 
the febrile paroxysm, warm diluents, as orange-leaf tea, etc., were generally 
resorted to. By some lemonade was preferred, and champagne and other 
wines allowed. To promote the action of the kidneys, the salts of potash 
or ammonia, with or without the spts. nitric ether, were commonly used. 
The effort was made by some to abort or resolve the febrile paroxysm by 
means of such depressing agents as gelseminum, aconite, digitalis, or veratrum 
viride; and for irritable stomach, chloroform, creosote, nux vomica, and Fow- 
ler's Solution of arsenic were prescribed. The hydrate of chloral and bromide 
of potassium, or morphia, were used to promote sleep. Carbolic acid and the 
:Sulpho-carbolat8 of sodium were tried when black vomit occurred. The 
spirits of turpentine, acetate of lead, and the preparations of iron were given 
for the relief of hemorrhages. Vinous, distilled and fermented liquors were 
almost always used during convalescence. These are among the articles of 
materia medica asserted to have been prescribed. Hot mustard pediluvia 
were invariably used by all, and cold sponging of the upper extremities by 
many. Sinapisms or blisters to the epigastrium to relieve gastric distress 
•were in general use. Dry and wet cups, blisters, and warm fomentations 
were applied to the region of the kidneys in cases of suppression. jMy views 
of the j^athologv and treatment of yellow fever have undergone no essential 
change since 1854, when I denied the efficacy of Blair's formula expressed 
by the symbol XX by XXIV; and those of my acquaintances who attempted 
to carry out his precepts have been forced to abandon it. Quinine in scruple 
doses, in some epidemics, may do good when it is combined with calomel, 
hut I believe that the beneficial effect is due more to the mercurial than the 
alkaloid. While rejecting this heroic treatment of Blair's, I also rejected the 
expectant as well as the sedative, which has not yet gone out of fashion 



A HISTOKY OF THE YIOLLOW FEVER. 



49 



Avlth some; neither can I attach inucli importance to the internal adminis- 
tration of diuretics or diaphoretics, wliich have l)ecn thought eliiiiiaative, in 
consequence of tlieir nauseating effects on the stomach. If we can not re- 
move the cause of diseased action, we should attempt to annul it or coun- 
teract its cfi'ects. The cause cf yellow fever, now ix'cognized to Ije a ]>eculiar 
zymotic poison, acting as a destructive ferment, de})resses and perverts tlic 
vital and functional f »rces, gives rise to great excitement of the circulation 
and torpor of the glandular and secretf>ry organs. The intense ereniacau.-is 
of the tissues, and high comhustion acting through the blood, may produce, 
in a short time, destructive changes in the most important organs of the 
body. The indications for treatment are ()l)vious, and are to remove all 
offending matter {rum the -prinuv via' and rouse the emunctories to acti(.in, 
and are best fulfilled by the administration of mercui'ials and salines, and 
promoting their action by wai-m diluents ; at the same time that we attempt 
to reduce the temjicrature l)y sponging the uj)per extremities with ice-cold 
Avater, and assist in equalizing the circulation hy revulsives to the surface 
of the abdomen, and hot stimulating pediluvia. These are, I believe, the 
best means of disgorging the glandular apparatus and equalizing the circu- 
lation preparatory to the use of agents -which tend directly to counteract the 
destructive fermentation which is going on in the blood. All spoliative and 
depressing medication should now cease, though the action of the skin and 
kidneys should be promoted witliout disturl)ing the stomach ; for upon the 
proper perfornaance of their functions will depend the progress of the case 
and the impending lesion of the heart. Here judgment comes into play; 
and upon a recognition of the true pathological conditions of each individual 
case, and a knowledge of the therapeutical properties of the remedial agents 
adapted for its relief, will dejiend the result; always pi-ovided that the patient 
can be placed in a position suitable to his condition, and have all the agree- 
able surroundings which are required. Bland and nutritious liquid food 
shduld be regularly given to sheatlie the lining of the stomach, and neu- 
tralize or dilute the gastric juice; but warm drinks for other pur])oscs are 
to be discontinued. Crushed ice, or ice-water, may be used for their refrig- 
erant efiect only; but the urgent thirst, which necessarily ensues from the 
elimination of the watery elements of the blood by the induced catharsis, 
must be allayed by cool, pure water, or refrigerant, agreeable bevci-ages, 
mixed with good wine; otherwise, inspissated blood engorge the kidneys, 
and the case vill be materially injured. The ju-aclilioner will always liave 
to regard the idiosyncrasy of his jjJitient, and be governed by the peculiari- 
ties of each case. After sufficient catharsis has been induced, Avinc, and 
even the stronger alcoholic stimulants, are more efficient than any other 
class of medicines. They will be found, ia manageable cases of yellow fever, 
almost a sine qua non, preventing, cden iKtrihus, the supervention of the de- 
structive changes Avhich might otherwise occur, thus making a simple, mild 
case, which, if allowed to run its course expectantly, or attempted to be 
jugulated h.eroically, would become a "full-fledged" one, either to drag its 
slow course along, or terminate fatally. After congestions or other compli- 



50 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE. 



cations have occurred, it is too late to expect a specific action from the 
preparations of alcohol ; but still, either with or uithout quinine and citric 
acid, its supporting action is required to stimulate the heart and equalize the 
circulation ; and in malarial complications, its combination with quinine is the 
best for the exhibition of this salt. For irritable stomach, when tlie tongue 
is red and dry, and the thirst urgent, ice will not succeed so well as ice-cream 
or sherbet, or cool vinous drinks delicately prepared to suit the taste of the 
patient. Stimulating embrocations, sinapisms, or blisters over the epigastrium, 
in connection with the above treatment, have given relief to the most dis- 
tressing symptoms. The hydrate of chloral and bromide of potassium, or the 
salts of morphia and camphor-water, are of questionable utility in this disease. 
If no complications arise, no drugs are to be given ; the patient should be 
made comtbrtable by a proper regulation of diet and hygiene ; and if there be 
no contra-indications, vinous, fermented, or distilled liquors, in quantities and 
combinations to suit the condition of the patient, should be allowed. The use 
of alcohol in the treatment of pysemia, and its property of lowering the tem- 
perature in pyrexia, has, of late, attracted much attention ; and the medical 
reader is competent to form an opinion on the subject.* I Avill briefly sum 
up, from the results of my own researches and those of others, the theory of 
the modus operandi of this agent, and would most respectfully call the atten- 
tion of the profession to its action in yellow fever. In a state of health, alco- 
hol does increase the animal heat, especially when the system is depressed by 
cold ; when there is diminished capillary circulation and reduced temperature,, 
by virtue of its combustible nature; and it resolves congestion of the lungs in 
incipient pneumonia by arousing the nervous tbrces and equalizing the circu- 
lation. In a state of fever it diminishes the temperature at the same time 
that it sustains the action of the heart; and this is explicable from the fact, 
that while rapidly oxidized itself, it prevents the oxidization of the tissues ; 
therefore, by arresting the frightful combustion which obtains in yellow fever, 
it diminishes the temperature ; and by arousing the latent vital energies, it 
equalizes the circulation and relieves engorgements or congestions. Another 
explanation is, that it acts within the animal economy as it does without, by 
preventing or arresting the putrefactive or fermentative process, each of which 
is attended by heat. It may yet be proved to be the best antidote to all 
zymotic poisons, as well as to the bites of venomous animals. When the 
temperature of the blood is too much increased, as it is in yellow fever, its 
saccharine elements can not be converted into alcohol (as I contend does 
take place in a state of health) ; but the acetous fermentation is induced in- 
stead, similar to what always occurs wlien the mash — prepared for the in- 
duction of the alcoholic fermentation — is subjected to a too -great degree of 
heat. Under the conditions present in a marked case of yellow fever, we can 
readily conceive how, in a short time, the whole mass of the blood may be- 
come acetified, and so changed that the eraunctories cease to act at all, and 



Dr. Austin Flint, Jr., of New Yorli, has rocently declared himself in favor of 
alcohol as a specific in cases of fever. 



A HISTORY OF THE YEIJ.OW FEVER. 



51 



the functions of the economy arc in abeyance, in consequence of the circula- 
tion of a fluid other than tliat wiiicli nature lias designed for the maintenance 
of their action. The kidneys becoming as impermeable and useless as a 
foreign body, the abnormal death fluid seeks the great work-shop of the sys- 
tem, and oozes through its parietes, to be known to the observer as hiack 
vomit. The moral treatment is by no means uuimj)ortant in yellow fever. 
Fear being the most potent agent for evil, the patient should not be alarmed 
by being made acquainted with the nature of his case ; neither shonld those 
nearest him be better informed, unless absolute necessity arises. The medical 
attendant should never betray doubt or anxiety as to the result; a confident 
look, kind words, and a manifestation of a friendly interest in behalf of the 
patient, encouraging him to h.ope for a successful issue, will do more good 
than medication. None but congenial, cheerful, and discreet persons should 
be allowed access to the sick-room; the exclusion of all disagreeable f)r de- 
pressing influences should be enforced, and the patient sliould be relieved of all 
personal cares of wdiatever nature, and feel himself perfectly secure in the hands 
of those to whom his physician has intrusted the management of his case." 

Dr. R. W. Mitchell, recently appointed a member of the National Board 
of Health, who, as IMcdical Director of the Howard Association of IMempliis, 
in 1878, enjoyed unusual opportunities for obtaining a thorough knowledge 
of the effects of yellow fever upon the human system, and of the value of 
almost all the known remedies, and who enjoyed the confidence of every 
physician who served under him as well as that of the public at large, by 
request furuislies the following as his method of treatment, which, it may 
be remarked, was very successful: "The natural histor}' of yellow fever 
suggests the plan of treatment which observation and experience have proven 
to be the best. Being a self-limited disease, and one of very short duration, 
what could possibly be the aim of rational treatment beyond warding off' 
complications and sustaining nature? To fulfill this indication, I have sought 
always to enforce absolute rest of mind and l)ody during the entire course of the 
disease, to the full establishment of convalescence; to protect my ])atients fi-om 
all perturbing and deleterious influences, such as might arise from the conversa- 
tion of injudicious friends, or from changes of temperature; to watch the bodily 
secretions, and insure as perfectly as possible the performance of the various func- 
tions. The first objects requiring attention in a case of yellow fever, are the 
bringing about of reaction after the chill, and free evacuation of the bowels. 
The first is quite easily att:iined by means of the hot mustard foot-bath, and 
moderate covering with Idankets, The second is, in most instances, best 
accomplished by a dose of castor-oil. Sometimes, ^\hcn the attack is ushered 
in with nausea and a coated tongue, a few grains of calomel, followed in six 
hours by oil, or one of the saline aperients, is better practice. Having attended 
to these matters, I now lay medicine aside, unless the pains in the head and 
back are vicdent or delirium is present. To relieve these symptoms I prefer 
to make use of a combination of bromide potassium and tincture gelsemium — 
15 grains of the first, and as many drops of the second — every two hours 
during the first day of the fever. Gentle perspiration, not free sweating, should 



52 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



be maintained for 15 or 18 hours by the foot-l)ath, suitable covering, and warm 
sage or orange-leaf tea. As a rule, no food of any kind should be adminis- 
tered during the continuance of the fever, uuless the patient is very feeble, or 
the fever is disposed to run over three days. Under such circumstances, milk 
and lime-water, or rice-water, in small quantities, should be given at short 
intervals. Pellets of ice may be given to all patients in the beginning, and to 
the close. Having discontinued those remedies calculated to keep up perspira- 
tion, the closest attention should be given to the bodily temperature. If the 
clinical thermometer shows that this temperature is not above 102°, I instruct 
the nurse to sponge the entire body, under cover, every few hours Avith com- 
mon whisky. If, however, the temperature goes above this figure, and reaches 
104° or 105°, the whisky must be freely ap23lied every hour, and as cold as 
ice can make it. To he effectual, each sjjonging should be continued for 20 or 30 
minutes. A faithful nurse, who does not mind hard work, will in a few hours 
bring the temperature down two or three degrees. Patients thus treated, long 
for a return of the time for sponging, and will often beg for it: it relieves 
pain, soothes the troubled nervous system, and induces sleep. It also insures 
proper action of the kidneys, and serves to ward off that state of thing-s in the 
stomach Avhich gives rise to black vomit. The essence of treatment, then, in 
yellow fever, is to be found in keeping the digestive organs at perfect rest, by 
giving them nothing to do; in keeping the temperature of the body as near 
the normal as possible ; and in warding off congestion of the liver and kidneys 
by making appeals to the skin. Should suppression of urine arise in a patient 
with high temjjerature, the best means of relief is the application of poultices 
of ice and salt over the loins. This application is made for 15 or 20 minutes, 
then removed and reapplied in half an hour. For the relief of suppression of 
urine in one whose temperature is nearly normal, I know nothing of much 
value. Allusion has been made to the good effect of cold sponging in keeping 
off black vomit. In addition to this, mustard piaster or blisters oA^er the pit 
of the stomach may be required; but to do good they must be applied early. 
The nausea and vomiting Avith Avhich attacks of yelloAV fever are ushered in, 
are not usually serious, and no special medication is required for their relief. 
When the fever subsides, Ave begin to repair the shattered strength of the 
patient by the administration, at short intervals, of a teaspoonful of milk and 
lime-Avater. After aAvhile, chicken-Avater or beef-tea may be substituted for 
this. Thii-st may now be allayed by Avater in small quantities, and by the 
German seltzer-Avater. Should the temperature fall below the normal, and the 
pulse drop down to 50 or less, a little brandy may be added to the nourish- 
ment ; but as a rule it is very seldom that stimulants can he used advanta- 
geously or safely Avith temperate subjects. Jluch harm has been done, and many 
lives destroyed, by the administration of champagne and Avhisky during the 
stage of calm Avhich follows the subsidence of the fever. We go on, then, 
adding little by little to the nourishment, but not allowing solid food until 
nearly a Aveek of convalescence has been reached. During all this time con- 
finement to the horizontal position is rigidly enforced. When the blood has 
been renewed by food, and the strength in a measure restored, the patient is 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



53 



allowed to leave his bed. The reaetiimary fever, whieh ii; man}' cases follows 
the stage of calm, is usnally very moderate, and ix-quires no treatment but 
sponging. In very many cases malarial fever appeal's about the fourtli or fifth 
day of convalescence : it comes in the eveiu'ng, very insidiously, and the ])aticnt 
complains of liaving had a i-eslless night. Tins is repeated for two or three 
davs, and the patient dies. I saw many sucli cases during tlie past summer, 
and also observed that these attacks yielded to quinine if given promj)tly. 
Late in the season, I found it an advantage, in cases in which there seemed 
to be a malarial element, to commence the treatment of the disease by the 
administration of one or two ten-grain doses of quinine. Some patients seem 
stricken Avith death at tlie vei-y outset of their attack, and for these no treat- 
ment is of any avail. In a large majority of the cases recovery ensues if the 
plan of treatment here described be scrupulously followed." 

Dr. G. B. Thornton, who, like Dr. Mitchell, had the fullest public experi- 
ence during the yellow lever epidemics which scourged Memphis in 1867 and 
1873, was, as in the latter year, in charge of the City Hospital in 1878. A 
victim of tlie fever twice, he writes as one should who adds to knowledge 
acquired by an extended practice, that of a personal nature. He gives the 
following, by request, as his metliod of treatment: "Believing that yellow 
fever is a specific disease, a blood poisoiung caused by a peculiar miasm 
against which medical proi)hylaxis has proven inefficient, and that active 
heroic medication to arrest it, when once established, is not only useless but 
positively injurious, the successful treatment has to be by such medication and 
management as will alleviate suffering and assist natui-e to throw ofi' or 
eliminate this poison from the system. Tliere is a fixed course the disease 
must run, or, in other words, an evolution which must follow as a consequence 
of this blood toxemia. Tlierefore, assuming that the treatment must be essen- 
tially of this auxiliary character, it becomes an important question to do 
nothing that will interfere with the efl^orts of nature to eliminate this puison. 
While the disease can not be cut short or aborted, as an ordinary malarial 
fever, it can be modified and rendered more tolerant to the patient by judicious 
medication and nursing. Ordinarily I commence my treatment l)y a mercurial 
cathartic, followed, if necessary, in six or eigiit hours, Ijy castor-i)il. After 
the bowels are once thorougidy moved cathartics are no longer indicated 
during the course of the disease. Quinine, if admissible at all, should be 
administered early in the attack, in the cold stage whicli precedes the fever. 
In anticipation of the fever it is tliought, and I will not assert to the contrary, 
that given at this time in a positive dose, say ten grains, the fever is modified, 
and the temperature kept down. After the febrile stage is once established, 
my experience and observation is, quinine is positively injurious-. It does no 
good towards eliminating this poison, and only complicates the case by aggra- 
vating the gastric and cephalic disturbance. After a warm foot-bath, the 
patient should be placed between blankets, and blankets enough useil as cover, 
as not to oppress but keep the skin gently acting without exhausting perspira- 
tion. Woolen blankets are the best covers for yellow fever patients; they ab- 
sorb perspiration without causing the inconvenience that these fluids would on 



54 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



cotton goods; tliey also allow the exhalations of the body to escape through their 
meshes without injury. Bedding should not be changed until convalescence is 
well established. Such medication should be used as will promote and keep 
up the action of the kidneys and this mild perspiration. To alleviate thirst, 
drinks possessing some diuretic property should be given in such quantities and 
at such intervals as not to offend the stomach. When equally agreeable to 
the patient, and not contra-indicated by any symptom that may exist, I prefer 
warm drinks, or, at least, of the temperature of ordinary cistern water, to either 
ice or iced water. The latter produces a decided unpleasant feeling in the 
stomach, amounting in some instances to a pain (at least that was my experi- 
ence), and has no advantage over the former in allaying thirst. Rinsing the 
mouth with cold water, contributes A'ery much towards alleviating this symp- 
tom. To relieve muscular soreness and promote gentle perspiration, and some- 
times induce sleep, sponging the body and limbs with warm or tepid water, or 
Avater medicated with vinegar, ammonia, alcohol, or whisky. This should be 
done without exposing the patient to the air, or subjecting him to physical 
exertion. Unless it is properly done it had best not be attempted. Mental 
and physical quietude is an essential feature in the treatment, and every thing 
should be done to preserve this that does not interfere with the course of the 
disease. Opiates, as a rule, should be prohibited. There are some instances 
in which a cautious use of them is not only admissible, but demanded; but, 
like quinine, they can not be used indiscriminately : the judgment and dis- 
cretion of the practitioner can alone decide when to use either. "When good 
does not follow their use, harm certainly does. Opiates are likely to be fol- 
lowed by irritability of stomach and arrested action of the kidneys: to pre- 
serve the integrity of these organs is an important and may be an essential 
feature. In the secondary fever, as a rule, where there is bo complication, no 
medication is required. A judicious administration of diet then takes the place 
of medication. This should be of a fluid character, given in such quantities 
and at such intervals as the stomach Avill appropriate without causing unpleas- 
ant symptoms. Approaching convalescence should be watched as closely as 
the first stage of the disease. Stimulants of some character are necessary in 
the majority of cases, and no arbitrary preference can or should be for a par- 
ticular stimulant. Brandy or whisky are, as a rule, my preference, though 
in some cases one of the wines act better; and with some, as convalescence 
progresses, the malt liquors are preferred and act best. Special symptoms, as 
they arise during the course of the disease, such as diarrhoea, irritjible stomach, 
black vomit, hemorrhage from any outlet, suppression of urine, and delirium, 
of course demand specific medication to combat. To guard against or meet an 
indication which may arise from a preexisting infirmity, the general principles 
of practice are applicable, guarding against any therapeutic remedy that may 
be contra-indicated by the main disease." 

Dr. R. B. Nail, surgeon in charge of Camp Joe Williams,* who was so fort- 



* Situated seven miles from Memphis, on the luie of the Mississippi and Tennessee 
liailroad. 



A HISTORY OF THK YELLOW FEVKR. 



55 



iinate, iiotwitlistanding the exposures liis patients were necessarily subjected to, 
not to have even one case of relapse, furnished, by request, the following as his 
method of practice : "To deal iu the various theories advanced by men who have 
spent years of devotional industry in the attempt to explain the nature of the 
insidious matris niorbi of yellow fever, is beyond the intention of this paper; 
the object is to prove that whatsoever has been administered to the sick as a 
curative agent, based either on scientific principles rr emp^•rical notions, have 
all alike been barren of fruit. The sanitarian and scientist, assisted by the 
charity and generosity of the educated masses, have failed to check its fearful 
ravages, even under favorable meteorological conditions. The inhabitants of 
Camp Joe Williams were composed in the m;iiu (,f citizens of what was then 
known as the "infected district" (Poplar, Yv'ashir.gto;), Adams, etc.), who 
were removed by a detailed j)olice force, under the vigilant supervision of 
the Citizens' Relief Committee, to the cam}). (Jn their arrival, every 
article of clothing or bedding which favoj-cil the propagation of the dis- 
ease, was, by order of the surgeon iu charge, consumed by fire. Of 
course, among so many hundred people, cases were soon developed, and 
most of them run that fatal course which is so characteristic of the dis- 
ease. The remarkable and favorable feature of Camp AVilliams was that 
the disease did not spread among the inhabitants, i;or did those who visited 
the camp from the surrounding country contract the disease. Those who 
visited the city soon died, or were quite ill f )r a time, while he or she who 
feared the place of death steered clvar. Parties from the infected district 
joined those from the non-infectetl, living in common, occupying at niglit a 
small A tent — the former die, the latter escape. Every case which happened 
substantiated these facts. The details of several cases may not be out of place. 
The first case that happened was i\Ir. E., a pninter; the di.-ease run the usual 
fatal course, and on the fourth day l;e died. He was cared f ir assiduously Ity 
two friends, a lady and gentleman. Neither of these took the disease. Mrs. 
D. arrived at camp from the iirfected portion of the city. She took the fever a 
few days after her arrival. She and her husband occupied a small, close tent, 
during her illness, even sleeping together in the same bed. She recovered ; he 
escaped the fever entirely. Another striking illustration of the non-contagious 
character of the disease is the following: INIrs. S. , aged 40, the mother of four 
children, developed a case of fever. She was ordeied to the hospital, her chil- 
dren to be cared for some distance from the hos])ifal, in tents. One day these 
children took advantage of a favorable opportunity, stole away to the hospitid, 
in which their mother lay sick of the fever, and in \\ liich several had died. Dur- 
ing my evening visit to the mother, I found them gathered around her bed. My 
first intention was to have them immediately removed to their isolated quarters. 
But the children wept and entreated that they might be permitted to remain 
with their mother, while she argued that she could not survive, and begged that 
I would let them remain with her. The mother recovered ; none of the children 
were attacked. In the wards of the male hospital were employed eight male 
nurses, five of whom, after nursing for three or four weeks among fifteen or 
twenty patients in all stages of the fever, thinking themselves proof against 



56 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



the disease, determined to go to the city and there offer their services, because 
of the liigher price paid nurses by the Howard Association. I advised them 
fully as to the dangers of the city, nevertheless they went and remained there 
several days. The sick were all bountifully supplied with nurses from a dis- 
tance ; they were therefore unable to obtain positions, and consequently re- 
turned to camp. Four of these men died of the fever in the hospital in which 
they had nursed, the otiier was found dead between the city and the camp, 
a short distance from the latter — the result, I believe, of debauchery and fever. 
The three nurses who did not visit the city, but remained in the hospital dur- 
ing the epidemic (seventy-two days), nursed and buried their confederates, but 
were not attacked themselves. Every physician, except Dr. T. O. Summers, of 
Nashville, who was officially connected with the camp, and who visited the 
city, either died or had the fever, while I, who left the city early and never 
visited the infected district before I left for camp, escaped the disease. During 
the fatal illness of the late Dr. Sample, of Austin, Miss., I remained in the 
tent with him the whole time — four or five days; I was convalescing from 
a severe attack of bilious fever, but entirely escaped the fatal disease. From 
observations of Camp Joe Williams, I am driven to the conclusion that yellow 
fever, under favorable meteorological conditions, intense heat and humidity — 
particularly the former — finds a nidus or pabulum in the exhalations which 
emanate from the excreta of human beings." 

Dr. Laski, a German physician, who, according to his own statement, had 
some experience in Asia with the black plague, and in Africa with the cholera, 
before settling in Memphis, where he has practiced for years, and where he had 
three experiences of epidemic yellow fever — in 1867, 1873 and 1878 — treated 
his patients very successfully. He gave them castor-oil in simple doses so 
long as the discharges from the bowels were hard and dark ; camomile tea to 
keep up perspiration ; washing the body \mder the clothes with a wash com- 
posed of water tempered by alcohol, ammonia, camphor and common salt. To 
tone up the patient, he gave good cognac or the best whisky. 

Dr. Luke P. Blackburn, of Kentucky, a noted yellow fever expert — whose 
experience is equal to that of any living physician, extending, as it does, not 
only over this continent, but to the Bermudas and the West India Islands, his 
latest experience being at Hickman, Ivy., in 1878 — gives his treatment as fol- 
lows: "The patient should be placed in bed in a horizontal position; should not 
under any circumstances be allowed to arise from that bed ; should be well cov- 
ered with blankets ; a foot-tub of hot water without mustard should be intro- 
duced under the blankets; the patient lying upon his back, should flex his 
lower limbs and place his feet in the tub ; the covering should be tucked well 
around him, close up to his neck ; he should be given hot tea, composed of balm, 
sa2;e, elder blossom, boneset, corn-shock, or oran<re- or lemon-leaf. At the same 
time he should be permitted to drink ice-water or to take crushed ice in suffi- 
cient quantities to allay his thirst. Free and continuous perspiration should be 
kept up. After the foot-tub has been removed, if the action of the skin should 
cease and the forehead become dry, the feet should be at once replaced in the 
tub and the ptisan, or hot tea, should be used as before. The fever will continue 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER 



57 



from twenty to ninety lioiir.<. A^'hen it lias passed off the lilankets should be 
gradually -withdrawn from the patient; stimulants, such as ale, porter, pure 
rum, and French brandy should l)e freely given. I jjrefer Cook's Imperial St. 
Louis native wine to any stimulant I have ever used. Isourishment, such as 
rice-water, or corn-meal gruel, or chicken-water should be given cautiously and 
sparingly. Should there be a spi^ntaneous movement of the bowels, as will 
occur in many cases from the irritation of the mucous coat of the stomach and 
bowels, that tissue which is first assaulted by this disease, give no opium, no 
preparation of opium, nor any thing to cheek that action. It is the crisis of 
the disease as it is in measles. The fever will pass off in five hours, and the 
patient will recover rapidly without tear of a relajise. Should the perspiration 
have a glutinous, gummy touch, you may expect your patient to recover with 
watchful and careful nursing. But should tlie perspiration have a sensation 
like that of pure water, showing that there is no vicarious action by the skin, 
which gives relief to the liver and kidneys, you may know that your patient is 
in great danger. You will find uj);>n an examination the tongue red and trem- 
ulous, covered with a short white fur, with great gastric fetor of the breath. It 
is then all important to apply the cups or leeches to the pit of the stomach in 
order to prevent that degree of inflammation \\hich destroys the coat of the 
stomach. If neither cups, leeches, nor blisters l)e applied, the patient will com- 
plain of the sensation of a ball in his stomach in thirty-six hours. And in 
twelve hours thereafter he will throw off blood that is exuded into the stomach, 
known as black vomit, which has the appearance of coflee-grounds floating in 
an amber-colored fluid. If there be any doubt as to the character of the 
matter ejected from the stomach, you can at once decide upon its character by 
dipping a white handkerchief or linen clolh into the matter ejected from the 
stomach, and ex])0sing it to the sun for a few moments. If it be the vcnnito, or 
genuine black vomit of yellow fever, it will impart a sanguine or bloody tinge 
to the cloth or handkerchief. If it be bile, which never occurs in yellow fever, 
it will impart a yellow tinge." 

Dr. Marvin Huse, Physician of the Yellow Fever Hospital, of Louisville, where 
nearly two hundred cases were treated, "found that there were two classes of cases : 
one in which the temperature ranged from 100° to 106°, with a hot dry skin; 
and a second, where the temperature ranged between 97° and 100°, with a 
cold, clammy, and much yellower skin. The latter variety was more fatal. 
The symptoms were, iu the main, like those of former epidemics, but a iiiiudier 
of interesting characteristics were noted. The juilse was always so iiregular as 
to be of help in the diagnosis. It ranged from thirty-five to one hundred and 
forty beats a minute. It bore no relation to the tem))erature. The fever was a 
continued one. It had remissions, but not intermissions. The fiiuces were red 
and swollen; the tongue, eventually, dry and cracked, unlike the flabby and 
enlarged tongue of malarial fever. From the skin there exhaled the peculiar 
rotten-hay odor always noticed. Herpetic eruptions about the month and nose 
were frequent. The urine had at first a high specific gravity, falling as the 
disease progressed. It was small in amount at first, also, and suppression with 
uriemia was always to be looked out for. It generally contained bile, and 



58 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK, 



alwaij.i albumen, the amount, however, varyhig very much. There ■were also 
granular casts. Tho amount of albumen and casts was in proportion to the 
severity of the disease, and furnished a valuable aid in prognosis. Vibrios and 
bacteria were found in tiie breath and the blood. The proportion of white 
blood-corpuscles was increased. Black vomit occurred in half the cases, and 
did not prove so very unfavoi-able a symptom, as a third of those thus affected 
got well. There were melsenic stools, as usual. A hemorrhagic tendency was 
constant, but was easily controlled by a spray of IMonsel's solution. The blood 
oozed from the month, eyes, nose, ears, etc. Just before death, the tempera- 
ture generally fell to 97°. After deatli it gradually rose, sometimes to 106:|-° 
in the axilla, the body remaining warm for twelve hours. The average dura- 
tion of the disease was four days. Very careful post-mortem examinations 
were made, tlie kidneys and liver giving the most uniform lesions. The 
stomach showed no erosions, congestion, or catarrh. The hemorrhages from 
it were passive ones. The liver was enlarged, and generally of some shade of 
yellow. The microscope showed more or less fatty infiltration and fatty de- 
generation, with occasionally increase of connective tissue. The kidnej's always 
showed, under the microscope, the tubules choked with finely granular (Ubris 
and epithelium, or in other places empty and denuded of epithelium. There 
were no important changes in tlie other organs. The treatment consisted in 
at once exerting the emuuctories to action, especially the skin and kidneys. 
The patient was then kept cinchonized, and the various symptoms com- 
bated as they arose. The cases brought to the hospital were uniformly 
bad ones, the disease genei'ally being in the second stage when they were 
received. The patients had previously sufl^ered from neglect and exposure, 
and the mortality therefore of thirty-one is not considered high. None 
of the ))hysicians, attendants, or visitors at the hospital caught the disease, 
although no especial pains were taken in the way of protection and disinfec- 
tion." 

Dr. Chopin, President of the New Orleans Board of Health, in his instruc- 
tions to the people of that city, at the outbreak of the late epidemic, says of 
the 3'ellow fever, that its "onset is more apt to be sudden and violent than 
that of the other fevers which prevail here, and more apt to occur at night. 
Frequently, but not invariably, a chill precedes the fever. There is violent 
pain in the forehead at the beginning, soon followed by severe pain in the 
lower part of the back. The eyes are red and glistening. Any individual 
affected as above described, should immediately go home, go to l)ed, and send 
for a physician without delay. Witiiout waiting for his arrival, a hot foot- 
bath should be taken, and ])erspiration encouraged by warm drinks and a 
moderate cover in bed. If there should be any delay in the arrival of the 
physician, a simple purgative should be ttdven; and, if the attack comes on 
soon after eating, an emetic of ipecac or mustard would be nd\ isable. Prompt 
treatment is of the utmost importance in this disease; and it should be under- 
stood that persons ought not to walk about after falling sick, nor get up at all 
after once going to bed, until the attack is over." 

Dr. William H. Fall, of Cincinnali, gives his method of treatment as fol- 



A HISTORY OF TlIK YELLOW FEVER. 



59 



lows: "In the case of the sponge and vapor baths, the results -were of un- 
doubted benefit. The patients always expressed themselves as feeling much 
better after their use, and frequently requested that they might have them 
more often. I did not resort to hot or tepid-water baths, as I fuund the i-ponge 
and vajwr baths to answer all purposes. I higlily apjjrove of ihcir use in this 
disease, provided the patient is strong enough to bear tliem ; but where there is 
much prostration, they are objectionable. Absolute lest of mind and body is 
of the greatest importance, and whatever occurs to mar it is injuricus to the 
patient. A^apor and sponge baths may be given to the patient while in bed, 
and therefore can not i)roiluce any injurious results, while on the other hand 
they may be of decided benefit. They may be used in any stage of the disease. 
Every thing necessary for their use is to be f^und in every household, while 
jiortable bath-tubs are frequently absent. In reference to the use of the cold 
bath in this disease, I can not speak from experience, as I did not resort to it. 
It can not, however, be made use of, except in the first stage of the disease, and 
even then I doubt the projjriety of its use. Ice-pellets and crushed ice were 
given freely to each j^atient, and were taken with relish. Lime-water was 
successful in allaying the irritability and acidity of the stomach, even after 
black vomit had occurred, and I regard it as one of the best agents we can 
emi^loy. Iced champagne was made use of in cases Nos. 3, 4, and 6, and 
was very refreshing to the patient, agreeable to the taste, and arrested irrita- 
bility of the stomach. Lemonade was given in two cases, but in each dis- 
agreed with the stomach, and was vomited. I do not approve of its use 
because of its excessive acidity. The salicylate of soda was given in three 
cases, and good results were obtained from its use. In the case of Smith, 
who recovered, no urine was passed fi)r twenty-four hours, ])ut alter com- 
mencing the acid, the flow was reestablished. I think if it had not been 
resorted to, condjined with the use of the bath, he wruld most certainly have 
died of uremic jioisoning. Cases 4 and 5 did well under its use until Tues- 
day night, when the sudden change of temperature produced sirch a change 
f<jr the worse in their condition, that they did not rally from it. It has been 
remarked that northern breezes are killing to yellow-fever patients, and such 
was the result in these cases. I was forcibly struck with the effect the change 
of terapei-ature produced upon them, and although every eflxirt was made to 
shield them, it was unavailing. The salicylate of soda is a diuretic, diapho- 
retic, and antiseptic, and the symptoms and course of the disease clearly in- 
dicate it as a proper remedy in the treatment of yellow fever, and I think' we 
are justified in giving it a further trial." 

Mr. J. Livingston, of 52 Camp Street, New Orleans, who joined the Howard 
Association as far back as 1841, and has passed through every epidemic in tliat 
city, in a pamphlet published after the epidemic of 1878, offers to tlie puljlic 
the ammonia cure, which, if the results he gives are well establislud, voidd 
seem to be advanced beyond the domain of theory and into that of fact. He 
says: "During last summer I talked much about my treatment. Physicians 
would not listen, and non-professional persons had their doctors, who, in their 
opinion, could give yellow fever the fits. Occasionally son)e of the unlearned 



60 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



thought they would, if occasion required, use the remedy suggested. One old 
man, a stranger to mc, was particular in writing my prescription. A few 
weeks after lie sent me word that his child was saved by the application. 
He could get no physician, a:id so expended twenty-five cents for ammonia 
and camphor and applied it as directed. The second day the physician came 
and found the child out of dangei-, and that his services were not required. 
In riding in the cars one day I explained my theory to a lawyer. Not 
long since I met him and he thanked me for saving his two children; 'for,' 
said he, ' two days after my conversation with you two of my children were 
taken with the fever, and on applying the liquid it acted as described.' 
He employed a homeopathic physician and explained what he had done. 
There were other cases reported to me, but as I never saw any of them I 
can not assert positively that the remedy was effectual, relying upon statements 
to me as to the results. I will cite particularly one case under my own obser- 
vation. The patient, about forty-five, was in the early part of October taken 
with the fever. It was an aggravated case, with great heat, excruciating jiains 
in the back and head, and with hemorrhage of the nose and gums, injected or 
congested eyes, tongue on the sides very sore, palate and roof of the mouth 
the same. It was a genuine case of hemorrhagic yellow fever. The hemor- 
rhage commenced with the attack, and I was fearful that there Avas internal 
hemorrhage, or that it would soon take place. Cases of this description are 
nearly always fatal, and terminate with black vomit. This was niy experience. 
As soon as I could I applied aqua ammonia, with an equal portion of 
spirits of camphor, commencing at the head, rubbing it well, then the spinal 
column — in fact, all over the body. But two applications were made. In an 
hour or less time the temperature of the body was much reduced and the pains 
all gone. The patient seemed, after the second application, inclined to sleej^. 
The heat and pains never returned. Hemorrhage from the gums and nose con- 
tinued for several days. On the arrival, in the evening, of an homeopathic 
physician, he- found his patient free from fever and jmins. On the third day 
he advised rubbing spirits of turpentine over the region of the kidneys, and 
gave a few drops of the spirits of sweet nitre, to be followed by watermelon 
tea. The urine Avhich flowed after Avas not bloody, but of such a deep red 
color as to appear as if it Avas bloody. No nourishment Avas taken until the 
fifth day, and then in the shape of beef-tea. After this I gave chocolate, and 
eggs boiled very soft, stimulants in the way of Aveak brandy and water, a little 
krug, and Englisli ale. I told the patient that all the internal organs Avere 
similar to the nose, gums, tongue and eyes, and that as soon as all the soreness 
and inflammation disappeared the inflammation of all the other organs Avould 
also be gone. From the externals I judge of the appearance and condition of 
the internals. On the tenth day the patient sat up and could take more nour- 
ishing food. Any indiscretion in eating, in this case, before the healing of the 
nose, gums, etc., had taken place, would haA^e brought on a relapse. This AA-as 
an undoubted case of very malignant yellow fcA^er. The application used ter- 
minated the fever, arrested combustion, prevented internal hemorrhage, and 
rendered black vomit impossible. It is my conviction that no medical skill 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



61 



could have saved this patient. A continuance of the fever for twenty -four or 
forty-eight hours could not but have produced black vomit. T!ie alkali neutral- 
ized the poison, and the fever disappeared. This and other cases impressed 
upon me the conviction that the right remedy had been applied at the right 
time. My next and concluding article will suggest the course to be pursued in 
the treatment of this fever. I have never observed any benefit from the ad- 
ministration of drugs. My conclusions were these : the process of digestion lo- 
gins in the mouth, where the food is cut, crushed and gr(,)un(l. As it is reduced 
to a pulp it is moistened by the saliva, a digestive fluid, which is secreted from 
the blood by three sets of glands called the parotid, submaxillary, and sublin- 
gual. As soon as the food is mixed with this saliva it enters the stomach, and 
it there is acted upon by the gastric juice which is secreted by the glands of the 
stomach, and is converted into what chemists call chyme. It then passes into 
the intestinal canal, is acted upon by the jmncreatic juice, and by the bile from 
the liver. These change the chyme into chyle, and in that condition it is then, 
by innumerable absorbents, distributed to the various parts of the system, sup- 
plying such matter as these various parts need. After all the nutriment is ex- 
tracted, the chaff and husks, if I may so say, pass out of the system. In a 
healthy organization but very little goes out as excrementitious matter. This 
Avhole digestive apparatus, so very complicated, becomes inactive by the action 
of the j)oison, and all know that food can not be digested by a yellow fever 
patient. A piece of good beefsteak would l)e as fiital in the early stages of this 
fever as poison. Now, since the j^rocess of digestion is arrested, how is it pos- 
sible for drugs to be acted upon, and how, since every absorbent is inactive, 
could the drugs be distributed throughout the system ? It is impossible, ac- 
cording to my view. Hence, no treatment is preferable to medicines. As soon 
as combustion ceases, which it docs after the poison is neutralized, the whole in- 
ternal organism is left in an inflamed condition, just as the gums, nose and 
tongue were, in the case described, or I might say the whole was in a raw con- 
dition. Medicine can not be applied to a raw surface. Mucilaginous drinks 
should first be given. They are emollients and soothe the irritated surface. 
They contain also some nourishment. I would give gum aralnc water, flax- 
seed tea, mucilage of boiled okra or slippery-elm bark. At first the mildest 
emetic should be given, and then a purgative of some of the preparations of 
magnesia, or a cooling cathartic, and afterwards diuretics, if necessary. But 
in comparatively mild cases diuretics will not be needed, for if the mixture is 
applied soon after the fever appears, combustion ceases, the internal organi.-m 
will in two or three days be restored to its normal condition. The profession 
have a mistaken idea that the yellow fever has a particular spite against the 
kidneys. They are in no worse condition than the other glands ; but because 
there is no visible manifestation that the kidneys do secrete, ergo the conclusien 
has been that the kidneys are in the most disorganized state. Every gland is 
in the same condition as the kidneys. The system, after the poison is de- 
stroyed, must have time to heal, and food and medicines arrest the healing 
process. It is known to all that any indiscretion in eating when the patient 
feels well, but before strength has been gained, is apt to produce a relapse, 



62 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



often terminating fatally. Keep the patient in bed as long as possible; a day 
or two more, even after he feels well, may prevent a relapse. Mucilaginous 
beverages, chocolate, eggs boiled very soft, and stimulants, the hrst few days 
■will suffice. In conclusion I have demonstrated, I think — my theory — that the 
fever is caused by an acid poison — that aqua ammonia, being an all^ali, de- 
stroys tlie poison and ends the lever. I always add about equal parts of spirits 
of camphor, acting under the impression that campliorisa sedative, and slightly 
narcotic, and that it has the tendency to quiet the nervous system. My theory 
is a plain remedy, cheap and always at hand, and if it does not cure, it can 
not kill." 

Dr. Dowell, in his diagnosis and cure of yellow fever, says that " this disease 
usually comes on with slight chilly sensation, even preceded by a few hours or 
a few days of languor and general malaise. These chills or rigors last for a few 
minutes or a few hours, and terminate in a fever of not a very high grade : 
pulse about 100, respiration about 20, and heat about 36 centigrade, (102 F.); 
acute pain in head, back, and loins, sometimes vomiting mucous and undigested 
substances, _and when severe mixed with specks of blood, which is a grave 
symptom in the first twenty-four hours of the fever. Patient very nervous, 
tremulous, easily excited, startles at any noise. Tliis is especially so in chil- 
dren; fever continues regularly for twenty-four to sixty-four hours, generally 
abating in thirty-six hours, when there is a calm ; this calm lasts for a few 
hours or a day, when it terminates in convalescence, or the fever will return. 
In four or five days, say about the fifth day, patient's eyes will become tinged 
with yellow, and finally the whole skin will become yellow, like the yellowness 
of slight bruise or contusion. The skin does not turn yellow in more than one 
case in six, and many die before there is the least yellowness even in the eyes; 
not more than one in three turn yellow that die of black vomit. When there 
is vomiting and sick stomach from the rise of the fever, the patient is liable, 
between or after the third day until final recovery, to vomit up specks of blood 
and mucous, which will become blacker, and finally a blackish brown-red, cf 
the consistency of chocolate or coffee, but free from lumps. This is the pure 
vomito pristo, or black vomit, which is the only positive sign of the disease,, 
and I believe it is unlike any thing seen in any other pathological condition. I 
have not seen any thing like it in my professional life. I have seen, in con- 
gestion of the stomach, black matter, sloughs of the mucous coat, f.nd specks 
of blood, generally with some small green specks. This is common with mala- 
rial fevers with congestion of the stomach, and these symptoms may occur in 
yellow fever, but the brownish black semi-fluid effusion in yellow fever is very 
different. This effusion may be in small quantities, leaving specks on the hand- 
kerchief or on the bed, or it may come up involuntarily, or may be spit up, or 
there will he pint after pint for hours, or even for two or three days. Patient 
at this stage is very restless, sighs, halloos, screams, attempts to get up, falls 
about, half conscious, and can't tell why he can not lie still, nor can he give 
a reason why he cries out. Skin begins in this stage to become yellow, if pa- 
tient does not die in a few hours; first a bright jaundice yellow, then a livid 
yellow, almost a contused black. In spots over the body blood will ooze out, 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 



63 



•nose will bleetl, blistered and ciii^ped surfaces will bleed, and show no disposi- 
tion to heal. Urinie is generally natural in this stage; will not stain the shirt, 
as it always does in jaundice. This fact is very important, for this yellowness 
occurs in hienn\turi;i juiasmatica, and the species of delirium also occurs in that 
disease, but we sekh^ni liavc liomorrhage from the kidneys in yellow fever. 
Most often there is a suppression of urine, and tliough it may be scant, it is 
rarely mo:e yellow than natural. Black vomit is tlie hist symptom, for the 
patient generally dies either in a few hours or a few days after throwing it up. 
The quantity thrown up does not indicate the fatality or hasten dissolution, for 
oidy a few mouthful.s seem to be as fatal as bowls full. This bhick stuff' is 
often found in the bowels when not vomited up, and not more than one in tlu'ee 
that die throw it up. Hence the great difficulty in diagnosing this fever. I 
summarize the following symptoms, to be sj^ecially noticed in the order I have 
put them down : 

"1st. Chill, rigors along the spine. 

" 2d. Pain in head, very severe in most cases. 

" 3d. Fever not very high, tending to perspiration if kept free from a draft. 

" 4th. Stage of calm about third day. Fever lasts but tuenty-four hours, at 
least in children, and may run on without iutei-ruption for at least five days. 

"5th. No second chill unless 2:)atient has been sulyect to intermittent fever, 
when he will often have regular paroxysms each day, or eveiy day for three 
days, when it will assume a typhoid type, with red edges to tongue, daik brown 
coat in center, and on the fifth and later there will be more or less dryness, 
and a disposition to crack and bleed. This will be especially tlie case if the 
patient is kept from hot water or made to drink hot teas." Dr. Dowell gives 
his treatment as follows: "No nurse should be put in charge of a case who 
will not follow directions of doctor or doctors in attendance. This is a great 
curse in this city, many taking upon themselves to change their medicines 
as well as openly violate the doctoi-'s instructions; such .should always be dis- 
charged — the doctor or nurse should be discharged at once. There must be n(j 
divisions of these persons, or the 2)atient will most assuredly die. There are S(j 
many opinions as to how a patient should be nur.sed; I will only give my own 
plan, and what I wish all imrses under my directions to follow; but one thing 
all should rememljer, to make no change from doctors' directions. Doors should 
not be opened that were ordered to be closed, nor windows. All drafts of a 
sudden character should be stiictly avoided — what I think a nurse should do 
and might do without the instructions of a doctor — and this is what I recommend : 
When chill comes on patient should be put to bed and comfortably covered, 
not too hot nor too cold, patient's feelings to be duly consulted in this. If 
patient has eaten only a few minutes before, an emetic of nuistardor ipecac may 
be given, to remove all the undigested svdjstances in the stomach, as well as make 
the patient sweat, and to stoj) the chill. If, however, he has eaten one or two hours 
before, a dose of castor-oil witli a little brandy should be given, and repeated if 
it does not act, to remove all indigestible substances from the intestinal canal, 
which if left might irritate and cause serious gastric congestion, and finally 
prepare the way for the black vomit. If by this time the chill is over, the 



64 



A HISTORY QF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 



patieut is perspiring morlerately, he should l>e left alone. But if there is a diy 
«kin and thirst, he should have warm teas : orange-leaf is perhaps the best, but 
flax-seed is good, sage is good, and even China tea. This should be taken as 
freely as patient wants, but should not be Ibrced upon him. Feet should also be 
put in hot mustard bath, and kept in a sufficient length of time to cause per- 
spiratif)n, and then returned to bed and free from draft, wliich I think is bad at 
any and all stages of the disease. If patient gets too warm or sweats too pro- 
fusely,^ the cover should bo partially moved, and if there is pain in the head, 
the temporal arteries beating, cold cloths should be freely applied, with cither 
nitre or muriate of ammonia in tlie water, or ice, if deemed necessary; but 
tihese should be used Avith caution, and, when once begun, must be continued, 
i use them but seldom, preferring plain cistern water, which may be discon- 
tinued or renewed at the desire of the patient. If patient vomits, no emetics 
should be used ; no hot teas, especially if there be specks of blood in the vomit. 
Mustard plasters should be put to stomach at once, and ice pounded like snow 
used if j)atient desires it, instead of teas. If the vomiting continues or tlie 
stomach becomes sore, then patient should be cupped at once and freely. This 
being done, then for the doctor's prescription. When the fever appears to run 
high, and the pain in the back and head is great, I give the following: 

" R : Hyd. ch. mitis ; 
Quince suli)liati.s; 
Opii et ipecac pulvis: 
(F. charts, No. 4 :) ua grs. sij. 
Sig— One every three hours. 

" This is repeated as long as the fever lasts, lessening the dose or increasing the 
length of the intervals, from three to six hours, according to circumstances. All 
tending to congestions is carefully guarded against, and remedies directed to the 
point; all local pains are at once subdued. These are generally done by mus- 
tard plasters, cups, and blisters. If skin is still hot I give tincture of aconite, 
in ten-drop doses, ever)' two or three hours, sometimes using sweet spirits of 
nitre with aconite. This treatment is continued until the fever subsides and the 
stage of calm comes on, which would be in thirty-six or fifty-six hours after the 
fever rises! If patient is much exhausted and pulse feeble I give brandy toddy, 
as much as patient wants, but will not force it on him ; if there is restlessness I 
give valei-ianate of zinc, in from five- to ten-grain doses, as often as necessary. 
This is better than morphine; but I have used morphine with good results, if 
patient can not sleep. If there is retching or vomiting at this stage, I have used, 
with the best results, the following : 

"R : Brandy, §iv ; 
Creosote, 3j ; 
Morphine, grs. iv : M. 
Sig. — Give tablespoonfiil every three hours, or ac- 
cording to circumstances, in a little water. 

" I generally put a blister over the stomach, which is generally swollen, sore 
and tender to the touch at this stage of the disease. Blister is closely watched 
and cuticle kept on if possible, dressed with glycerine and covered with oil-silk, 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



65 



for they are apt to bleed, and will mcrtify if they are not well attended to. 
Should black vomit come in spite of all our eflbrts to keep it back, I continue 
the brandy and creosote mixture, and alternate with tincture chloride iron, in 
five to thirty drops every two hours, between the brandy or the solution of 
perchloride of iron or tannin. The latter does not corrode. By this treatment 
twenty-three cases of black vomit recovered under my charge, in 1867. I never 
give cpiinine in this stage of calm, or while the fever is off, to a patient with 
yellow fever: just the reverse of intermittent fever. It chills the patient, makes 
the skin very cold, and causes a cold and clammy sweat, very weakening to the 
patient. I allow my patients lemonade, as they want, throughout the disease; 
and this must be closely watched or it Avill produce serious ptyalisni, which 
should be avoided. When only partial it is a good, favorable sign; but if severe, 
will often prove fatal by producing sloughs and hemorrhages. Where the 
kidneys do not act I use freely sweet spirits of nitre, tincture of buchu, or 
spirits of turpentine, in the usual doses. If a stimulant is necessary in this con- 
dition I use gin instead of brandy. Patient should be allowed food whenever 
called for, which should be light and nutritious, such as beef-tea, tea and coifee, 
to suit patient's taste. Black meats, as pigeons, ducks, Guinea chickens, venison, 
etc., in moderation. Patient must be gently fed when fever goes off, if there 
is no bad symptoms, or he will sink and the stomach prey on its own membrane, 
and nausea and vomiting will follow. There is no disease that requires as close 
watching as yellow fever, and none in which judiciously administered medicines 
will do more good. Patient should be watched from the stage of calm, or after 
the fever leaves, until complete reaction is restored, and should not be allowed 
to get out of bed, if possible, using bed-pan on all occasions. They will faint 
easily, and to faint is very dangerous at this stage, as the blood is so fibrinated 
that clots will form in the heart and arteries and patient die from embolism. 
Patient must take no unusual exercise for six weeks, or be exposed to damp or 
wet; must carefully avoid all sudden changes, all mental excitement as well as 
physical. Relapses do not often occur from very trifling causes, and a relapse 
is much worse than the original disease, and must be combated with the same 
remedies, but as a general thing will have to be used in much smaller doses, or 
the patient will sink. I have thus given the plan with which I have treated 
over two thousand cases, with about twenty-five percent, loss, in hospital, taking 
all the cases as they come, and in private practice about ten. In children about 
five per cent. In 1867 I treated fifty-nine cases from the time they took their 
bed until their final recovery, in the hospital (all grown persons — sailors and 
employes), and only lost three — my assistant sui'geon, laundress, and one sailor 
from a revenue cutter. In 1867 I treated forty-tw o children, and did not lose a 
single case (I mean children under twelve years). Three had black vomit." 

Dr. Warren Stone, in his Bellevue Hosjjital lecture, diagnoses the disease 
and prescribes his treatment of the disease as follows : " In the well-marked cases 
there was rigor, pains in the head, back, and limbs, and sometimes a peculiar 
capillary engorgement, particularly in the eye. If the patient is placed in bed 
at once, with a little assistance he breaks into a sweat, as in common intermit- 
tent fever ; this gives some relief, but not much. The pains continue ; but if 



66 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



the case is favorable, it will go on until the sweating and heat subside together 
at the end of three days. The patient must be kept perfectly quiet; and if he 
is then nourished, he will have no return of the suffering. He must not even 
be allowed to raise hi.s head. If he gets up, a faintness comes over him, and 
the whole process is often renewed, with the addition of nausea and loathing 
of food. In this case he almost certainly dies. Tiiis is the history of favorable 
cases. Purgatives are not essential, and many do much harm. A mild dose 
of oil may be given if there is any thing in the stomach likely to ferment and 
prove irritating. A simple injection may prove useful. If patients were seen 
in the beginning, I gave them, as soon as perspiration began, a full dose of 
quinine. There is no doubt of its good effect in quieting pains and promoting 
perspiration. Sometimes a second dose would be advisable the following morn- 
ing. This was all that could be done, beyond reguhiting the drink and nourish- 
ment. There was nothing more to do. There was no organic disease. Nothing 
was revealed by dissection. The poison caused a peculiar condition of the 
blood, which afterwards showed itself in the skin. There were many little 
points in the treatment which, in the aggregate, were of vast importance. In 
regard to the application of ice to relieve the puins in the head, it was common, 
but not advisable, and afforded only temporary relief. The reaction from it 
was dangerous. Cups to the head, stomach, and back were much used at one 
time ; but only in cases of plethora were they of service. Simple applications 
of mustard were generally sufficient to relieve the pain in the back. Absolute 
rest and nourishment were of the highest jaossible importance. Any form of 
stimulant may be given that the patient prefers ; but malt liquors are the best. 
Brandy may often be given, even with the fever. Beef- tea is necessary, and 
if the stomach can not retain it, it must be given by injection. Where there 
is acidity of the stomach, small doses of bicarbonate of soda, combined with 
the one-thirty-second part of a grain of morphia, had often an excellent effect. 
Sponging the patient is grateful and appropriate, but on no occasion must he 
be disturbed by the treatment. There is much in anticipating certain symp- 
toms. If there is a disposition to delirium and Avandering, it may be guarded 
against by mild anodynes and stimulants. If this delirium is allowed to con- 
tinue, the patient becomes comatose, and dies. It must be remembered that 
yellow fever patients are wholly irresponsible, and though they may talk rea- 
sonably, they do not appreciate their own condition. It was exceedingly 
difficult to keep patients quiet in bed ; yet it was the most essential part of the 
treatment. I once saved an intelligent sea captain, during one of the epi- 
demics, by threatening to cut his throat if he dared to stir from a given posi- 
tion in the intervals of my visits. The treatment of yellow fever is simple. 
In old times, people thought because it was a mighty disease it needed mighty 
remedies; and, when I first went to New Orleans, it was customary to give 
sixty-grain doses of calomel, and even more than that; and yet some patients 
even then got well. With rational treatment, a large proportion will recover. 
The chief difficulty lies in preventing the patient fi-om committing fatal actsi 
of indiscretion in the absence of his physician. It should be remembered that 
every thing depends on rest and nutrition, and that nothing can be gained by 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



67 



depletion. It is even better to allow the bowels to remain unmoved for five 
or six days than to run the risk of giving active purgatives." 

Samuel B. Washburne, late a captain of the volunteer navy of the United 
States, furnishes the following method of treatment. He says: "My first 
knowledge of the pestilence was in New Orleans, at the time it prevailed so 
frightfully in 1847. I think that was the year. I was then the first mate of 
the ship Herculean, Captain Isaiah Chase. We went to New Orleans in the 
month of August, to take in a cargo of cotton for Liverpool, and were in port 
for weeks when the fever was at its height, and expecting every day to be 
stricken down. During tliis time I watched the progress and treatment of the 
disease; and Captain Chase and myself determined on the treatment we would 
pursue in case either of us or any of our crew should be attacked. Having, 
after great delay, got our cargo on lioard, with much difficulty we shipped a 
crew. The shipping-agent delivered the men on board one evening, and we 
were immediately taken in tow, and on the next morning we were in the 
Balize. Early in the day symptoms of the fever were developed among the 
crew. Without losing a moment, Captain Chase and myself applied the 
remedies we had agreed upon. The patient was covered all over with thick 
■woolen blankets, and his feet put into a tub of very hot water, well charged 
with mustard. After half an hour, and when in a full perspiration, two men 
with coarse, dry towels gave liim a thorough ruljbing down, until the whole 
body was in a glow, and the circulation in a good state. He was then put to 
bed and covered with blankets. In another half-hour an immense dose of 
castor-oil was administered. The patient was not permitted to leave his bed, 
but was kept very quiet, and limited to a very light and careful diet. No 
other medicine was given except r,n occasional dose of oil. We had four cases, 
and all recovered. In July, 1850, I found myself at Para, under the equator, 
in command of the ship Edward Henry. The yellow fever was then raging 
there with a malignity and fatality almost without a parallel. All business 
was suspended for more than two months, and the death rate was fearful, 
particularly among the shipping. There were many vessels in port that lost 
every man on hoard, officers and crew. Every single man on my ship was 
attacked. I was fully prepared, and had determined to apply the same treat- 
ment as on the Herculean. The American consul advised me, in the event of 
the fever breaking out, to send my men to the hospital on shore ; but I declined, 
preferring to treat them myself. It was well I did so, for scarcely a sailor 
who went to the hospital ever came out alive. As soon as a man showed the 
least symptoms of the fever, I put him through the same course of treatment 
as I have stated, and every man recovered. As for myself, I happily escaped 
the fever both in New Orleans and Para, but had an attack of it at Brashear 
City, Louisiana, in the summer of 1863, when in command of the United 
States iron-clad steamer Nyanza. My attack was a liglit one, and yielded 
readily to the remedies I had so successfully applied to others." 

Two contrasting cases are those offered by Dr. George W. Moore, of the 
Hernando Road, near Memphis, and Dr. E. J. Pitts, of Shreveport, La. 
Tiie latter gives his personal experience of the ice treatment. He cays: "In 



68 



A HISTORY OF THE TEI.LOW FEVER. 



Navisota, Texas, in the fall of 1867, I ^vas attacked about midiiiglit, but did 
not call a physician (Dr. Jones) until next morning, and he pronounced it yellow 
fever of the most malignant type, as did all other physicians whom he con- 
sulted. I was given a most active i3urgative, of which I think the principal 
ino-redient was calomel, and took quiuiue during the day in great quantities; 
but my fever did not abate in the least, but rather grew wor-^e. The next day 
I was so reckless of life tiuit I resolved to try an experiment to kill or cure; 
my main object was to relieve myself of pain. So I hired the waiter to bring 
a tub of cold water m my room and put sufficient ice in it to make it almost 
in the freezing state. I drank often of ice-water, though little at a time, and 
swallowed pounded ice in lumps ahnost as large' as my thumb; this threw the 
heat on the outward surface. I then wet my head and neck, and gradually 
got in the tub of ice-water and bathed my whole body freely for five or ten 
minutes, until I felt un})leasantly cold, and then immediately got in bed and 
wrapped up- warmly, and soon got in a profuse perspiration, and i'ell into a 
pleasant slumber which lasted four or five hours. When I aw'oke I was entirely 
free from fever and from all pain, and was entirely Avell in a few days." 

Dr. Moore's treatment is of another extreme, and is thoroughly heroic. He 
says: "I may premise by stating that I have a long experience in a disease 
known to the profession as 'malarial htematuria' or 'swamp fever.' It has 
prevailed extensively in the jNIississippi swamps. The treatment which I jiur- 
sue has been successful in every case, no matter how malignant. Now, as I 
consider malarial htematuria nothing more than a bastard form, or rather the 
twin-sister of yellow fever, I have adopted the same course of treatment in the 
present epidemic; and I am happy to add, that in every case, no matter how- 
malignant, my cases have got well when called before the death symptoms (of 
black vomit or suppression of urine) have supervened. Now- for a slight synopsis 
of the treatment I pursue. If called early in the disease, I give calomel ten 
grains, with one-half grain of ipecac; in four to six hours I scour out the 
bowels with oil and terpentine; on the first decline of fever I give from three 
to five grains of quinine every two hours until twenty or thirty grains are 
taken : sometimes combine a small portion of Dover's powders to allay nerv- 
ousness and restlessness. From the beginning I order hot foot-baths, with 
23louty of mustard, also large mush and mustard poultices over the bowels. I 
also use a saturated solution of the chloral of potassa all through the disease to 
act on the secretions. As a nourishment T use beef-tea or chicken-w-ater." 

Two other and equally remarkable contrasts in treatment are furnished, the 
one by Mrs. Jane G. Swisshelm — who recommends hot water compresses and 
jiacks, with homeopathic medicines for internal treatment — the other Dr. S. Alex- 
ander, of Clinton, Miss., w-hieh is almost as heroic as Dr. Moore's, though w-ith 
different (root) remedies. He says: "The treatment should be varied accord- 
ing to present indications, but always cleansing, stimulating, and sustaining. 
If you find your patient in the fiist stage with the chill upon him, give him 
strong, stimulating teas, as good composition or bayberry, African and w-ild 
ginger, equal parts-; or ginger and bayberry in sage tea ; or sage, or catnip, 
bayberry and cayenne ; or bavberry, boneset, and ginger. If a free use of any 

f 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



69 



of the preceding teas should have a tendency to produce vomiting, give a tea- 
spoonfal or more of lobelia-powder in a cuj) of the tea, to make him to do it 
Mell and thoroughh', and prevent that congestion -which makes him vomit too 
nuieli. Nine cases out of ten should be vomited at once to cleaase the stomach. 
Much attention should be paid to the surface. It should be thoroughly cleansed 
either by the vapor bath, the warm bath, or warm water and soap (the first is 
the best), and if hot, dashed with cool alkaline water after it; if cool, rubbed 
with a liniment made of a tablespoonful of caj'cnne in half a pint of good 
cider vinegar. While chill or fever is on, the thirst can be allayed by acidu- 
lated drinks, as with vinegar, lemonade, sunuichberries, simple gi'ape-juiee, 
apple-water, etc. Good tonic bitters should be freel}' given after the system is 
thoroughly cleansed and the fever is off — not before. If the bowels are inactive; 
give enemas of a tea of etjual piarts of cayenne, lobelia, and slippery elm. ; If: 
they are too loose give one of these, and follow its action with one of .bayberrv 
for some other good astringent) and ginger and cayenne. Remember to bring 
the action to the surface as soon as you can, and maintain it there in a gentle 
softness of the skin, not profuse persjiii'ation, which would prostrate, but just a 
comfortable freedom from heat and dryness. As soon as the stomach is 
cleansed and the action of the surface is restored, give enough of the following 
to move the liver and the bowels gently: sny, one grain of the extract of man- 
drake, two grains of the extract of black root, and five gi-ains of rhubarb.. 
Should tliis dose fail to act in fi'om six to eight hours, use the best Alexandria 
senna, in small do^es, until the object is accomplished. Before and after the 
action of the medicine give a wine-glass of Virginia snake-root tea, with sage 
or pepper tea as a sudorific. The stomach cleansed, the action of the surface 
being restored, the liver and bowels being relieved, all that is wanting to com- 
plete the cure is good nursing, close attention, a judicious repetition of the same 
means as the exigencies of the case may demand. Convalescence of this dis- 
ease requires to be watched with peculiar care." 

Dr. Masderville, physician to Charles IV, publi-shed in New Orleans, in a 
work dedicated to the Governor Baron de (Jarondelet, in 1796, the following a:? 
a safe treatment: "An antimonial mixture, in viper water ; five ounces of 
emetic wine; one ounce of cream of tartar; a tcaspoonful for a dose. After 
the fifth day give an eleetuar}^ of salt of wormwood, tartar emetic, and Peru- 
vian bark, in divided doses." The third and last remedy (lavement), called 
the blessed laxative, was composed of antimonial wine-water, honey, and oil. 
He i-ejected cordials, blisters, and blood-letting. He considered life as residing 
in the blood, as declared by Moses (Leviticus xvii, 14), and denounces venesec- 
tion as dangerous for tliat reason, as life and health depend u])on it. He main- 
tains that his method is a true specific against all tlie fevers of S[)ain and 
America, as he knew from an experience of twenty years. His most Catholic 
Majesty commanded the Spanish physicians to follow his prescription and to 
prescribe nothing else. He blamed the physicians of Havana for not having, 
adopted this " blessed" method of treatment. 

Dr. Mitchell, of New York, who was born in 1763, and died in 1831, Dow- 
ler says, learned alike in jihysic, physics, and politics, influential at home and 



70 



A HISTORY OF THE YKF.I.OW Jb'KVKR. 



abroad, exercised at the beginning of the present century an influence over the 
l)ublic mind rivaling that of Dr. Rush. This great New York professor and 
M'jmber of Congress claimed to have discovered tlie demon of all epidemics, p-ir- 
ticularly that of yellow fever, called by him Septon, that reigned by virtue of the 
principle of Acidity in the earth, air, and water, causing corruption everywhere ; 
v.'hereiipon, lie inaugurated Alcalinity into power with a scrub broom in one 
hand and a bucket of lime-water or soap suds in the other, by which only 
" Grim Septon" could be conquered. Dr. Mitchell moved, in Congress, the ap- 
pointment of a committee with tlie view of reporting on the purification of 
sliips by alkalies in order to destroy this pestilential Septon. The Secretary of 
tlie Navy adopted the theory, or at least the practice, Avhich latter he ordered to 
be carried into effect. Books, pamphlets, and letters soon appeared against 
Septon and for Alcalies. The next year an article appeared in the Medical Re- 
pository, having the title following: "Dr. Chalmers on the Acidity of the At- 
mosphere of South Carolina." The fading of goods, the rusting of metals, and 
other effects of atmospheric acidity were gravely announced as indubitable 
proofs of this theory. Dr. Hosack and many others adopted Dr. Mitchell's 
theory of Septic acid as being the cause, and alkalies as the preventive' of yel- 
low fever. Lime-water and the like Avere reckoned to be vastly important in 
neutralizing the Septic acid, which was considered very corrosive, particularly 
after black vomit appeared. Dr. Cathrall, of Philadelphia, read a paper before 
the American Philosophical Society on the analysis of black vomit, in wliich 
he asserted that there was an acid in this liquid which was inert to the taste and 
smell, and harmless when swallowed. 

In their report to Congress, the Homeopathic Yellow Fever Commission of 1878 
.state that, in their treatment for yellow fever they did not have recourse to any of 
the allopathic remedies. Some acknowledged the occasional use of an anodyne 
to produce sleep in cases of extreme wakefulness or restlessness. Some gave a 
little carbonate of soda for sick stomach, or sulphurcarbolate of soda for black 
vomiting, or frictions or enemata of quinine in collapse. One supplied a blis- 
ter or two, a kind of coarse, external iionieopatby ! another gave watermelon- 
«eed tea for suppression of urine. Foot-baths, sponging, enemas, warm and 
■cold applications, frictions, stimulants, regulations of diet and of covering, of 
tlie temperature of the sick room, and ventilation of the same, were resorted to. 
"The great therapeutic question of the first stage," they say, "is how to re- 
•duce the extreme high temperature, which, if long continued, will inevitably 
"destroy the integrity of the blood and arrest the processes of nutrition in the 
molecules of every organ of the body. The homeopathic physician would take 
Aconite, the great homeopathic antiphlogistic, and giving it in very small doses 
frejuenthj repeated, would equalize the circulation, quiet the nervous system, and 
reduce the temperature in a gradual and satisfactory manner, without the pos- 
sibility of doing the least harm. Leaving nature all her strength and her re- 
:sourc2s unimpaired, he would do the greatest amount of good practicable under 
the circumstances of each case. The whole secret consisted in selecting the 
Temedy according to the homeopathic law, and in using it in very small doses 
'frequently repeated. The last fact we can best illustrate by saying that water 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



71 



dropped, drop by drop, upon a stone, will make more impression upon it than 
a thousand times the quantity dashed against it at once. The liomeopatliic 
pliysieian has more genuinely homeopathic remedies for the second stage than 
for the first, among them the giants arsenic, crotalus, and carbo vegetabilis. 
Here, too, he gives smaller doses, and with still better effect. He has more re- 
coveries af.er black vomit. He checks hemorrhages without the use of thiit 
relic of su 'gical barbarism, the actual cauter}^ which was actually used upon a 
little child in New Orleans last summer. He restores the secretion of urine 
without diuretics. He rouses liis patient from a deeper collapse, and saves him 
from the most desperate condition. The action of homeopathic remedies in the 
second stage of yellow fever frerpiently reminds us of their similar etficiency in 
tlie collapsed stage of Asiatic cholera." 

The homeopathic coinmissiini quote, as an endorsement which they .seem 
to lay particular stress up ni, the treatment followed by Dr. Charles Belot, of 
Havana, Cuba, who has passed through eighteen epidemics, and has treated 
about a thousand patients annually. That gentleman says: "One very good 
auxiliary, wdiich should never be neglected in resisting local congestion, and 
to diminish the phisticlty of the blood, is the tincture of aconite. This remedy, 
given in doses of six droi)s in twelve ounces of water, administered by spoonfuls 
every hour, has a truly mngical power. The pulse becomes softer, and its fre- 
quency diminishes, whilst the heat of tbe skin subsides as perspiration is estab- 
lished. It should never be neglected in the first or congestive period." Dr. Belot 
has also discovered that arsenic, pronounced by the concurrent voice of all our 
physicians to be the best remedy in the second stage, is, in reality, a magnificent 
remedy in the malignant cases of yellow fever. Hear him again: "Towards 
the end of the second period, when the vomiting c!in not be arrested, when the 
patient has continual nausea, when the vomit contains bile or mucosities, filled 
with blackish or .sanguinoleat streaks, there is no better remedy than arsenic. 
Prescribed under fitting circumstances, arsenic often brings unhoped-for ame- 
lioration. As for arsenic, whilst it may be difficult to appreciate its action in 
theory, its happy infiuence in this case is as certain as that of sulphate of 
quinine in intermittent diseases." 

The Rev. C. K. Marshall, of Vicksburg, a gentleman who enjoys the confi- 
dence of all who know him ; who has always been held in the highest esteem 
by his fellow-citizens of Mississippi, and who has had a life-time experience with 
yellow fever, warmly endorses the homeopathic treatment, and predicts its 
triumph over all others in the future He says, writing in 1878: " The result 
of my observation is, that no treatment yet compares with the homeopathic. I 
will give some fact?: One lady here has treated from fifty to seventy cases 
without the loss of one. Slie is a brave, woinanly woman, who had never had 
the fever, and went among her neig'nbors, colored and white, because physicians 
could not be had, until stricken down herself, and iier husband also. But they 
were treated by the same method, and recovered. I know several other ladies 
of clear heads, cool and calm spirits, who have done the same thing, only not 
to the same extent, but with success. Our regular homeopathic physicians were 
both originally allopaths. They both are quite advanced in years, but somehow 



72 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



have not faltered on account of years, though one of tliem fell sick of the fever; 
but he is all right again. They have been most laborious; and probably no 
two physicians have seen as many i>atients or lost as few, for no remedies can 
save all. One of these physicians had three sons, young men, away in busi- 
ness in places where the fever: had not jdantad its black banner. He sent 
for them, one at a time, to come home and be sick, have the fever, and pre- 
jiare for more useful lives as physicians. They came, and he has got all through 
but one, and he is waiting, as confident his father will bring him through as 
he is of his name. Indeed, I could fill pages with interesting facts about this 
treatment. But it will be treated with respect hereafter; and why not ? The 
allopathic physicians have each a method of cure. Of forty together, it is 
doubtful if five practice alike. The populace see this. Dr. Chopin, of gi-eat 
and just celebrity, says to the physicians of New Orleans: 'Experiment! ex- 
periment!' The people have seen, what they call by pretty hard names, the 
sacrifice of valuable lives by these dreadful ' experiments.' Is it to be wondered 
at that they are trying experiments with the ' little sugar pellets that amount 
to nothing? ' The system makes converts here daily." 

It was remarked by Dr. Dowell, and other well known medical experts, who 
practiced in Memphis in 1878, that the yellow fever of that year was peculiarly 
virulent and violent, and particularly fatal. Most of the methods of treat- 
ment given in this chapter were resorted to, and often with gratifying results. 
Others not here reported, which wei'e of a thoroughly heroic character, were in 
some cases remarkably successful. But generally, the treatment set forth by 
Dr. Mitchell was that resorted to, and which proved most satisfactory in its 
results and most successful. ■ In New Orleans, also, experience forced the con- 
viction that the vi sitation which last year afflicted so large a scope of country 
was not only wholly unparalleled, but phenomenal. The veteran of half a dozen 
epidemics did not pretend to disguise his amazement. " The disease," the New 
Orleans Times reported, " admitted the bewilderedvdisciple of Esculapius into 
entirely new realms. Tenets which in that region had been articles of faith 
for more than half a century, suddenly collapsed and vanished into thin air. 
No sooner did the astonished believer in the immunity cf all who were 'to the 
manner born' find himself confounded by the death of half a score cf native 
patients, than he is met with the new heresy — judicious nourishment is not a 
death warrant. From a time when the memory of man runneth not to the con- 
trary, it had been an axiom in this city, that an era of convalescence is an era 
of starvation. Bronzo John invariably came in the orthodox way; light fever, 
gradual delirium, a sharp tussel, slow convalescence, and almost total abstenu- 
ousness. The convalescents of 1853 went for three months without daring to 
eat a full meal. ' Miintenant nous avons change tout cela.' There were patients 
of the epidemic of 1878, on the contrary, who ate the leg of a broiled spring 
chicken forty-eight hours after the fever made his conge. The jJopular belief 
in blankets seemed to be completely extinguished. Light covering, often a 
single sheet, and perfect ventilation, appeared to be the triumphal path towards 
rapid recovery and wholesome recuperation. The reasons eet forth for this 
phenomena are thus set forth by a physician : 'I,' he says, ' can divide my 



A HISTORY OF THE YET>LOW FEVEPw 



73 



cases into two general classes — wet and dry. All are different, l)nt tliis subdi- 
vision sejiarates them sufficiently to be clearly understood. A s'ck person with 
a moist skin yields readily to the ordinary treatment, and can be j)urged and 
quiniiied to one's heart's content; but the dry skin and liot fever is a dangerous 
subject, and a physician is justified in adopting any method that will take him 
out of that dilemma. Slieets dipped in h(jt water, fanning, constant sponging, 
if they will diminish temperature, should be resorted to; but, very naturally, 
each individual requires special treatment, and tliat is the only general rule.' An- 
other successful practitioner gave light nourishment, even at the risk of slightly 
increasing the temperature, insisting that the jiatient should be sustained to 
withstand a fearful drain up:)n the vitality. There were many physicians who 
clung to the ancient methods, insisting upon low diet with as much tenacity as 
thej' did thirty years ago. Many of these were successful, Init all conceded 
that the disease which afflicted the Soutli in 1878 was extiemely dangerous in 
type, peculiar in character, and, in short, wholly different from the yellow fever 
as heretofore experienced and known." There is not a word of this that tliose 
■who have ex})erienced the fever, or who have hiul experience in yellow fever 
epidemics, will not endorse, and with it the following very positive utterances 
of Di". dhojiin, as to remedies : " We liioiv of iioiJiiiif/ in, ilie vaij of remedies ifJiieli 
.ii'tll dicck the dmase. I know of mne. Eveiy kind of trentment meets with 
about equal sncce.'^s, or the results vary very little. Of course, common sense 
in the ajiplication of the treatment will do more than cnuld be obtained without 
its exhibition. Yet we are at a los.t to know how to eheck the mvuges of the fever 
when it attacks the human liody." 



CHRONOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER. 



(75) 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 



77 



CHRONOLOGY OF YELLOW FEVER. 



The visitations of yellow fever to this and other countries, whether epidemic 
or not, so far as any record of them has been preserved, follow in regular 
sequence, its origin, causes, methods and means of jjropagation and of trans- 
mission, diagnosis, and cure. It has never made its appearance in Asia nor in 
Australia ; nor in any of the Islands of the Pacific Ocean ; and it has only 
been felt sporadically on the Pacific coast of North and South America. In 
Eui'ope it has invaded Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, and England. In South 
America it has prevailed in British Guiana, Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, Buenos 
Ayres, and the Brazils. In North America it has invaded Honduras, Mexico, 
all the West India Islands, Canada, and the following States of the Union: 
Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Connecticut, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New Yoik, Delaware, Maryland, Illinois, Indiana, 
Missouri, Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Ai-kansas, Louisiana, 
Florida, Texas; also the Indian Territory. It is said to have originated in 
Africa ; but of this we know nothing. Except the reference to Hertado, by 
Dowell, we have not a word with which to hinge that continent to the scourge. 
We have no data of its ravages on the " dark continent," no record of its visit- 
ations. So far as these have been preserved, they are confined to Europe, to 
North and South America, and to the West India Islands, as will be seen from 
the following chronological statement: 

1596 to 1C99. 

The first authentic record we have of the appearance of the yellow fever is 
that which occurred in Central America in 1.596. Subsequently we hear of it in 
New England among the Indians in 1618. After that in the Island of St. Lucia 
in 1664, where it killed over 1,411 out of a population of 1,500 soldiers, being in 
the ratio of 1 in 1.06 of the whole number. We next hear of it in the same 
place in 1665, when, out of 500 sailors, 200 died, being 1 in 2.5; and again in 
1666, when every man, wonum, and child of 5,000 died. New York, in 1668, 
"Was visited by it for the first time ; Boston in 1691 , and again in 1693. Philadel- 
phia was visited, for the first time, in 1695. In 1699 it again visited that city, 
the mortality being given as 220, which no doubt was very heavy, as the inhabi- 
tants were but few in numbers, the place being then only seventeen years old, 



78 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEB. 



having been laid out by William Penn in 1682. Charleston, S. C, was also 
visited for the first time this year, but what the mortality was we have no means 
of knowing. 

1702 4o 1799. 

1702. —The yellow fever broke out in New York and raged with great fury 
until the thirtieth of September, the mortality reaching 570. It also appeared 
at Biloxi, Miss., in that year, which was its first visitation on the Gulf coast. 

1705. — Mobile, and at the same time in Cadiz, Spain — its first appearance in 
Europe. 

1728.— Charleston, S. C. 

1731. — Cadiz again suflfered. 

1732. — Charleston, S. C. In this year it commenced in May and continued 
until October, a period of nearly four months, some weeks beyond the limit it 
usually takes — ninety days. 

' 1733.— Cadiz. 

1734. — ^Cadiz ; also in St. Domingo, where the mortality Avas as high as 1 
in 5 of the population, and 1 in 2 of the number of cases. Charleston 
also suffered in that year. 

1739.— Charleston, S. C. 

1741. — Philadelphia suffered a loss of 250. New York was also visited in 
that year; and the village of HoUiston, Middlesex County, Mass., twenty-five 
miles from Boston, suffered a loss of 15 souls. 

1742. — ^New York and Philadelphia were both visited. 

1743. — New York and Philadeljihia again visited, the former losing 217 per- 
sons. New Haven, Conn., had this year its first visitation, and Catskill on tho 
Hudson River. 

1744. — It appeared almost simultaneously in Philadelphia and Cadiz. 

1745. — Charleston, S. C, New York, and Stamford, Conn., were invaded. 

1746. — Albany, N. Y., commencing in August. 

1747. — New York and Philadelphia; also Norfolk, Va., for the first time. 

1748. — New York and Charleston again, the latter after an interregnum of 
two years. 

1753.— Charleston, S. C. 
1755.— Charleston, S. C. 

1761. — Charleston, S. C. 

1762. — New York, Charleston, and Philadelphia. In the latter city it began 
in August and continued until November. 

1763. — Nantucket Island, Mass., lost 259 persons by it, which must have 
been a very severe mortality. 

1764. — Pensacola, Fla. , received its first visitation. Cadiz also received a call. 

1765. — It broke out afresh in Pensacola, Fla., and carried off 125 persons. 
Mobile also suffered from it during that year. 

1766. — Mobile again. 

1768. — Charleston. 

1769. — New Orleans. 

1770. — Charleston. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



79 



1790. — Xew Yoi'k, comniciiciug in August and ending October loth. 

1791. — New York, New Orleans, and Philadelphia. 

1792. — Charle.^ton and New Yoik. 

1793. — In New Grenada it appeared among the sailors, the proportion of 
death.? to ca.ses amounting to 1 in 3 of .sailors; soldiers and white inlialv 
itants, to 1 in 5 ; and of a total of l,13t) of the soldiers alone, 630 dieil, 
Ijeing in proportion to population 1 in 1.8. It also visited New York, New 
Orleans, Southwark, and Kensington, both the latter in Philadelphia County, 
Pa.; also the city of Philadelphia, commencing there in the month of 
August and ending in December, the deaths footing up the fearful total of 
4,041 ; the ratio of mortality being 1 in 10 of the population. 

1794. — It occupied a wide extent of territory — Catskill, N. Y., New York 
City, New Haven, Conn., Providence, R. I. Philadeli)hia, Norfolk, Va., 
Charleston, S. C, New Orleans, and Baltimore. The same year it prevailed in 
Havana, Cuba, where the mortality in proportion to numbers was 1 in 1.1 on 
some ships, and 1 in 1.1 in jM-oportion to the whole number of cases. It also 
this year (1794) attacked Sir Ch. Grey's Army, in the Windward and Leeward 
Islands, and of an estimated 2)opulation of 12,000, there was a mortality of 
6,012— being 1 in 2. » 

1795. — It appeared for tlie first time in AVest Neck, Suffolk County, N. 
Y., and in New Oileans, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Norfolk, Va. , and 
New York. In the latter city there was a mortality of 730. In Hunt- 
ington, Suffolk County, on Huntington Bay, N. Y., the di.sease also ajipeared, 
and at Bristol, R. I., on Narragansett Bay; also at Providence, R. I. 

1796. — It appeared for the first time in Chatham, Middlesex Co., Conn., 
commencing in August, and resulting in a mortality of 9. New Orleans 
also suffered that year, Dowler says, for the first time. New burj'port, Mass. , 
■was also visited this year for the first time ; and Boston, Ma.«s., commencing in 
August; also New York, and Gallipolis, Ohio, on the Ohio River, where half 
the garrison and many of the French settlers died in ten days. It also 
appeared in Philadelphia, Bristol, R. I., Charleston, S. C, Norfolk, Va., 
Wilmington, N. C, and St. Nicholas in the Island of San Domingo, where 
the mortality is .set down as 1 in 2; also the Island of Guadaloupe, where, 
out of a population estimated at 20,000, there was a mortality of 13,807, being 
a proportion to population of 1 in 1.47. In the same island (in 1796), out of 
367 artillerymen there was a death-list of 129, being a proportion to population 
of 1 in 2.8. It also prevailed in New Grenada that year. 

1797. — It prevailed in New Orleans and Baltimore, commencing in August 
and ending in Noveml)er; also in New Design, St. Louis Co., twenty miles 
below St. Louis, Mo., where 57 deaths resulted, being more than one- 
fourth of the inhabitants. In New York, Charleston, S. C, and Philadelphia, 
commencing August 1st and ending October 15th, Avith a mortality of 1,300 — 
1 in 50 of the entire population. In Norfolk, Va., Bristol, R. I., and 
Providence, R. I., commencing at this last mentioned point August 13th, and 
ending the same month, with a mortality of 45. 

1798. — It prevailed in Hartford, Conn., New London, Conn., on Thames 

6 



80 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEYER. 



River, three miles from the ocean, commencing August 26th and ending 
Xoveniber, ■with a mortality of 81. Also in Norwalk, Conn., Stonington, 
Conn., on Long Island Sound; N^ew Castle and Wilmington, Del. The 
last-mentioned place suffered a loss of 255 persons. Baltimore also lost 200 
persons. Boston and Salem, Mass., -were visited; also Portsmouth, N. H., 
three miles from the ocean, commencing in August and ending in October, 
inortality, 100. It swept Burlington, N. J., twenty miles from Delaware Bay; 
also Port Elizabeth, N. J., commencing August 9th and ending in September, 
Avith a mortality of 6. Woodbury, N. J., Albany, N. Y., Greenfield, Sara- 
toga Co., N. Y., far inland, Huntington, N. Y., New York City, com- 
mencing in August and ending in November, the mortality being 2,080. 
Chester, Pa., on Delaware River, mortality 50. Marcus Hook, Pa., on 
Delaware River, Philadelphia, Pa., commencing August 1st and ending 
November 1st, with a mortality of 3,500, being 1 in 15.50 of the entire popu- 
lation. Westerly, R. I., on Pawcatuck River, Charleston, S. C, Norfolk, Va.; 
Petersburg, on Appomattox River, also City Point, on James River, Ya., 
both for the first time; also the Island of St. Domingo, where, out of a popula- 
tion of 25,000 soldiers, the mortality in proportion to population was -1 in 1.14. 

1799. — New Orleans, Baltimore, New York, commencing in July and 
ending in November, mortality 76. New Berne, N. C, on the Meuse 
River, for the first time. Bald Eagle Valley, in tlie center of Pennsylvania, 
Nittany, Centre Co., Pa., far inland, Philadelphia, commencing in July and 
ending in November, with a mortality of 1,000; the Island of Guadaloupe. 
Charleston suffered a mortality of 239. Norfolk, Va. , was also visited. This 
year, on the ship Delaware, where the number of cases reached 40, there was 
n mortality of 20, being a proportion of 1 in 2. 

1800 to 1879. 

1800. — This year the yellow fever appeared in Hartford, Conn., New Orleans, 
Baltimore, Boston, New Bedford (on Buzzard Bay), Mass., New York, com- 
mencing in September and ending October 14th. The mortality in the ]\Iarine 
Hospital in that city Avas 21. Washington, N. C, on Tar River, Philadelphia, 
Pa., Providence, R. I., where 134 died; Charleston, S. C, which sufiered a mor- 
tality of 184; Norfolk, Va., commencing July 26th, ending October 30th, mor- 
tality 250; Wilmington, N. C, Vera Cruz. In Cadiz, out of a population of 
71,491, 57,499 remained in the city. The number of cases was 48,520, the mor- 
tality 7,387, being in proportion to the entire population 1 in 9.56, and to popu- 
lation remaining 1 in 7.67. The deaths, in proportion to cases, were 1 in 6.42. 
In the Cadiz Hospital, the proportion of deaths to cases was 1 in 2. At 
Zeres, Spain, witli a population of 33,000, the number of cases aggregated 
30,000, mortality 12,000 to 13,000, being in proportion to population 1 in 
2.54, and to cases 1 in 2.5, or 1 in 3. At Puerto Santa Maria, counting 
a population of 20,000, the mortality was 400, being 1 in 50. At San 
Lucas, with a population of 18,000, the mortality was 3,000 — 1 in 6. 
At Ecija, containing 40,000 inhabitants, the number of cases was 400, mor- 
tality 100 — 1 in 4. At Seville, with a population of 80,568, the number 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



81 



of cases is recorded at the extraordinar}^ figure of 76,488, the nioi-talit}- bein^,' 
14,685; in proportion to population, 1 in 5.5, in iiroportiou to cases, 1 in 5.21. 
At the General Hospital, in the same city, the number of cases was 2,365, 
mortality 1,556, l)eing 1 in 1.45. At Santa Caridad ((Seville) the number of 
cases was 81, mortality 44, proportion 1 in 2. In Havana, 9,977 perished 
from yellow fever. 

1801. — IS^ew Orleans, Baltimore, and New Bedford, INIass., ucre visited; 
al.so New Yoi'k, commencing Scptendicr and ending Octol)or; moi'tality, 16. 
One hundred and forty died, in October, at Queensborough, Orange Co., N. Y. 
Philadelphia, Pa. (sporadic). Black Island, R. I., on Long Island Sound, some 
continuing for nearly six months, commencing in June and endir.g in Decem- 
ber. Norfolk, Va. At Seville, number of cases 1,100, of which 66)0 resulted 
fatally, being a proportion of 1 in 1.75. Savannah, Norwich, Couu., Charles- 
ton; Havana, population within and without the walls 95,000, mortality 2,366. 
Vera Cruz, Jamaica, St. Domingo, Medina, Sedonia (S^min). At Leghorn, 
Italy, 150 died daily for several months. 

1803.— P(jrtsniouth, N. H., deaths, 10; A7ilmington, Del., mortality 86; 
New Orleans, Baltimore, Boston, mortality 60; New York, mortality (at Marine 
Hospital) 2; Philadelphia, mortality 307; Charleston, S. C, mortality 96 — 
more than half the attacked recovered; Norfolk, Va.; St. Domingo, population 
40,000 (principally soldiers), estimated number of cases, 27,000, mortality 
20,000; proportion, 1 in 2, proportion to cases, 1 in 1.33, 1 in 1.2; Martinique, 
population, 11,085 (principally soldier.s), estimated number of cases, 8,673, 
mortality, 2,891; proportion to population, 1 in 3.8; proportion to cases, 1 in 3; 
Guadaloupe (1802), 7; population, 16,363, mortality 5,057; proportion to 
population, 1 in 3.2. INIortality (in 1802) in West Indies, among French troops, 
57 per cent. Vera Cruz, 428 cases admitted into the Hospital of St. Sebas- 
tian, of which nundier 60 died; in the city 1,500 died of fever. 

1803. — Alexandria, Va., commencing August 1st, mortality 200; New 
Haven, Conn., New York, commencing July 18th and ending in October, 
mortality 6,700; Lisburn, Pa., nine miles from Harrisburg, commencing in 
August; Philadelphia, mortality 195; Charleston, S. C, 200 to 300 deaths; 
Winchester, Va., Norfolk, Va., Catskill, N. Y., commencing August lOtli and 
ending September 28th, mortality 8. Martinique, last six months of 1803 and 
first six months of 1804,* nundier of cases, 2,462, mortality 546; propoi-ti(Mi to 
cases, 1 in 4.5; Guadaloupe, 3,500 troops, mortality 2,700; proportion to 
population, 1 in 1.3. Out of 3,700 population 2,900 died. Vera Cruz 
(hospital), population 16,000 to 17,000; number of cases 428, mortality 69; 
proportion to popvdation, 1 in 2.40, proportion to cases, 1 in 6.2; total mor- 
tality, 1,310. Mortality in West Indies (in 1803) among French troops was 
3.5.7 percent. At Malaga, 48,015 inhabitants remaining out of 51,745, 16,517 
eases resulted, of which 6,884 proved fatal, being 1 in 4.1 of remaining popu- 
lation, and 1 in 2.4 of cases. Some accounts say that 12,000 to 13,000 died. 
At Barcelona, of 73 cases 30 died, beins: 1 in 2.43. In Havana 4,766 died. 



* This is the most extraordinary t>f all .the extraordinary freaks of this terrible disease. 



82 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



1801. — At Cadiz the number of cases is stated to have been 5,000, and the mor- 
tality from 2,000 to 2,800, being about 1 in 2. At Ecija the mortality was 
3,802, being in proportion to population 1 in 10. At Carthagena, with a pop- 
ulation of 33,222, the mortality amounted to 11,445; other accounts say 
14,940. At Malaga, out of a population ren.aiuing hi the city of £6,054, 
11,464 died, being 1 in 1.67. Other accounts say, out of a population of 
110,000 only 7,000 escaped — 26,000 dying in four weeks. At Alicant, 
population 13,000, number of cases, 9,000; the mortality was 2,471, being 
1 in 3.64 of number of cases. Tlic pojndation of Spain diminished one 
viilUon; the ojjUcial repmi of deaths from yellow fever amounted to 124,000 /or 
the year."^- At Gibraltar, the population being estimated at 10,000, the 
mortality reached 5,946, being a proportion of 1 in 2. At the hospital in 
Gibraltar, out of 2,754 cases 894 proA-ed fatal, being 1 in 3.1; other accounts 
say, out of a population of 15.000 nearty 2 out of 5 fell victims. At Leghorn 
48,000 inhabitants out of 60,000 remaining in the city, there was a mortality 
of 655. In the hospital (same city) number of ca^es, 164; 56 died, being 1 and 
3. In Spain (during 1804) not less than twenty-five cities and towns were visited 
by the fever, the population of which amounted to 427,228, of which 52,559, 
or 1 in 8.12 perished. In some places, the number of persons affected 
amounted to 1 in 2.78 of the population, the extreme being 1 in 1.18 and 1 in 
5. In twenty-one, the average proportion of deaths to the number afflicted was 
1 in 3,087, the extreme being 1 in 1.3 and 1 in 6.42, while tAvo hospitals gave a 
mortality of 1 in 2.15 of the number admitted, with extremes of 1 in 11 and 
1 in 2.82. New Haven, Conn., New Orleans, West Point, N. Y., Charles- 
ton, S. C, Norfolk, Va., Winchester, Va., tAventy miles from the Blue Eidge 
Mountains, during the month of July. Hie mortality in the West Indies, 
among the French troops, was 29.3 per cent. 

1805. — New Haven, Conn., Baltimore, Boston, Gloucester City, N. J., on 
Delaware River, New York, commencing in June and ending in October, 
mortality 340 (302). Quebec, near the 47th parallel of north latitude, more 
than 300 feet above tide- water, Avas for the first and last xime invaded by the 
fever in the middle of August; but September setting in very cold, the disease 
was not of long duration, though it Avas nearly as scA'ere as that of the West 
Indies in malignity, especially among the troops. Of one company of 55, belong- 
ing to an English regiment, all perished except six. In Barbadoes, of 278 soldiers 
recently arrived from England, 70 died in 23 days. Chester Co., Pa., on Del- 
aAvare River, Philadelphia, mortality 3,400. Westerly, R. I., on Pawcatuck 
River, Charleston, S. C, Norfolk, Va. Mortality in the West Indies, among 
French troops, 40.4 per cent. Providence, R. I., commencing July 19th 
ending August, 30 cases, 10 deaths. In Havana, 85 out of 100 American 
seamen died. 

1806. — New York, commencing in June, ending in November. No mortal- 
ity reported in Marine Hospital. NeAvport, R. I., Richmond, Va. 

1807. — St. Augustine, Fla., on Matanzas Sound, 2 miles from the sea; Sa- 



*The heaviest mortality from yellow fever on record. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



83 



vannah, Ga. New York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 3 (20 cases in all). 
Philadelphia, mortality 3. Charleston, S. C, mortality 162. 

1808. — Savanuah, Ga. New York, mortality (at Maiine Hospital) 1. Saint 
Mary's, Ga., nine miles from the sea, commencing September 5th and ending 
in October, mortality 84 — half the population of the town which remained. 

1809. — New Orleans, Brooklyn, N. Y., commencing July, ending Septem- 
ber, mortality 40. New York, mortality (at Marine Ho.spital) 2. Philadelphia, 
Pa. (sporadic), Charleston, S. C, (sporadic). 

1810. — New York, niortality (at Marine Hospital) 1. Philadelphia, mortality 
3. Havana, 4,305 deaths, Gibraltar (sporadic), Cadiz and Carthagena severe. 

1811. — Pensacola, Fla., New Orleans, Saint Franci.sville, La., on the MLssLs- 
sippi River, Perth Aniboy, N. J., Philadelphia, Pa., mortalit}' 5. 

1812. — Philadelpliia, mortality 3. New Orleans, Charleston, S. C, St. Cin-is- 
toplier, W. I., number of cases 422, luortalit}- 118 ; proportion to ca.ses 1 in 
3.58. Cadiz, epidemic. 

1813. — Pltiladelphia, Pa., mortality G; also prevailed in Spain. 

1813. — At Cadiz, population 130,000, the mortality is estimated at 4,000, 
being 1 in 32.5. At Gibraltar, 12,501 remaining out of a }K)pulation of 20,501, 
the number of cases amounted to 2,847, and the mortality 904, Ijeing 1 in 
3.4 of projwrtion to cases, 

1814. — Philadelphia, Pa., mortality 7. At Gibraltar (in hospital) number 
of cases 726, mortality 114, being 1 in C.36; among civili;ins tliere were 132 
deaths, Cadiz, epidemic. 

1815. — Philadelphia, mortality 2. New York, mortality (at jMarine Hospital) 
7. Island of Jamaica, proportion to cases 1 in 4. 

1816. — New York — no mortality noted at Marine Hospital. Philadel])hia, 
Pa., moi-tality 2. Martinicpie, from August, 1816, to close of 1817, number of 
cases 327, mortality 61; projwrtion to cases 1 in 5.36. Barbadoes, 390 men, 
mortality 90; proportion to cases 1 in 4.33; twenty-five officers, mortality 10; 
pro[>ortion to cases 1 in 2.5. 

1817. — New Orleans, from June ISth to December, mortality 800 ; other 
accounts say mortality for five months 1,142. Natchez, INIiss., commencing 
September and ending November 9th, mortality 9; other accounts say 134 
died, Whitsell's Landing, twenty miles below Natchez. New York, mortality 
(at Marine Hospital) 4; Charleston, S. C, commencing in July an<l ending in 

■November, mortality 272. Mt. Pleasant, S. C, on Winguw Bay, West 
Feliciana Parish, La., Baton Rouge, La., on Mississippi River. 

1818. — New Orleans, mortality 1,151. New York, mortality (at Marine 
Hospital) 4. Martinique, num1>er of cases 1,982, mortality 697 ; proportion to 
cases 1 in 2.82. Trinidad, W. I., proporti(jn to cases 1 in 2.54. 

1819. — At Xeres, population 45,000, number of cases 1,262, mortality 408. 
At Cadiz, population 72,000, number of cases 48,000, mortality 5,000. At 
Seville, number of cases 346, the moitality being 217. Fort Claiborne, Ala., 
on Alabama River, commencing July 4th, ending ' December 1; Fort St. 
Stephen, Ala., on Tombigbee River, conmiencing July 4tb, ending Decendier 
1 ; Mobile, Ala., commencing August 15th, ending in November, mortality 



84 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



274. New Haven, Conn., S.ivannah, Ga., Alexandria, La., on Eed Piiver, New 
Orleans, commencing July 1st, mortality 2,190. Mr. Nuttal, the naturalist, iu 
liis book of travels, estimates the victims at from 5,000 to 6,000, Avhich very 
much exceeds jirobability. West Feliciana Parisli, La., Baltimore, commenc- 
ing July 21st, ending October 30th, Natchez, Miss., commencing September and 
ending December, mortality 180. New York, commencing in August, mor- 
tality 37. Philadelphia, mortality 13. Charleston, S. C, commencing in 
August and ending iu Oc|;ober, mortality 177. Boston, Baton Rouge, La., on 
Mississippi River, Jamaica. Li 1819, '21, '27, proportion to cases 1 in 2, 1 in 
4, 1 in 1.08. In 1819, '22, '25, '27, proportion to cases 1 in 2. In 1819 two 
regiments, proportion to cases 1 in 2, 1 in 1.7. Bermudn, number of cases 
208, mortality 32 : proportion to cases 1 in 13. Havana, 5,162 victims. 

1823. — -Middletown, Conn., commencing in June, . Savannah, Ga., Bay of 
St. Louis, La., at mouth of Mississippi River, commencing in August, New 
Orleans, commencing in July, deaths in hospital, 82. Baltimore, Shieldsboro, 
on St. Louis Bay, commencing August 20th. New York, mortality (at Marine 
Hospital) 2; 150 died from August 21st to October 20th. Philadelphia, Pa., 
commencing July 24th, mortality 84. Barbadoes, proportion to cases 1 in 
2.56; At Xeres the proportion to cases was 1 in 2. At Siguenza, number of 
cases, mortality 212, being 1 in 1.8. At Carlotta, population 733, remaining 
^473, cases 195, mortality 122. 

1821. — Mobile, Ala., St. Augustine, Fla., commencing in August, mortality 
140. Forty deaths took place in the garrison in a body of 120 soldiers. Balti- 
more; New York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 16. Wilmington, N. C.^ 
commencing August 9th. Norfolk, Va., commencing August 1st. Martinique; 
number of cases 686, mortality 235 ; proportion to cases 1 in 3. Malaga, 
number of cases 21, mortality 17, being 1 in 1.3. Tortosa, 5,000 remaining 
out of 15,000 inhabitants — 2,356 died. Barcelona, 70,000 remaining out of 
145,000, number of cases 14,000, mortality 9,730; proportion to cases 1 in 
1.33. At Seminary Hospital (same city) 1,739 cases, mortality 1,265; Gen- 
eral Hospital, 830 cases, mortality 749 ; Marine Hos^^ital, number of cases 
79, mortality 55. Lazaretto of V. Queen of Peru, number of cases 56, mor- 
tality 39. City and suburb, according to Adonard, number of cases 20,625, 
mortality 1,600 to 1,700. Palma, 12,000 inhabitants remaining, number of 
cases 7,400, mortality 5,341. 

1822. — Mobile, Ala., Pensacola, Fla., commencing August 12th, ending 
October 10, mortality 257. Alexandria, La., on Red River, Baton Rouge, La., 
on Mississippi River, mortality 00. New Orleans, La., commencing September 
1st, mortality 239. Baltimore, New York, commencing July 10th, ending 
November 5th, mortality 230 ; other accounts say 243 out of 414 the number 
attacked. Charleston, S. C. , commencing in June, ending in August, mor- 
tality 2. 

1823. — Fort Smith, Ark., on Arkansas River, yellow fever of high grade 
prevailed without a suspicion of exposure to contagion. Ascension, La., on 
Mississippi River, New Orleans, commencing August 23d, mortality 1 (only 
2 cases). West Feliciana Parish, La. , Natchez, Miss. , commencing August 10th, 



A IIISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



85 



ending October 18th, mortality 312. Brooklyn, jS". Y., Xew York, mortality 
(at Marine Hospital) 5. At Martinique (hosi)ital) tlie proportion of deaths to 
cases was 1 in 2.5, 1 in 3. Port du Passage, seven leagues east of Bayonne, i)op- 
ulation 3,000; 1,200 remaining — 101 cases, mortahty 40, being 1 in 2.5. This 
locality, one of the finest ports in Europe, is represented to be un.surpa,ssed for 
general salubrity. 

182-1. — ^Mobile, New Orleans, commencing x\ugu.st 4th, mortality 108. ISTew 
York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 8. Charleston, S. C, commencing in 
August, ending in November, mortality 235. Key West, Fla. 

1825. — Mobile, Ala., commencing in September. Pen.sacola, Fla., New 
Orleans, commencing June 23d, mortality 49. Natchez, Miss., commencing 
August 20th, ending November, mortality 150. Washington, Miss., near 
Natchez (inland), commencing August, ending November, mortality 52. New 
York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 1. Charleston, S. C, commencing August, 
ending September, mortality 2. Martinique, number of cases 1,464, mortalit}^ 
388; proportion to cases 1 in 3.8. 

1828. — Apalachicola, Fla., on Apalachicola Bay, New Orleans, commencing 
I^Iay 18th, mortality 5. New York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 2. Norfolk, 
Ya. , commencing September 1. Guadaloupc, number of cases 380; mortality 
128 ; proportion to cases 1 in 3. 

1827. — Mobile, Ala., commencing in August. Pensacola, Fla., vSuvamiah, 
Ga., Alexandria, La., Baton Rouge, La., Donaldsonville, La., on Mississippi 
Eiver, New Orleans, commencing July 19, mortality 109. West Feliciana Parish, 
La., Natchez, Miss. New York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 4. Charleston, 
S. C, commencing in August, ending in November, mortality 64. Jamaica, 
W. L, population 300, mortality 184; proportion to population 1 in 1.6. 

1828. — Mobile, New Orleans, commencing June 18th, mortality 130. New 
York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 0. Charleston, S. C, commencing in 
August, ending in September, mortality 26. Gibraltar, population 20,652; 
cases 6,715, mortality 1796, being 1 in 3.73; troops 3,652, ca.ses 2,014, mor- 
tality 515—1 in 3.91; civiliams, 17,000; ca.sos 4,701, mortality 1,281, being 
1 in 3.6. 

1829. — Mobile, commencing September 14th, mortality 130. Key West, 
Fla., Baton Rouge, La., on iNIississippi River, New Orleans, commencing IMay 
23d, mortality 215. Opilousas, La., seven miles from head of navigation. 
West Feliciana Parish, La., commencing September 22d. Natchez, Mi.ss., 
commencing September 1st, ending November, mortality 90. Rodney, Miss., 
(Ml IMississippi River, Shieldsboro, on St. Louis Bay, commencing August 5th. 
New York — no mortality at Marine Hospital. 

1830. — Bay St. Louis, mouth of Mississippi River, New Orleans, commencing 
July 15th, mortality 117. New York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 1. 

1831. — Alexandria, La., on Red River, New Orleans, commencing June 9th, 
mortality 2. 

1832. — New Orleans, commencing August 15t.h, mortality 18. New York, 
mortality (at Marine Hospital) 1. 

1833. — New Orleans, commencing July 12th, mortality 210. New York, 



86 



A HISTOEY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE. 



mortality (at Marine Hospital) 2. Coliinabia, Texa?, on Brazos River, Guada- 
loupe ; Basseterie, W.I. (.soldiers), muiiber of cases 137, mortality 47. 

1834. — -Peiisacola, Fla., commencing August 23d. Jvew Orleans, commencing 
August 28th, mortality 95. New York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 1. 
Charleston, S. C, commencing August, ending October, mortality 49. 

1835. — New Orleans, commencing August 23(1, mortality 284. New York, 
mortality (at Marine Hospital) 2. Charleston, 8. C. , commencing August, ending 
September, mortality 25. Suwanee, Fla., on Siiwanee River; New Orleans, 
commencing August 24th, mortality 5. 

1837. — Mobile, commencing September 20th, ending November, mortality 
350. Alexandria, La., on Red River, Baton Rouge, La., on Mississippi River, 
New Orleans, commencing July 24th, mortality 442. Opelousas, La., com- 
mencing October 20th, ending November. Placjuemine, La., on Mississippi 
River, Washington, La., Natchez, Miss., commencing September 8tii, ending 
November 25th, mortality 280. Havana, 1 in 10 ; Havana (Belot's Hos- 
pital) 1 in 6.48. 

1833. — St. Augustine, Fla., two miles from the sea, on Matanzas Sound, 
Mobile, New Orleans, commencing August 25th, mortality 17. New York, 
mortality (at Marine Hospital) 8. Charleston, S. C, commencing August, ending 
November, mortality 351. Martinique, W. L (in 1838, '39), number of cases 
1,344, mortality 223; proportion 1 in 6. October 1 ('38 to September 30, 
'39), number of cases 1,202, mortality 150 — 1 in 8'. Barbadoes, proportion to 
cases 1 in 4.25. Dominica, population 131; soldiers, number of cases 100 men, 
6 officers, mortality 35 men, 3 ot?icers ; proportion to cases 1 in 3 men, 1 in 2 
officers. Georgetown (Demarara), Seamen's Hospital, number of cases 2,071, 
mortality 404 ; proportion to cases' 1 in 5. .12. 

1839. — Pensacola, Fla., St. Augustine, Fla., cammencing August 15th. 
Tampa, Fla. (head of Tampa Bay), Mobile, commencing August 11th, ending 
October 20th, mortality G50 (average mortality to cases 1 in 7). Augusta, Ga. , 
Alexandria, La., Franklin, La., on Teche River, Natchitoches, La., on Red 
River, New Iberia, La. (southern part of La.), New Orleans, commencing July 
23d, mortality 452. Opelousas, La., commencing August, ending November. 
Plaquemine, La., on JNIississippi River, Port Hudson, La., on Mississippi River, 
West Feliciana Parish, La., commencing August 28th, St. Martinsville, La., 
on Teche River, Washington, La., Blloxi, Miss., after an interval of 136 years, 
Natchez, Miss., commencing September, ending November, mortality 235. 
Shieldsboro, Miss, (on St. Louis Bay), Vicksburg, Miss., New York, mortality 
(at Marine Hospital) 4. C'larleston, S. C. , commencing June, ending October, 
mortality 22. Galveston, commencing September 30t]i, ending October 11th, 
mortality 250. Houston, Texas, Martinique, W. I., first three months of 1839, 
92 cases, 19 deaths ; proportion 1 in 4.5. 

1840. — New Orleans, commencing July 25, mortality, 3; Charleston, S. C. , 
c jmmencing August, ending October, mortality 22. 

1841. — Pensacola, Fla., St. Augustine, Fla., mortality 26; St. Joseph, 
Fla., near Gulf of Mexico, Mobile, Key West, commencing June, mortality i 
26; New Orleans, commencing July 27, mortality 594; Port Hudson, La., ^ 



A HISTOKY OF THK YKI.LOW FEVER. 



87 



commencing September, ending October; Cliarleston, S. C, Barbadoes, W. I., 
pi-oportion to cases, 1 in 2. Dominica, 204 cases, mortality 55 ; proportion 
to cases, 1 in 3.7. 

1842. — Pensacola, Fla., Mobile, commencing August 20, mortality 69; 
New Orleans, commencing July 30, mortality 211; Opelousas, La., Barba- 
does, W. I., proportion to cases, 1 in 5.6. 

1843. — Pensacola, Fla., Moljile, commencing August IS, ending November 
5, mortality 240; B.iton Rjuge, La., commencing October; New Orleans, 
commencing July 5, mortality 487; Port Hudson, La., West Feliciana 
Parish, La., commencing August 28; R-odney, ]Miss., connnencing iSepteinber 
G ; New York, mortality (at Marine Hospital ) 5 ; Charleston, S. C, Guadaloupe, 
W. L (sailors and troops), population, 2,757; number of cases, 772, mortality 
183; French war steamer Gomez; number of cases, 165, mortality 17; pro- 
portion, 1 in 9.7. Guadaloupe, B.isseterie, 96 cases, 64 deaths. 

1844. — Pensacola, Fla., Mobile, New Orleans, commencing July and end- 
ing September, mortality 148; Natchez, Miss., Woodville, Miss., New York, 
mortality (at M.irine Hospital) 2; Galveston, Texas, commencing July 5th, 
mortality 400 ; Houston, Texas. 

1845. — Pensacola, Fla., New Orleans, mortality 2; Boa Vista, W. I., Porto 
Sal Key, proportion to cases, Portuguese, 1 in 1.8, English and American, 1 in 
1.1, natives, 1 in 13.4; Boa Vista, in all localities, Europeans, 1 in 1.16, na- 
tives, 1 in 15.4. 

1846. — Pensacola, Fla., New Orleans, commencing August and ending 
October, mortality 160; West Feliciana Parish, mortality 1; Thibodeaux, La., 
, commencing September 20th and ending October; New York. 

1847. — Pensacola, Fla., mortality 76, avei-age mortality to cases 1 in 7; 
Alexandria, La., on Red River, Algiers, La., opposite New Orleans, Baton 
Rouge, La., on Mississippi River, Bayou Sara, La., on Mississippi River, 
Burat Settlement, on Mississippi River, Covington, La., 45 miles north of New 
Orleans, INIandeville, La., on Lake Pontchartrain, Lafayette, La., near New 
Orleans, commencing June 22d; New Orleans, commencing August and end- 
ing in December, mortality 2,259 ; Plaquemine, on Mississippi River, Biloxi, 
Miss., Pascagoula, I\Iiss., Pass Christian, IMiss., Rodney, Mi.ss., Vicksburg, 
Miss., New York, Galveston, commencing October 1st and ending November 
26th, mortality 200; Houston, Texas. 

1848. — Pensacola, Fla., Mobile, mortality 75; New Orleans, commencing 
June and ending November, mortality 850; West Feliciana Parish, La., 
Natchez, Miss., commencing June and ending November ; New York, com- 
mencing August 12th, witli a mortality of 12 at ]\rarine Hospital; Stapletou, 
Staten Island, New York, commencing August 23d; Tompkinsville, Staten 
Island, commencing August 23d; Mt. Pleasant, S. C, Houstcm, Texas. 

1849. — Moliile, mortality 50; New Orlean-, commencing August and end- 
ing December, mortality 737; Charleston, S. C, commencing August and 
ending November, mortality 125. 

1850. — New Orleans, commencing July and ending Oct., mortality 102 ; Cay- 
enne, W. I. (hospital), number of cases 685, mortality 148; proportion 1 in 4.63. 



88 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



1851. — Mobile, New Orleans, moitiility 16. 

1852. — Savamiah, Ga. , mortality 19 ; New Orleans, commencing July and 
ending December, mortality 415; Washington, La., Woodville, Miss., New 
York, mortality of 1 at Marine Hospital; Charleston, S. C, commencing 
August and ending November, mortality 310 ; Ft. Moultrie, in Charleston 
Harbor, Mt. Pleasant, S. C, on Wingaw Bay, Indianola, Texas, commencing 
iii September; Norfolk, Va., commencing August 7th; Portsmouth, Va., 
Port Royal, W. I. (population 12,611), mortality 727—1 in 17.34; St. Pierre 
(population 20,360), mortality 1,200, jn'ojwrtion to population, 1 in 17; Barba- 
does, W. I., troops (population 1,380), number of cases 879, mortality 173; 
])roportion to population, 1 in 7.9, proportion to cases 1 in 5.08; steamer fiom 
St. Thomas to Southampton, month of November, number of cases 124, deaths 
50; projwrtion, 1 in 2.3. 

1353. — Milton, Fla., near Pensacola Bay, Peusacola, Fla., commencing 
July 9th; Tampa, Fla., head of Tampa Bay, commencing in September; Mo- 
bile, commenchig July 13th and ending Nov. 1st, mortality 115 (Dr. Dowler 
gives an estimate of 1,072) ; Cahawba, Ala., on Alabama River, Citronelle, Ala., 
on Mobile & Ohio R. R. , Dog River Cotton Factory, Ala., five miles from Mo- 
bile, commencing Aug. 8lli; Demopolis, Ala., on Tombigbee River, Hollywood, 
Ala., on Tombigbee River, Montgomery, Ala., on Alabama River, commencing 
September and ending November, mortality 35; Selma, Ala., commencing 
Sept. 17th and ending Nov. 13th, mortality 32; SjDring Hill, Ala., Columbia, 
Ark., coriimencing in June; Grand Lake, Ark. (on INIississipj^i River), Napo- 
leon, Ark. (on Mississippi River), Key West, Fla., during August, mortality 
112; Savannah, Ga., Alexandria, La., the disease cairied off from one-fifth 
to one-sixth of the population ; Algiers, La. (opposite Ne\V Orleans) , Bay St. 
Louis, La Bayou Sara (on Mississippi River). New Orleans, commencing 
May, ending December, mortality 7,970, or variously estimated at from 
8,000 to 10,000. Dr. Dowler says the greatest number of deaths in New 
Orleans was in August, amounting to 5,189, or, by adding all the deaths, 
6,235, an average exceeding 201 per day — about 9 every hour, 1 every six 
or seven minutes for a whole month. His total, from May 26th to October 
22d, by yellow fever, is 7,782; total unnamed (mostly yellow fever), 669; 
in all, 8,228, without enumerating deaths from October 22d to December 
22d. He estimates the whole mortality at 8,400. Dr. Edward H. Barton, 
in his report to the Commission, states that the total mortality during the 
year, not only those certified to be such, but a large proportion of the "un- 
known," supposed to be such from a want of proper records, is estimated, 

upon all grounds of probability, to have been 8,101 The total 

number of cases of yellow fever in 1853 was 29,020, which was the largest 
number of cases of yellow fever which ever afflicted this city (New Or- 
leans). But 8,101 deaths out of that great number of cases is only 27.91 per 
cent., or 1 in 3.58, the least mortality which had ever occurred in a great 
and malignant epidemic of the dread disease. Centreville, La. (on Teche 
River), commencing September 18th, ending November 18th; Clinton, La., 
commencing September 1st, ending December, mortality 75; Cloutierville, 



A HISTORY OP THE YELLOW FEVER. 



89 



La., coiuinencing August 14th, ending December 14th; FrankHu, La., com- 
menchig October 19th, ending November 24th, mortality 2; Lake Providence, 
La. (on Mississippi River), reported to have lost 120; 02)elousas, La., Patter- 
sonville. La. (on Teche River), commencing August 8th, ending December, 
mortality 4-5; Plaquemine, La. (on Mississippi River), commencing Septem- 
ber, ending October; West Feliciana, La., -St. John Baptiste, La. (on Mis- 
sissippi River), Shrevep;>rt, La. (on Red River), commencing September, 
ending December, destroying about one-fourth of the population; Tiiiho- 
deaux. La. (on Bayou La Fourche), mortality 160 — moic than one-third 
of the 500 persons remaining; Trenton, La. (on Washita River), Vidalin, 
La. (on Mississippi River), commencing August 15th; Washington, La., 
commencing August 15th; Biloxi, Miss, (after an interval of five years), 
Brandon, Miss., commencing September 15th; Clifton, Mi-s., commencing 
August 28th, ending October; Natchez, Miss., commencing July 17th. Foi-t 
Adams (about 200 miles above) vas visited vith the fever. Grand Gulf, 
Miss, (on Mississippi River), Greenwood, Miss, (on Yazoo River), mortality 9; 
Jackson, Miss, (on Pearl River), Pass Christian, Miss., Petit Gulf Hills, Miss, 
(on Mississippi River), Port Gibson, Miss., Ri)dney, Miss., Woodville, Miss., 
commencing August 9tli; Pascagoula, JMiss., Yazoo City, ]\Iiss., commencing 
September 1st; New York (14 mortality at IMarine Hospital), Philadel})hia, 
commencing July 19th, ending October, mortality 128; Brownsville, Texas 
(on Rio Grande), commencing September 23d, ending December 23d, mor- 
tality 50; Memphis, Tenn. (cases brought from New Orleans), Hackley, 
Texas (near Buffalo Bayou), Houston, Texas (on Buffalo Bayou), Lidianola, 
Texas, Liverpool, Texas, commencing August, mortality 4; Cypress City, 
Texas, Galve.ston, Texas, commencing August 16th, ending November 28th, 
mortality 536 ; Richmond, Texas (on Brazos River,) Saluria, Texas (on Mat- 
agorda Island). Baton Rouge, La., was, early in November, reported officially 
to have lost 202 by the epidemic. Natchitoches (more than 400 miles from 
New Orleans, on Red River), suffered severely. Dr. Dowler says: "The 
maximum mortality of the yellow fever of 1853 arrived sooner in the season 
than usual, and is more truly represented by that of the plague in London, 
in 1665, namely, June, 590 deaths ; July, 4,129; Augu,-.t, 20,046; Septem- 
ber, 26,230; Octob9r, 14,373; November, 3,449; total,''68,817." 

1854. — Pensacola, Fla., IMobile, ]\Iontgomery, commencing September, ending 
November, mortality 45; Key West, Fla., Augusta, Ga., Savannah, Ga., 
commencing August 5th, mortality 580 ; Alexandria, La. (Burat Settlement, 
below New Orleans), commencing September 22 ; Cloutierville, La., on branch of 
Red River, Franklin, La., Jeanneretts, La., commencing October 7th; Jesuits' 
Bend, La., commencing September 12th ; New Orleans, commencing July, 
ending December, mortality 2,423; Pattersonville, La., commencuig Septem- 
ber; Point a la Hache, La., on INIississippi River, commencing in October; 
St. Mary's Parish, La., on Gulf of Mexico, commencing Sejitember, ending 
October; Thibodeaux, La., commencing September 12th, ending October; 
AVashington, La., Brandon, Miss., on Pearl River, commencing September 
23d, ending November 18th ; Jacksonville, Miss., St. Louis, Mo., 2 deaths. New 



90 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 20; Beaufort, N. C, Pliilade]i:)liia, 
Charleston, S. C, commencing August, ending November, mortality 627; 
Columbia, S. C, Georgetown, S. C, commencing August 20th, ending October 
28th; Mt. Pleasant, S. C, Galveston, Texas, commencing August 9th, ending 
November 5th, mortality 404; Houston, Texas, Portsmouth, Va., Norfolk, 
Va., commencing October, ending November 2d, mortality 3. 

1855. — Milton, Fla., near Ptnsacola Buy, Montgomery, Ala., commencing 
September, ending November, mortality 30 ; Alexandria, La., commencing 
September 13th; Carrollton, La., commencing May 18th; Centreville, La. (on 
Teclie River), commencing September, ending October, mortality 1; New 
Orleans, commencing June, ending December, mortality 2,670; Paltersonville, 
La. (on Teche River), commencing September; Canton, Miss., Cooper's Wells, 
Miss., commencing August 23d, mortality 13; Natches, Miss., Pass Christian, 
Miss., Woodville, Miss., commencing September; St. Louis, Mo., commencing 
August 14th ; New York, mortality (at Marine Hospital) 5 ; Memphis, Tenn., 
mortality 65; Bellville, Texas, 110 miles east of Austin, Gosport, Va., on 
Elizabeth River,' Norfolk, Va., commencing June 30th, and ending October, 
mortality 1,807 ; Scott's Creek, Va., commencing June 29th, and ending July 
29th; Portsmouth, Va., commencing August 1st, ending October, mor- 
tality 1,000. 

1856. — New Orleans, commencing August, ending November, mortality 74; 
Bay Ridge, Long Island, N. Y., Brooklyn, N. Y., commencing July 14th ; 
Governor's Island, New York Harbor, commencing July 29th ; Gow'anus, near 
New York, Red Hook, on Hudson River, N. Y.,. Yellow Hook, N, Y., 
Charleston, S. C, commencing August, ending November, mortality 211; 
Mt. Pleasant, S. C. 

1857. — Jacksonville, Fla., New Orleans, commencing June, ending Decem- 
ber, mortality 199; Cliarlestou, S. C, commencing September, ending No- 
vember, mortality 13 ; Mt. Pleasant, S. C. 

1858. — Pensacola, Fla., Mobile, Savannah, Ga., Baton Rouge, La., Algiers, 
La., oj^posite New Orleans, Franklin, La., McDonoughville, La., New 
Orleans, commencing June, ending October 10th, mortality 3,889; Plaque- 
mine, La., Biloxi, Miss, after an interval of four years; Natchez, Miss., Pass 
Christian, Miss., Vicksburg, Miss., Woodville, Miss., Charleston, S. C, com- 
mencing July, ending December, mortality 717 ; Fort Moultrie, Charleston 
Harbor, conmiencing August 15th ; Galveston, commencing August 27th, 
ending November 14th, mortality 344; Houston, Tex., Lidianola, Tex., on 
Matagorda Buy, Brownsville, Tex., on Rio Grande River, commencing August, 
ending November, mortality 41. 

1859. — Brazoria, Tex., near Gulf of Mexico, Cypress City, Tex., Edinburgh, 
Tex., on Rio Grande, commencing in July, mortality 13; Hou.ston, Tex., 
Indianola, Tex., Richmond, Tex., on Brazos River, Sugarland, Tex., on Brazos 
River; New Orleans, only 91 deaths. 

1860. — New Orleans, 15 deaths. 

1861. — Not a single case reported from any quarter. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



91 



1862. — Tortugas, Fla. , Gulf of Mexico, mortality 4; Key West, Fla., com- 
nieiieing June 20th, and ending October, mortality 71 ; New Orleans was 
attacked after an escajie of three years; Smithville, N. C, Wilmington, N. 
C, commencing August 6th, ending xsovemher 17tli, mortality 446; Charles- 
ton, S. C, Hilton Head, S. C, commencing Seiitember 8th, ending October 
25th; Corpus Christi, Tex., Indianola, Tex., Matagorda, Tex., mortality 120; 
Brownsville, Tex. 

1863. — Pensacola, Fla., commencing August 2.5th ; New Orleans, nearly 100 
cases, with two ofKcially recorded deaths; Beaumont, Tex., on Neches River, 
Matagorda, Tex., on Matagorda Bay, Sabine City, Tex., commencing July, 
ending October 1st, mortality 14. 

1864. — Key We.st, Fla., New Orleans — more than 200 cases, with 57 deaths; 
Beaufort, N. C, commencing September 2.5th, ending November 17th, mor- 
tality 68; New Berne, N. C, commencing September, ending November, 
mortality 700 ; Charleston, S. C, commencing July 27th, Galveston, com- 
mencing September 1st, ending November 20th, mortality 259; Houston, Tex., 
IMillican, Tex. 

1865. — Key West, Fla. 

1866. — Memphis, Tenn. (sporadic cases); Galveston, Tex. 

1867. — Pensacola, Fla., commencing July 24th, mortality 34 ; Tortugas, Fla., 
commencing July 4th, mortality 38 ; Fort Morgan Island, J\Iobile Bay, com- 
mencing August loth; Montgomery, Ala., on Alabama River, commencing 
August 13th; Key AVest, Fla., New Iberia, La., New Orleans (after an escape 
of two years), commencing June 10th, ending December 22d, mortality 3,093; 
Ojielousas, La., Washington, La., Alleyton, Tex., commencing September 4th, 
ending December, mortality 45 ; Anderson, Tex. (140 miles east by north of 
Austin), Austin, Tex. (above navigation on Colorado River), Bastrop, Tex. (on 
Colorado River), Brenham, Tex. (twenty miles from Brazos River), Calvert, 
Tex. (between Brazos and Navasota River), Chapel Hill, Tex. (near Brazos 
River), commencing August 6th, ending December, mortality 123; Corpus 
Christi, Tex., commencing August; Danville, Tex.; Memphis, Tenn., mortality 
231 ; Goliad, Tex. (on vSan Antonio River) ; Galveston, commencing June 26th, 
ending November, mortality 1,150; Harrisburg, Tex. (on Butlalo Bayou); 
Hampstead, Tex. (fifty miles from Houston), commencing August 9th, ending 
November 26th, mortality 151 ; Huntsville, Tex., commencing August 9th, 
ending October 19th, mortality 130 ; Independence, Tex. (80 miles south of 
Austin), Indianola, Tex., commencing June 20th, mortality 80; Lagrange, 
Tex., commencing August, ending November, mortality 200; Liberty, Tex. 
(on Trinity River), Millican, Tex., commencing October 15th, ending Novem- 
ber 12th, mortality 4; Navasota, Tex., commencing August 12th, ending 
December, mortality 154; Oldtown, Tex. (near Indianola), commencing Octo- 
ber 13th, Port Lavaca, Tex., commencing July 3d, ending October 29th; Rio 
Grande City, Tex., mortality 150; Victoria, Tex., commencing August 1st, 
ending December 25th, mortality 200. 

1868. — Baltimore — a few imported cases. 



92 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



1869. — Milton, Santa Rosa County, Fla. (near Pensacola Eaj-), Hampton 
Roads, Va., in Harbor. 

1870. — Montgomery, Ala., commencing August 22d, ending November 
19tli, New Iberia, La., New Orleans (after an interlude of two years), com- 
mencing Muy 16tli, ending in December, mortality 587 ; Port Barre, La;, 
Ville Platte (on Bayou Teche, La.), Governor's Island (New York Harbor), 
commencing September, ending October 26th, mortality 49 ; Philadelphia, 
commencing June 29th, mortality 18; Houston, Tex., ending in October, 
mortality 1. 

1871. — Tampa, Fla., head of Tampa Bay, Cedar Keys, Fla., Gainesville, Fla., 
New Orleans, commencing August 4th, ending October, mortality 55 ; Vicks- 
burg. Miss., Beaufort, N. C, Cincinnati, Ohio, Charleston, S. C, commencing 
July 19th, ending November, mortality 213; Beaufort, S. C, commencing 
August 5th, ending November 21st, mortality 7. 

1872. — New Orleans, La., commencing August 28th, ending November 30th, 
mortality 40 ; New York. 

1873. — Pensacola, Fla., commencing August 14th, ending November 19th, 
mortality 62; Montgomery', Ala., commencing September 4th, ending Nov-ember 
10th, mortality 102 ; Pollard, Ala., Little Rock, Ark., Bainbridge, Ga., on Flint 
River; Cairo, 111., at junction Ohio and Mississippi River, commencing September 
21st, ending September 25th, mortality 17; Louisville, Ky. , on Ohio River, 
commencing September 22d, ending October 15th, mortality 5 ; New Orleans, 
commencing July 4th, ending November 18th, mortalit}- 225 ; Shreveport, La., 
on Red River, commencing August 12th, ending November 10th, mortality 
759; New York, commencing May 23d, ending October 30th, mortality 18; 
Cincinnati, Ohio ; Memphis, commencing September 14th, ending November 9th, 
mortality 2,000; Baltimore; Columbus, Texas, on Colorado River; Corsicana; 
Texas (180 miles north-east from Austin) ; Corpus Christi. 

1874. — Cuba ; Pensacola, vessel in harbor with a few cases on board. 

1875. — Key West, Fla., epidemic; Vera Cruz, Mexico ; Fort Barrancas, Fla., 
Fort Pickens, Fla.; Pascagoula, Miss.; Cuba; Mobile; New Orleans; New York, 
vessel in harbor with crew sick. 

1876. — Savannah, Ga., epidemic; New York, 2 refugees fi'om Savannah 
died ; Cliarleston, S. C. (sporadic). 

1877. — Havana, and Fernandina, Fla., epidemic. 

1878. — Abingdon, Washington County, Va., Judge L. V. Dixon, refugee from 
Memphis, died September 17th; Athens, Ala., 2 cases, 2 deaths; Augusta, 
Ark., on White- River, 7 cases, 7 deaths; Bartlett, Shelby County, Tenn., 
(eleven miles from Memphis) population 350, 35 cases, 23 deaths — proportion 
of deaths to cases 1 in 1.2; Baton Rouge, La., jiopulation 6,500, number of 
cases 2,716, deaths 201 — proportion of deaths to cases 1 in 13; Bayou Sara, 
La., on Mississippi River, population 700, number of cases 250, deaths 13 — - 
1 in 19 ; Bay St. Louis, Miss, (summer resort), population, including visitors, 
6,000, number of cases 546, deaths 83 — 1 in 6.2 ; Bayou Goula, La., on 
Mississippi River, 1 death — a refugee; Beech Grove, Tenn., 1 death— a refugee; 
Bell's Depot, Tenn., 5 cases, 3 deaths; Berwick City, La., population 150, 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 93 

cases 50, deaths 1; Bethel Springs, Tenn., 1 case, deatlis 1 ; Biloxi, Miss., 
poiiiilation 960, number of cases 216, deaths 56 — 1 in 4; Bolton, Miss, (twenty- 
seven miles from Vicksburg), population 200, number of cases 168, deaths 47 — 
1 in 3.2; Bovina, Miss., ten miles from Vicksbui-g, population 100, number 
of cases 65, deaths 17—1 in 4; Bowling Green, Ky., number of cases 48, 
xleaths 26—1 in 2 ; Brooklyn, N. Y., Navy Yard, 2 deaths; Broussard, La., 
1 death; Brownsville, Tenn., population 4,020, nundjer of cases 844, deaths 
212 — 1 in 8 ; Buntvn, Tenn., hve miles from Memphis, included in Memjjhis 
report; Buras, La., 2 deaths; Byram, Miss., cases included in Jackson report; 
Cairo, 111., on Mississippi and Ohio rivers, population 6,300, number of cases 
43, deaths 32 — 1 in 1.34; Canaan Landing, La., on Mississippi River, num- 
ber of cases 28, deaths 6 — 1 in 5; Canton, Miss., twenty-three miles from 
Jackson, population 2,143, number of cases 936, deaths 176 — 1 in 5.3. 
Cayuga, Miss., on Big Black River, number of cases 38, deaths 9 — 1 in 4; 
Caledonia (on the Ohio River), one case from the steamer Golden Crown; 
Chattanooga, Tenn., on Tennessee River, population 12,500, nundier of cases 
693, deaths 197 — 1 in 4 ; Cincinnati, Ohio, number of cases (all refugees), 49, 
deaths 19 — 1 in 1.2; Clintun, Hickman County, Ky., 2 cases, no deaths, 
Clinton, La., poj^ulation 1,000, number of cases 187, deaths 43 — 1 in 4; 
Collierville, Tenn., twenty-five miles from Memphis, population 500, number 
of cases 121, deaths 48 — 1 in 2.2; Cook's Landing, La., population 35, 
number of cases 15, deaths 4 — 1 in 4; Courtland, Lawrence County, Ala., 
1 death — IMemphis refugee ; Covington, Tenn., population 1,200, the Board of 
Health advising, the population fled the town — 1 death occurred ; Cox's Land- 
ing, Miss., number of cases 12, deaths 4 — 1 in 3; Dalton, Ga., 3 cases, 2 
deaths — refugees from Chattanooga; Danville, Ky., 1 death — a refugee from 
Holly Springs ; Dayton, Ohio, on Miami River, 1 death and some few cases- 
all refugees fi-oni the South; Decatur, Ala., population 1,200, number of cases 
187, deaths 51 — 1 in 3.3; Delhi, La., forty miles from Vicksburg, population 
250, number of cases 168, deaths 34 — 1 ini 5; Donaldsonville, La., and 
Ascension Parish, on Mississippi River, population of town 1,500; number of 
cases 484, deaths 83—1 in 5.3 ; cases in parish, 1,373, deaths 179—1 in 7.3; 
Dry Grove, Hinds County, Miss., and vicinity, number of cases 203, deaths 50— 
1 in 4; Duck Hill, Montgomery County, Miss., number of cases 36, deaths 
14—1 in 2.3 ; Dunboyne, a plantation near West Plaquemine, La., 3 deaths: 
Durant, Holmes County, Miss., 1 death ; Edward's Depot, Hinds County, 
Miss., 3 deaths; Erin, Houston County, Tenn., population 723, number of 
cases 38, deaths 10—1 in 4; Eureka, La., 1 death; Fernandina, Fla., on 
vessel in harbor, 3 seamen died; Fillmore, Ky., 1 death— a refugee from New 
Orleans; Florence, Ala., population 2,500, number of cases 138, deaths 50— 
1 in 2.3; Frayser Station, Tenn., included in Memphis; Friar's Point, Miss., 
on Mississippi River, population 1,200, number of cases 25, deaths 7—1 in 
3.3; Fulton, Ky., population 1,700; number of cases 12, deaths 5—1 in 2; 
Gadsden, Tenn., population 350, number of cases 6, deaths 4—1 in 1.3; 
Galway, Fayette County, Tenn., poptdation 60, numlier of cases 13, deaths 8 ; 
Gallipoli^, O'aio, on Oliio River, population 3,700, number of cases 51, deaths 



94 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



31 ; Galman Station, Miss., deaths among Vicksburg refugees; Garner Station, 
Miss., population 200, number of cases 31, deaths 13; Geruiantown, Shelby 
County, Tenn., population 253, number of cases 81, deaths 45; Gills Station, 
Tenn., three miles from Memphis, 1 death; Grand Junction, Tenn., on M. & 
C. R. E., 201 cases, 82 deaths — 1 in 2.2 ; Greenville, Miss., on Mississippi 
River, population 1,350, number of cases 1,137, deaths 387 — 1 in 3.40; Grenada, 
Miss., 100 miles from Memphis, population estimated at 2,000, number of cases 
1,468, deaths 367 — 1 iu 4; Gretna, La., three miles from Algiers, population 
900, number of cases 210, deaths 60—1 in 3.2 ; Halifax, Jsova Scotia, H. M. S. 
Bullfinch , most of the crew down ; mortality heavy ; Handsboro, Harrison County, 
Miss., population 400, number of cases 110, deaths 15 — 1 in 7 ; Harrisonburg, 
La., on Ouachita River, population 275, number of cases 30, deaths 10 — 1 in 
3; Haynes' Bluff, Miss., on Yazoo River, number of cases 160, deaths 19 — 1 
in 8; Henderson's Landing, La., on Mississippi River, population 25, number 
of cases 16, deaths 5 — 1 in 3 ; Hernando, Miss., population 1,000 ; number of 
cases 179, deaths 75 — 1 in 2.2; Hickman, Ky., on Mississippi River, popula- 
tion 1,950, number of cases 454, deaths 180 — 1 in 2.2; Holly Springs, Miss., 
population 4,000, number of cases 1,240, deaths 346 — 1 in 3.2; Huntsville, 
Ala., number of cases 33 (all imirorted), deaths 13 — 1 in 2.2; Jackson, Miss., 
pojiulation 3,000, number of cases 326, deaths 77 — 1 in 4.4; Key West, Fla., 
population 5,000, number of cases 162, deaths 39 — 1 in 4; King's Point, Miss., 
on Mississippi River, 92 cases, 6 deaths — 1 in 15 ; Knoxville, Tenn., the only 
cases were refugees — not recorded ; La Fourche Crossing, La., population 1,800, 
number of cases 235, deaths — 1 in 12; Labadieville, La., and vicinity, 760 
cases, 150 deaths — 1 in 5; Lagrange, Tenn., population 712, number of cases 
152, deatlis 37 — 1 in 4; Lake, Scott County, Miss., population 400, number 
of cases 268, deaths 64 — 1 in 4; Lawrence Station, Miss., number of cases 16, 
deatlis 5; Lebanon Church, Miss., total cases 192, deatlis 44 — 1 in 4.2; 
Leigh ton, Calvert County, Ala., 1 refugee died; Lewes, Delaware, on 
Delaware Bay, 4 out of a crew of 8 died on a vessel in the Bay ; Lockport, 
N. y., a Memjihis refugee died; Logtown, Hancock County, Miss., 40 
cases, 9 deaths — 1 in 4.2; Louisville, Ky., number of cases 126, deaths 
34 — 1 in 4; McCombs City, Pike County, Miss, cases 7, deaths 3; 
McKenzie, Carroll County, Tenn., 14 cases, 4 deaths; McNairy (a plantation 
six miles from Dry Grove, Miss.), 36 cases, 9 deaths — 1 in 4; Mandeville, La., 
a few cases, with 3 deaths ; Martin, Weakly County, Tenn. (population 515), 
number of cases 126, deaths 34 — 1 in 3.3 ; Mason, Tipton County, Tenn. (poj^ula- 
tion 260), number of cases 61, deaths 24 — 1 in 2.2 ; Memphis, Tenn., number of 
cases 17,600, deaths 5,150 — ratio of mortality to cases, 1 in 3.3, to population, 
reduced to about 19,500, a fraction less than 1 in 4; Meridian, Miss, (population 
3,000), number of case 382, deaths 86—1 in 3.4; Michigan City, Benton 
County, Miss., 2 cases, 2 deaths; Milan, Gibson County, Tenn, (population 
2,025), number of cases 26, deaths 11 — 1 in 2.2 ; Mississippi City, Miss, (pop- 
ulation 300), number of cases 165, deaths 19 — 1 in 8.2; Mobile, Ala. (popula- 
tion 32,000), number of cases 288, deaths 80—1 in 3.2; Morgan City, La. 
(population 1,000), number of cases 540, deaths 108 — 1 in 5 ; Moscow, number 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



95 



of cases 75, deaths 33 — 1 in 2.4 ; Mulatto Bayou, Miss., 1 case, 1 deatli ; Nash- 
ville, Tenn., 96 cases (all refuges from infected places), deaths 18 — 1 in 5.4. 
On the 6th of August fever broke out on the steamer Manj Houston at New 
Albany, Ind. , which had recently arrived from New Orleans, creating alarm 
there and at Louisville. Fondy Carroll, from the same vessel, had previously 
died in Louisville of the fever, on the 1st of August. New Yoi'k City, four 
Memphis refuges died— no otiier cases; Norfolk, Va., several cases on vessel in 
harbor, 1 proving fatal; Nubbin Ridge, Slielby County, Tenn., 2 cases, 2 
deaths; Ocean Springs, Jackson County, Miss, (population 450), number of 
cases 86, deaths 28 — 1 in 3 ; Ozyka, Pike Co., Miss, (population 450), number of 
cases 350, deaths 53 — 1 in 6.2 ; Paincourtville, La. (population 400), number 
of cases 159, deaths 13 — 1 in 12 ; Paris, Tenn., 118 cases, 28 deaths — 1 in 4; 
Pass Christian, Miss, (population 1,250), number of cases 200, deaths 27 — 1 in 
7.3; Pascagoula, Jackson County, Miss, (population 650), number of cases 17, 
deaths 4 — 1 in 4; Patterson ville. La., and vicinity, number of cases 300, 
deaths 93 — 1 in 3.4; Pearlington, Hancock County, Miss, (population 500), 
cases 5, deaths 1; Philadelphia, Pa., 2 Vicksburg refugees, the only cases 
known; Pensacola, Fla., crew of a brig in harbor the only cases; Pittsburgh, 
Pa., 1 death, from Steamer Porter;'-^ Plaquemine, La., on Mississippi River 



® The history of the steam-tug John I). Porter is one of the most interesting episodes 
of the epidemic of 1878. For two months she, with two barges, moved up the Missis- 
sippi and Ohio rivers, a floating charnel-house, carrying death and destruction to nearly 
all who had any thing to do with lier. Twenty-three persons died on her from the time 
she left New Orleans until she ancliored near Pittsburgh. From her the fever was taken 
to Gallipolis, Ohio, where, out of 51 persons attacked, 31 died. When the Porter landed 
three miles below Gallipolis, on the morning of the 19th of August, the engineers 
refused to remain any longer at their post of duty. A strong guard was placed over 
the tug and her barges to prevent any one from landing from her. There were ten cases 
of fever on board at the time, three of them very ill, among the number the Captain, 
John Bickerstaff. Engineer Charles De Grelmr n, of Pittsburgh, and William Koehler, 
from Pomeroy, had previously died. Notwithstanding the guards, some of the crew- 
went ashore, and were eventually followed by all the rest but two, who were too sick to 
leave. With these Dr. Carr, of the Board of Health of Cincinnati, remained, heroically 
refusing to leave his post of duty until one of them died and the other recovered. After 
this result, he went ashore at Gallipolis and did what he could for the plague-stricken 
people. While there, among others, his attention was called to a case of yellow fever 
ten miles out from the place, and, in company with a resident physician, he rode out in 
a buggy to the house of a small farmer by the name of Buck, or Burke, whose son was 
the victim. Dr. Carr arrived at the place after night-fall, and found the farmer sitting 
at a watch-fire of pine-knots in front of his domicil, afraid to enter it, lest he should 
catch the yellow fever. The doctor made known the object of his visit. The man was 
glad to see him, for he said that all the rest of the family had gone, scared away by his 
boy's horrible sickness. He thought his boy was dead, for he had not heard him for 
several hours, and did not dare to enter the house. While they were talking a groan 
was heard in the house. Dr. Carr took a brand and entered, and, following the direc- 
tions of the father, found the bedroom, but not the patient. The place was in a state 
of disorder, and was filthy. An abominable stench pervaded it, and the three ground- 
floor rooms were smeared all over with black vomit and other unutterable excreta of the 
wretched victim. It was a sickening sight. Dr. Carr came out and told the father that 



96 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



(population 1^500), number of cases 950, deaths 117 — 1 in 8; Point a la 
Haelie, La., on Mississippi River, 4 cases, all fatal; Point Pleasant, La., 
GO cases, 13 deaths — 1 in J. 2 ; Port Eads, Ln., 62 cases, 14 deaths — 1 in 4.2 ; 
Port Gibson, Miss, (population 1,500), number of cases in town and vicinity 
1,340, deaths 294 — 1 in 4.2; Port Hudson, La. (population 200), number 
of cases 74, deaths 12 — 1 in 6; Raleigh, Tenn., 9 miles from Memphis, cases 
64, deaths 18 — 1 in 3.2 ; Richoc, a jjlimtation near Franklin, La., 62 cases, 

18 deaths — 1 in 3.2; Rocky Springs, Miss., cases 127, deaths 39 — 1 in 3f ; 
St. Gabriel, La. (population 425), cases 132, deaths 38 — 1 in 3f ; St. James, 
La., 36 cases, 4 deaths — 1 in 9; St. Louis, Mo., 116 cases, 46 deaths — 1 in 
2.2— principally among refugees ; Senatobia, Tate County, Miss, (population 
1,400) cases 26, deaths 7 — 1 in 4; Somerville, Fayette County, Tenn. , number 
of cases 151, deaths 66 — 1 in 2.3; Southwest Pass, on Mississipjii River, cases 
26, deaths 8; Stephenson, Ala., 5 cases, 2 deaths; Stone ville. Miss., and 
vicinity, 110 cases, 80 deaths — 1 in 1.2; Summit, Pike County, Miss., a few 
cases and 3 deaths; Sunflower, Miss., on Mississippi River, 48 cases, 15 
deaths — 1 in 3; Talliilah, La., and vicinit}', number of cases 33, deaths 4 — 1 
in 8; Tangijiaha, La., and vicinity (population 300), number of cases 178, 
deaths 69 — 1 in 4 ; Terry, Hinds County, Miss, (popidation 225), number of 
cases 10, deaths 5 — 1 in 2 ; Terrene, Ark., on White River, cases 21, deaths 

19 ; Thibodeaux Parish, La., total cases in parish 1,800, deaths 175 — 1 in 10; 



the young man was not inside. "He must be in there somewhere," replied the man, 
"for I heard him groan just now." Dr. Carr replenished his light and reentered, and 
after a careful search found what he thought at first was a negro, covered with black 
and filthy clothing, in a dirty corner behind the cooking-stove. It was the wretched, 
abandoned, and dying youth, covered with filth, who, in his delirium and search for 
water, had crawled all over the dirty floors of the cabin, and, finally exhausted, sank 
down in the corner to die. Dr. Carr learned that for twenty-four hours no one had 
boon near the poor wretch. His own flesh and blood forsook him and fled, and there he 
suffered and died in a manner that freezes one's blood to think of. Such was the dread 
which the pestilence originated, and such the fearful condition of brutal indifference to 
all but self, which it in many instances developed. The Porter was afterward put in 
projjor sanitary condition by her owners, and her two barges were destroyed. Many 
other steamers pa.ssed up from New Orleans in August, to which was refused clean bills 
of health. Among them the John A.Scudder, on which one case developed on the 7th of 
August — a lady — who was put off at Refuge Landing, Miss., and there died. The 
Golden Croxm, which jjassed up some days before, and at Memphis put off several pas- 
sengers, was not allowed to land at any of the points above. She tried to evade the 
quarantine, it was said, as she did at Memphis, notwithstanding Dr. Lawrence refu.sed 
to give her a clean bill of health, and Dr. John Erskino compelled her to anchor in the 
stream. William Warne, one of the first cases (the first reported by the Board of 
Health), had been a deck-hand on the Golden Crorvn. At Cairo she was ordered off, but 
at Mound City she landed all that remained of her passengers on the 19th, all well. At 
Shawneetown, 111., as she approaclied, a military company was sent down to the river to 
prevent her landing. Her answer to this demonstration was what the local papers 
termed a piece of bravado. She fired one gun, as a salute to the military, and all hands 
turned out on the decks, and Went to fiddling, dancing, and frolicking. The steamer 
Mary Houston also passed up with fever on board, which developed at New Albany, on 
the 6th, to an alarming extent, several of those attacked dying. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



97 



Tiisciimbia, Ala. (population 1,300), nearly all left, and disease was confined 
to Memphis refugees and colored people of the town; cases 119, deaths 31 — 1 
in 4; Tuscaloosa, Ala., 2 cases, 2 deaths; Valley Horn, Miss. (Horn Lake), 
cases 30, deaths 17 — 1 in 2; Vicksburg, Miss., Washington, D. C, 5 cases, 5 
deaths — all refugees from infected places ; Water Valley, Miss, (population 
3,000), number of cases 146, deaths 47—1 in 3 ; White Haven, Slielby 
County, Tenn.; Whistler, Ala., a few cases of refugees, one of whom died; 
Williston, Tenn. (pojiulation 200), cases 16, deaths 11 — 1 in 1.2; Winchester, 
Tenn., one refugee died ; Winona, Montgomery County, Miss., of a popula- 
tion of 1,700 all fled l)ut 200, number of cases 27, deaths 9—1 in 3; Wythe 
Depot, five miles from Memphis, 16 cases, 7 deaths — 1 in 2.2; Yazoo City, 
Miss., on Yazoo River, number of cases 17, deaths 7 — 1 in 2.2. 

1879. — Rio Janeiro, Para, and the north-western provinces of Brazil. Also 
Santo Domingo, and Cuba, West Indies. New Os'leans, La., one case (im- 
ported), March 31st; The United States steamer Plipnouth, which sailed from 
Boston March 15th, for a cruise to the West Indies, returned to that city 
April 4th, yellow fever having broken out when three hundred miles soutli- 
east of Bermuda. The boatswain died of the disease. Tlie ship returned 
from the West Indies last autumn with yellow fever on board, and it was 
thought that fumigation and the frosts of a very severe winter in Boston had 
destroyed all tiie germs.* The IMoblle Kcics, of the 16th of April, states tliat 

*■ The first two cases were announced on the 23d, eight days from the date of departure 
of the Plymouth from Boston, the vessel being in good condition and the crew in perfect 
health. She was on her way to Guadaloupe, but when she reached latitude 22 north, a 
short distance from Bermuda, the fever made its appearance. The Pli/nwuth had several 
cases of yellow fever on board her while at Santa Cniz, in November of 1878. Two of 
them resulted in death, the others recovered. She sailed at once for the north, where she 
could be frozen out during the winter, as that had usually been considered a perfect 
preventive of the spread of the disease. She lay all winter in Boston, where every 
thing known to sanitary science was used to disinfect her of the germs of yellow fever. 
She was entirely broken np, the stores landed and exposed to a freezing temperature, 
and the ship thoroughly fumigated several times. A part of the time the ship was in a 
dock, where large quantities of ice remained, and the temperature frequently reached a 
point below zero. The water in the tanks and buckets in the store-rooms were con- 
stantly frozen, and when she was removed from the dock and fires lighted mider her 
boilers, she was so thoroughly chilled that for several days the water remained frozen 
in her bilges. When the Plymouth left Boston all men of weak constitution or suscept- 
ible of climatic influences were removed from her, and she went to sea with a crew 
entirely healthy. Yet, notwithstanding all these precautions, yellow fever made its 
appearance, as above stated. But the most curious and remarkable fact of all is that 
the first man attacked, Eichard Sanders, machinist, had his hammock slung in the pre- 
cise place of the man who first showed symptoms of yellow fever in Santa Cruz in 
November last. For the present the Plymouth is in quarantine ofTthe Portsmouth navy- 
yard, where every precaution has been taken to prevent intercourse with the sliore. 
All the sick on board were taken to the quarantine hospital, and all her crew have 
been removed from on board. There was, after her arrival in Boston, one death from 
yellow fever, Peter Egan, the boatswain's mate, who was the second and last case on 
board. Eichard Sanders, who was the first to show symptoms of the disease, recovered. 
This experience of the Plymouth agrees with the two cases of death by yellow fever — 



98 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



the bark Viscount Canning, Murphy, arrived in the lower bay on Monday, in 
ballast, from Rio Janeiro, having left that port on the first of February. 
There had been two deaths from fever, the last one on February 14th. Cap- 
tain Murphy visited the city on Tuesday, to see if the bark Avould be allowed 
to come up. The Board of Health took the matter under consideration, and 
in the meantime Captain Murphy was asked to return on board until some 
definite action was taken, for, although there might be no danger of contagion, 
yet, in the feverish condition of public sentiment, it was best to run no risk. 



one in New Orleans, the other in Memphis — given in the closing pages of the first 
division of this book, and enforces the conclusion there stated that frost does not kill 
the germs ; yet it is only just that Mr. Gamgee's opposing views be given, especially 
since the National Government has appropriated $200,000 for the purpose of fully 
testing his freezing apparatus. He says that the "United States vessel Plymouth was 
not thoroughly disinfected by the operation of natural frost, as alleged, while last winter 
in Boston. The report is that fire was kept up uninterruptedly in the captain's cabin, 
and moreover that the presence of water around the hull would preserve a temperature 
on the decks below the water line sufficiently high to keep the germs alive. Mr. Gamgee 
insists that cold air must be forced into the lower holds of ships by artificial means to 
make the freezing process successful." 

The Surgeon-General of the U. S. Navy has furnished the following facts in regard 
to the last outbreak of yellow fever on the United States steamer Plymouth: "On Nov. 
7, 1878, four cases of yellow fever occurred on board the vessel while lying in the har- 
bor of Santa Cruz; these were removed to the hospital on shore, and the ship sailed to 
Norfolk. Three mild cases occurred during the voyage, and the Plymouth was ordered 
to Portsmouth, N. H., thence to Boston. At the latter port every thing was removed 
from the ship and all jiarts of the interior freely exposed to a temperature which fre- 
quently fell below zero, the exposure continuing for more than a month. Ihiring this 
time the water in the tanks, bilges, and in vessels placed in the store-rooms was frozen. 
One hundred pounds of sulphur was burned below decks, this fumigation continuing 
for two days, and the berth-decks, holds, and store-rooms were thoroughly whitewashed. 
On March loth [1879] the ship sailed from Boston southward ; on the 19th, during a severe 
gale, the liatches had to be battened down, and the berth-deck became very close and 
■damp. On the 23d two men showed decided symptoms of yellow fever, and on the 
recommendation of the surgeon the vessel was headed northward. The sick men were 
isolated, and measures adopted for improving the hygienic condition of the vessel and 
crew. The surgeon reported that he believed the infection to he confined to the hull of 
the ship, especially to the unsound wood about the berth-deck, all the cases but one 
having occurred within a limited area ; and that, while the Plymouth is in good sanitary 
condition for service in temperate climates, should she be sent to a tropical station, 
probably no precautionary measures whatever would avail to i^revent an outbreak of 
yellow fever." 



THE EPIDEMIC IN MEMPHIS, 18T8. 



(99) 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



101 



THE EPIDEMIC IN MEMPHIS, 1878. 



I. 

To reach some of the causes inducing the awful havoc of the yellow fever 
epidemic in Memphis, during the months of August, September, October, and 
November, 1878, and the impoverished and helpless condition of her people, 
it will be necessary to review a part at least of the history of that city. By 
a mismanagement, the result of the ignorance of the city legislators and the 
indifference of the better cla.s.ses of her people, during a few years, Memphis 
was reduced, in January, 1878, to bankruptcy. Her debt, floating and bonded, 
tlien amounted to more than $5,500,000. Her taxable wealth, which before 
the civil war was estimate<l at $28,000,000, was reduced to $18,000,000, and 
of that $6,000,000 had been bought in by the State at tax sales, having been 
delinquent for years. The population had doubled, but the volume of trade 
was only a slight increase over tliat of 1860. Negro&s, who, under the system 
of slavery, which prevailed up to tlie breaking out of the civil war, had been 
productive laborers in the cotton fields of the adjoining States, attractetl l)y 
the excitement it affords, flocked to the city, where at least one-third of them 
were added to the ranks of the very poor, and either as petty tliieves or 
wortldess paupers, depredated upon the industrious few of their own color, but 
for the most part upon the thrifty whites. Thus the non-producers — those who 
consume without laboring and live without the least regard for the obligations 
of good citizenship — were increased to the proportions of a small army. Be- 
sides this, taxation was high. Economy in public as in private affairs was un- 
known. The period between 1865 and 1873, it will be remembered, was one of 
extravagance throngliout the Union. Municipalities were freely bled for, in some 
cases, unnecessary public and semi-public improvements. Appropriations of 
public monies were made in the most reckless way. There was no provision for 
the morrow, no consideration for the future. Promises to i)ay were lavishly 
issued. Wall Street was in many instances supplicated to take the bonds 
of solvent corporations at two-thirds of their face value. Capital was aggress- 
ive, predatory, and supreme. Nearly every county and town was busy 
issuing scrip or bonds. It was a pei iod of wanton waste that by the light of 
the intelligence usually charnctei-istic of the American j)eople is without 
excuse. Thousands of miles of raili-oad were built that have not and will not 
for years to come pay dividends. The life insurance mania was at its height. 
To incur obligations without the means to meet them when pay-day came 
round seemed to be the order of the day. Extravagance raged as an 



102 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



epidemic. Swindlers and rogues were everywhere reveling in ill-gotten gains. 
Tlie people were blind to their folly, and infatuated by the fictitious evidences 
of progress. The destructive demon of bankruptcy was hovering over the 
land preparing for his work. Memphis was no better than New York. Theft 
was net committed was the case in the great metropolis, but ignorance and 
incapacity Avere working as great a wrong. Taxes were levied, but were not 
collected. The current expenses could not be met. >Scrip was resorted to. 
The city government went into the banking business, and scattered its promises 
to pay broadcast. There was at one time as much as $960,000 of it afloat. 
It was sold as low as twenty-three cents on the dollar. When the policemen, 
firemen, and other employes could not get par for it, they petitioned the 
General Council to have the difference made up to them. This was for some 
time done, but always by a fresh issue of sciip. The county, at the same 
time, under the government of commissioner.^, was engaged in the same 
method of slow hut sure financial suicide. Tlie press expostulated; it was 
not heeded. Those who controlled municipal afiairs had no regard for public 
opinion. The property owners seemed to be, if they were not wholly, in- 
different. The merchants were too busy with their private afKiirs to pay any 
attention to those of the public, and the people generally were so absorbed 
in tiie work of rehal)ilitating their homes despoiled by the war as to be care- 
less of the recklessness of their representatives. They did not see, they would 
not see, that a crop of wholesale ruin was being sown in a soil all too pro- 
ductive. There were not wanting spasmodic attempts at " letrenchment and 
reform," but these occurred at rare intervals. The stream of ruin steadily 
increased in volume and violence until at last it reached a point where a halt 
was called to prevent utter and entire lo,-s. When the debt had reached the 
enormous sum of $5,500,000, the State, as has been stated, had taken posses- 
sion of one-third of the realty for delinquent taxes, leaving only §12,000,000 
worth to bear the burdens imposed for the support of the State, county, and 
city governments. The city, while this monument of folly was in course of 
construction, had passed through six epidemics — one of war, one of recon- 
struction, two of yellow fever (1867 and 1873), one of cholera, and one of 
small-pox. Up to 1878, for twenty years, Memphis had been the center of an 
extraordinary political agitation, of the passion and prejudice of the two 
sections, of the heat and strife of civil commotion, the un charitableness of 
sectional animosity and the bitterness of party politics. In all that time there 
was not a single year of repose, of quiet, steady conservative endeavor, such as 
was before the war characteristic of the cities and towns of the South. The pub- 
lie pulse beat feverishly, and the ver}'^ uncertainties of life became a provocation 
to wastefulness and extravagance. That under such circumstances Memphis 
survives to-day is a special wonder to all fiimiliar with her wayward and 
untoward history. In any other country, and by any other people, she would 
long since have been abandoned and given over to decay and ruin. Having 
tluis suffered, and living in a constant ferment of excitement, it is not to be 
wondered at tliat in August of 1878 the mere rumor of a possible epidemic 
of yellow fever precipitated a panic among tlie people. This was initiated 



A HISTORY OF THK YELLOW FEVER. 



103 



early in May, wlien the question of quarantine was agitated with a view to 
prevent a visitation of the disease then known to prevail in epidemic form 
in the West Indies. This agitation monopolized the public mind for several 
weeks, but Avas eventually disposed of by the General Council, which, 
although petitioned thereto by the whole Ijody of merchants and business 
men, refused to permit its estal)lishment. On this Dr. Mitchell, Piesident 
of the Board of Health, resigned, and was succeeded by Dr. Saunders wlio, 
aided by a prompt subscription of funds by tlie merchants,* immediately 
set about improving the sanitary condition of the city, which was disgraceful 
in the extreme. Miles of Nicholson pavement were decaying and sending 
forth a poison that none in the city limits could avoid, and tlie soil was 
reeking with the offal and e.xcreta of ten thousand families. There was no 
organized scavenger system, no means by Avhich the ashes and garbage could, 
as it should be, daily carted away. The accumulations of forty years were 
decaying upon the surface ; a bayou dividing tiie city, and which was the 
receptacle of the contents of privies and Matei'-closets, was sluggisii and without 
current, owing to the want of water and the fact that there had been scarcely 
any rain for several weeks. Dead animals were decaying in many parts of it, 
and the pools which had formed at the abutments of the several bridges were 
stagnant and covered with a scum of ])utridity, emitting a deadly efHnvia. 
The cellars of the houses in the leading thor(jng]ifares were also alembics, in 
which were manufactured noxious gases which stole ovit and made the night 
air an almost killing poison. The streets were filthy, and every affliction that 
could aggravate a disease so cruel seemed to have been purposely prepared 
for it by the criminal neglect of the cit}' government, who turned a deaf ear 
to the persistent ajipealsof the press. But they were not wholly to blame ; the 
charter, under M'hich they acted, was so worded as to provide but little funds 
for sanitary relief, and no relief in case of the dreadful emergency of an 
epidemic, notwithstanding 1867 and 1873. Every interest was carefully 
guarded and provided for, save that of the health and lives of the peojile. 
They must either take care of themselves — that is, be prepared to abandon 
their homes when yellow fever or cholera made its apjiearance — or be ready to 
meet death. Ignorant of the laws of life, its framers denied to themselves and 
their fellow-citizens the advantages of a growing intelligence in regard to san- 
itary affairs. But even these were not much to be blamed ; their ignorance of 
sanitation curses every city in the land ; f )r what municipality in the Union is 
to-day in a condition to resist epidemic disease if once it secures a foothold 
under the conditions necessary to its rajud propagation ? Perhaj)s Boston, no 
other could. Defective sewerage,"!' if nothing else, dominates all attempts at 

— . — I, 

*Tlie city treasury was empty. 

t Dr. T. P. Corbally, in an article on the " Brooklyn sewers," which appeared in the 
April (1879) number of the Sanitai-ian, takes tlie ground that "The system is ratlically 
wrong, and that the sewers, accepting them as they are, have been managed with a 
degree of negligence which becomes criminal in view of the danger which such negli- 
gence causes to the health and the lives of the people." To sustain this position, he 
adduces a great deal of proof, the best of which is contained in an extract, which he 



104 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



pei'fect sanitation, and the clamors of the gutter politicians are more effective 
than the warnings and appeals of skilled sanitarians. Seaboard cities have 
permanent pools of filth at every dock, and those inland pour into the rivers 
on the banks of which they are built a continuous stream of nameless nasti- 
ness that increases with the population. The quarters of the very poor are, 
for want of suitable provision or accommodation, as bad as those of many of 
the older cities of Europe. Instead of being an example, as Ave are in so many 
other respects for the world, ours, in sanitary matters, are, many of them, little 
better than the poorest cities of the least advanced nations of Europe. We 
have gas and water in our houses, but we have also water-closets, Avhich 
are so many means of escape for the most subtle of all the life-destroy- 
ing gases.* After tlie experiences of 1873, it was hoped by the press that 
the citizens of Memphis, so far as they could, would compel a reform that 
would enhance the value of human life. Instead of that they permitted the 
passage of the new charter, Avhich cheapened it by preferring remedies for 

quotes from the Keport of the Engineer to the Board of Health of Brooklyn, as follows: 
"During' storms, when the sewers are in a measure gorged, and the increased flow 
within them is backed into the house-drains, the rush of water with so great a fall 
through the leader will render its use as a ventilator for the drain entirely out of the 
question, and the gases in the drains will be forced somewhere into the house. Its 
failure as a ventilator occurs during the very time when it is most needed, by reason 
of the increased pressure having been brought upon all the traps communicating with 
the drain." Again, "The inhabitants are clamorous to be free from foul sewerage in 
their cellars, and to be saved the expense of cleaning them whenever thej' are flooded. 
Tlie property has been assessed for the construction of these sewers, and successive 
Health Boards have compelled the owners to connect their houses with these elongated 
cess-pools" — cess-pools that make life as cheap on tlie average in Brooklyn as in Xcw 
Orleans, which, as Dr. Holt, of that city, claims, rests upon a dung-heap. And Xew 
York, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and, no doubt,. 
San Francisco, are quite as bad. The sewerage systems of these, and nearU- all our 
cities, are nothing better than so many " elongated cess-pools," from which the gases 
escape "somewhere in the houses," resulting in typhoid fever, small-pox, scarlet fever, 
diphtheria, croup, and meningitis, which carry off so many jjersons as to bring the 
average of deaths up to, in some cases above, that of New Orleans. From this death- 
dealing poison there is only one escape, and that is by the destruction by fire of excreta, 
ashes, and debris and offal of every description. Fire is the purifier. In every ward 
of every city in the country, and in every town, furnaces for this pui-pose should be 
erected. Water-closets should be done away with, and the sewers should alone be used 
for carrying ofT the surface water of the streets and the waste water of the houses ; and 
from them large ventilating pipes should lead into the sanitary furnaces, so that any 
lurking or latent poisons might be drawn' off" by the draught created by the fire, into , 
which it would pass to be consumed. Sewer-gas is to-day killing more persons every! 
year than the yellow fever in its worst periods of ejjidemic, a«d so long as water-closets 
are allowed to exist it will continue to kill, just as, until a better sanitary system 
obtains in the southern cities, visitations of yellow fever may be expected. 

■•■ Among the many disorders which may arise from the effluvia of drains and sewers, 
two additional ones have been recently mentioned in the English journals for the first 
time, viz., abscess of the cervical glands, and a tendency on the part of ulcerated surfaces 
to become sluggish and to yield to no ordinary management. Sometimes these ulcers 
take on a diphtlieritoid appearance. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



105 



every thing el-e but the public safety. A few thousand dollars were set apart 
for that purpose, scarcely enough for a month of effective sanitary work. An 
efficient Board of Health thus found its hands tied. It could do next to 
nothing, and confronted by an ignorance so obtuse and besotted as to reject all 
instruction, its members became disheartened. In this condition the rumors 
of yellow fever ftll upon the public ear full of evil portent, and the hope of 
the people fell to zero. Apprehensions thus awakened were quickened almost 
beyond control by the jiublication, in the morning papers of the 26tli of July, of 
the fact that the yellow fever had made its ajtpearance in New Orleans and threat- 
ened to become epidemic. The tardiness with which this information readied 
the doomed city was not due to any want of diligence on the part of the State 
or city health authorities. Dr. i\Iaury, of the State Board, wrote to Dr. Chopin, 
of the New Orleans Board, on the 21st of May, asking for information. He 
received a curt reply that l:e (^lauiy) would receive official information regu- 
larly, and that he (Chopin) would not conceal any thing from the public. He 
stated additionally that the Boruma, from Liverpool, via Havana, was then 
quarantined below the city with six cases of yellow fever on board. Dr. Chopin 
was evidently on the qui vive. But notwithstanding his vigilance, the steamer 
Sudder passed up to the city wharf on the 23d. The purser of that vessel, 
who had evaded quarantine, sickened and died of yellow fever. In him it is 
asserted that the ejiidemic had its origin, and from him it spread. Dr. Maury 
continued to receive the New Orleans weekly health reports, according to the 
health officer's promise, but no cases of yellow fever were found in them ; nor 
was any warning of even the existence of the disease conveyed until the 
26th of July, when the newspapei'S of the country published Dr. Chopin's 
letter to Dr. Woodworth, Supervising Surgeon of J\larine Hospitals at Wash- 
ington, although it is well known that cases occurred before, and were re- 
ported about the 13th of July, and that the malady had been making 
havoc in the neighborhood of the refuge of the purser and mate of the death- 
freighted Sudder. But slow as the sad news was in reaching Memphis, it came 
all too fast. So soon as it was verified, the herdth officer, Dr. John Erskine, noti- 
fied the city authorities, who, at last, but only when the whole population was 
worked up to a point of dread, in some cases bordering on insanity, gave consent 
to the establishment of the quarantine which they had refused to provide for 
only a few days before. The doctor, a noble example of official zeal, profes- 
sional enthusiasm, and manly independence, at once jierfected arrangements, and 
quarantine stations were established on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, 
at Germantown, some twelve miles from the city, on the Mississijipi and Ten- 
nessee Railroad, at Whitehaven Station, eight miles from the city, and on the 
river at the lower or southern point of President's Island. It was believed that 
this would prove effectual, especially as the railroad and steambont officials had 
promised to second it by a rigid surveillance over passengers and baggage; and 
the peojjle on the lines mentioned, and all along the river, for their personal 
safety, talked of or had already taken measures to enforce, in each case, local 
quarantine, by a decided exhibit of pjwer in the form of a hastily formed mili- 
tia or police force. These measures and assurances had some effect with most 



I 



106 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



of the people of the city, but there were a few who, in a purely idle spirit, some of 
them because they had nothing else to do, went about expressing their own fears, 
and with an assumption of wisdom wliich neither their experience, habits, or 
education would warrant, predicted the direst consequences to the city. The 
uneasy feeling thus kept alive by the shiftless and thriftless gossips of the street, 
Avas aggravated by the announcement, on the 2d of August, of a case of yellow 
fever at the City Hospital — a steamboatman, who died at quarantine on the 3d — 
and by the dispatches from New Orleans, which every day gave an increased 
number of cases, and a mortality that, in proportion, Mas much larger than had 
before been known in that city. On the 9th of August, rumors prevailed that 
the fever had made its appearance in Grenada, Miss., the southern terminus of 
the Mississippi and Tennessee Railroad. Inquiry by telegraph, made on the 
10th by citizens of Memphis, brought the most positive contradictions. But 
on the very day these were published in the newspapers there came a most 
anxious call for nurses and physicians. This appeal was responded to by the 
Howard Association,* Butler P. Anderson and W. J. Smith volunteering their 
services. These gentlemen left the city on the afternoon train and reached 
Grenada that night. On Monday, Anderson telegraphed to the Appeal that 
yellow fever, of the same type as that which cost Memphis 2,000 lives in 1873, 
prevailed epidemically, that twenty new cases had developed during the twenty- 
four hours since his arrival, and there was then a total of one hundred cases, 
none of which had so far yielded to treatment. The publication of these 
facts, and others from other sources of information, on the 13th of August, 
had the effect of exciting the people of the city to the last degree of alarm. 
Business was neglected. Men met in groups and discussed the news, and 
the probability of Memphis being attacked, little dreaming that already the 
fever had made a lodgment in the city, and had taken its second victim, 

*The parent Association was organized twenty-five years ago (1853) in New Orleans, 
■when it and other cities of the South were so cruelly afflicted with the fever, and such 
horror and panic were excited that liusbands deserted their wives, parents their cliildren, 
and the ties of common humanity seemed shattered. Napoleon B. Kneass, now of Phil- 
adel|)hia, but formerly a merchant of New Orleans, says that the organization originated 
in his store, among his clerks, especially two of them, whose mother was from San Do- 
mingo, and had seen much of the epidemic. They went about the city, hunted up new 
cases, and furnished the sufferers with medicines prepared by her and found elfective in 
Hayti. From tliese clerks, as a nucleus, the Association was formed. Young men of wealth 
joined it, and the name of Howard was adopted, in lionor of the renowned English pliilan- 
thropist. They obtained medicines, nurses, and physicians, and established agencies in 
all the towns and cities that had been, or were likely to he, infected, binding themselves 
to act together at every reappearance of the pestilence. This body increased rapidly in 
numbers and means, and before the civil war it was one of the richest benevolent socie- 
ties in the country. That bitter contest left most of its members poor, and the Associa- 
tion h:is been crippled in its power to do good. Until recently they never asked for aid, 
but any contributions to the cause were received, and distributed according to existing 
need. They divide the town or city into districts, to each of wliich members are assigned, 
and, when the disease reveals itself, each case is immediately reported to headquarters. 
The visiting committee at once investigates the matter, physicians and nurses are em- 
ployed, and every thing is done that can be done to relieve the patient. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



107 



perhaps more. The death of Mrs. Bionda, an Italian snack-house keeper, 
was announced on the 14th as the first case originating in the city.* This 
increased the general fear. The little comjmny of panic-stricken citizens 
was increased to a regiment, and in that ratio every hour until the next 
morning (the 15th), when the announcement of twenty-two new cases gave a 
fresh impetus to their dread, and, passing all bounds and limits of sense, 
thinking only of their personal safety, many of them indifferent to their fate, 
so they could get away from the now-admittedly-infected city, sougiit 
safety in flight. The announcement of thirty-three new cases on tiie 16th 
confirmed most of those who wei-e willing to take their chances that an e])i- 
demic threatened, and a hegira ensued, which increased the feeling tliat in- 
spired it, until at last the whole population was precipitated into a panic, 
surpassing all powers of description, and which deadened all human sj'nipa- 
thy, all the kindlier emotions of the human heart, all feeling of kinship, all 
regard for neighborly claims, and in some cases all natural affection. The 
croakers were jubilant. "I told you so!" was often repeated. Business was 
almost as suddenly stopped as the fever began. Stores and offices were 
hastily closed. Sauve que -pute was the order of the day. The future, which 
only a few short weeks before seemed so bright, was forgotten in dread of the 
pestilence, which, in the brief space of forty-eight hours had claimed fifty- 
five victims. Men, women, and children jjoured out of the city by every 
possible avenue of escape. A few steamboats were filled, but these were 

*This is not true. It was ascertained, after the epidemic was fairly establislicd, that 
many cases had occurred before her's. ]\Irs. C. W. Ferguson, boarding at tlie residence 
of Attorney-General G. P. M. Turner, 279 Second Street, states (hat on the 21st of July a 
colored man came up the river, whose wife was cook for ^Ir. Turner. This woman had a 
residence in the yard back of the Turner house, and abutting on an alley which runs from 
Second to Main Street. Her husband had been taken with a severe chill on the boat on 
the morning of the day on which he landed, and when he reached his home had a very high 
fever for several days. For this his wife treated him with hot teas, and he recovered. 
Subsequently, and about ten days after his arrival, Mr. Turner's two children were 
taken with well-marked cases of yellow fever. One of them died, and the other recov- 
ered. In the meantime, a young man named Willie Darby, an employe of Farrell, the 
oyster-dealer, who lived at 277 Second Street, and who was in the habit of passing to his 
meals through the alley infected by the colored man, although he slept in the third 
story of his house, was taken with the fever, but recovered. lie was nursed by his 
aunt, and was not visited by a doctor. His was the second case ; it occurred on the 
25th of July. The good woman who saved his life took the fever and died, as did 
nearly all who lived in the house or in the houses near by. Mrs. Zack (white), who re- 
sided on the opposite side of the street, died of the fever on the 5th of August, and her 
brother-in-law, taken on the 10th, died on the 13th, the day before Mrs. Bionda died. 
About the 1st of August, the steamer Golden Crown landed three ladies, who were taken 
to the residence of Esquire Winters, on Alabama Street, and among them the fever de- 
veloped, it was reported, about the 10th of August. All in this house but the 'Squire 
were attacked, but recovered. Before this, Mr. John Campbell, whose house was o])pii- 
site that of Mr. Winters, was taken sick, and died, it was reported at the time, of con- 
gestion, but afterward was proven to be yellow fever, as his wife and many others were 
subsequently attacked in the same way, and developed well -defined cases of yellow 
fever. 



108 



A HISTORY OF TPIE YELLOW FEVER. 



for the most part shunned, especially by those who had the means 
for raih'oad travel, and liad mind sufficient left to think of the possi- 
bility of their becoming charnel-houses, subject to the quarantines and 
freaks of folly of populations equally scared and bent upcm their own 
safety. Out by tlie country roads to the little hamlets and plantations, where 
many of them were welcome guests in hnppier days ; out by every possi- 
ble conveyance— by hacks, by carriages, buggies, wagons, furniture vans, and 
street drays; away by batteaux, by any thing that could float on the river; 
and by the railroads, the trains on which, especially on the Louisville Road, 
Avei'e so packed as to make the trip to that city, or to Cincinnati, a positive 
torture to many delicate women every mile of the way. The aisles of the cars 
were filled, and the platforms packed. In vain the railroad officials plead, in 
vain they increased the accommodations. The stream of passengers seemed to 
be endless, and they seemed to be as mad as they were many. The ordinary 
courtesies of life were ignored ; politeness gave way to selfishness, and the de- 
sire for personal safety broke through all the social amenities. If there was no 
positive indecency exhibited, there was a pushing, noisy, self-asserting, and 
frenzied rudeness, that was not abashed even in the presence of refined, delicate, 
and sensitive women. There was only one thought uppermost, and that was 
increased to an inexpressible terror. Men, refused admittance to the cars, 
took forcible possession of them, making such an exhibit of will, backed by 
arms, as deterred even the few policemen present from any interference. But 
with these there was more sympathy with than opposition to this rude re- 
bellion against routine, custom, order, and social law. If they made any ef- 
forts to prevent these assaults upon the rules and rights of the railroad 
companies, it was altogether by words, and not deeds. No arrests were 
made — not even when the windows of the cars were opened from the out- 
side, and men and boys were thrust in, over and despite the expostulations 
of the respectable women who occupied the seats. The cars of the trains 
for several days went out literally packed to suffocation with people. Every 
station and town had shortly its quota of refugees from Memphis, who, still 
inspired by the apprehensions Avhich urged them to abandon their neighbors, 
and leave business and property to a j^ossible fate they at no time dreamed 
q^", spread the panic, some of them carrying with them the seeds of the 
disease which, with time and conditions to propagate, afterward brought to 
their hospitable and generous hosts the misery and death which then plagued 
their relatives and friends. To the cities of the far north and the far 
west they fled, too many of them to die on the way, like dogs, neglected 
and shunned, as if cursed of God; or, to reach the wished-for goal, only to 
die, a plague to all about, cainying dismay to those who even then were busy- 
ing themselves for the relief of the stricken cities of the South. In less than 
ten days, by the 24th of August, twenty-five thousand people had left the 
city, and, in two weeks after, five thousand others were in camp, leaving a 
little less than twenty thousand to face consequences they could not escape. Some 
had walked away, having no means to pay for transportation, and, in Arkan- 
sas, many were forced to leave the trains and camp in the forest, unprepared 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



109 



as they were for a mode of living which not even the liardiest can encounter 
without risk to health and life. Shot-gun quarantines were by this time (the 
26th of August) establislied at nearly all j^oints in the interior, as well as upon 
the river ; and, without leave, license, or law, trade was embargoed and travel 
prohibited. For the sake of humanity, men became inhuman. For the sake 
of saving those out of the fever's reach from its touch or taint, they denied a 
refuge to those who wei'e fleeing from it. Law was everyvi'here suspended, but 
order was maintained. Even rogues for a time forgot their occupation, and the 
rash who v/ere addicted to folly were sobered by the fear of the unseen foe by 
this time making itself felt where assurances were held out to the last, based 
upon the stupid zone theory, that it could neither find lodgment nor live. 



II. 

By the last week in August the panic was over in tlie city. All had fled 
who could, and all were in camp who would go. There was then, it was esti- 
mated, about three thousand cases of fever. INIost of the white men who were 
not in bed, and wiio were to be met upon the streets, were engaged in the work 
of relief either as pliysicians, nurses, as Howard visitors, or as members of the 
other organizations whicli did such noble service. The weather C(mtinued in- 
tensely hot and dry. During this month (August), it averaged 82.2° as com- 
pared with 79° for the same month in 1873. In September, it averaged 72° as 
compared with 71° in the same month in 187-3. In October, 60.8° as compared 
with 56° in the same month in 1873, and in Novend)er, 57.8° as compared with 
49° in the same month in 1873.* The drain of the physical energies, induced 
by this long-continued heat, was as fearful as the strain on the* mind and heart, 
induced by the destruction of the fever. Fioni eitlier there was neither re- 

* Dr. Schenck, of St. Louis, insists that ycHow fever is a disease of the tropics, and 
occurs during .July, August, and Septcml.ier. Exceptions to tliis Iiavc occurred in the 
West Indies, where they had a .severe epidemic in February. Dr. La Roche states tliat 
during July Philadelphia has had seven epidemics to commence. New Orleans (from 
LSI 7 to 1853), fourteen ; New York, three ; Boston, two. During the month of August 
Philadelphia had'three ; Charleston, six; New York, two ; Providence, Ehode Island, 
two. Yellow fever being a disease of the tropics, it requires a liigh temperature; it 
never spreads where tlie thermometer stands at less than 72' Fahrenheit. It has Ixui 
proven in Philadelphia, in a series of years embracing many epidemics, that it occurred 
ill no year when the average thermometer at '.> o clock r. m. was under 70° during the 
summer, and that the extent and malignancy of the disease were proportionate t(j the 
extent in which it exceeded that height, and that the average temperature of .Jtnie anil 
•luly, at that hour, governs the season in relation to health, insomuch that if by thetirst 
of August in any year the average shall bo below tliat degree, they feel confident that 
during that season yellow fever will not occur. Dr. Barton says that in evcrv instance 
in yellow fever epidemics iu New Orleans great heat was tlic predominant condition ; 
and it was remarked that the return of the intense heat rein-oduced the fever two or 
three times. In the months of May and June preceding the epidemics at New Orleans, 



no 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



lease nor relief. An appalling gloom hung over the doomed city. At night, 
it was silent as the grave, l)y day, it seemed desolate as the desert. There were 
hours, especially at night, when the solemn oppressions of universal deatli hore 
upon the human mind, as if the day of judgment was about to dawn. Not a 
sound was to be heard ; the silence was painfully profound. Death prevailed 
everywhere. Trade and traffic were suspended. The energies of all wlio re- 
mained were enlisted in the struggle with death. The poor were reduced to 
beggary, and even the rich gladly accepted alms. At midday a noisj" multi- 
tude of negroes broke in upon the awful monotony of death, the dying, and 
the dead, clamoring each for his dole of the bounty which saved the city from 
plunder and tiie torch. When these had gone to their homes, now fast being 
invaded by the fover, the cloud of gloom closed down again and settled, thick, 
black, and liideous, upon every living soul. Even the animals felt the op- 
pression ; they fled from the city. Rats, cats, or dogs Avere not to be seen. 
Death was triumphant. White women were seldom to be met ; children, never. 
TJie voice of prayer was lifted up only at the bed of pain or death, or in some 
home circle where anguish was supreme and death threatened, as in a few cases 
he accomplished total annihilation. Tears for one loved one were choked back 
by the feeling of uncertainty provoked by the sad condition of another. lu 
one case a family of four was found dead in the same room, the bodies par- 
tially decomposed. There were no public evidences of sorrow. The wife was 
borne to the tomb while the husb.ind was unconscious of his loss ; and whole 
families were swept away in such quick succession that not one had knowledge 
of the other's departure. Deat'.i dealt kindly by these. In a week father, 
mother, and sisters and brothers were at rest, at peace. There was no mourn- 
ing ; no widow, no orphans. The parents went first; in a few hours the cliil- 
dren followed. In some cases one of the parents was left dazed, stunned, in a 
condition beyond tears and bordering on insanity. In one such case, a motlier, 
tlius left, turned from her griefs with a brave heart, sustained by a holy trust, 
to nurse the sick. Her losses and trials deepened her sympathies and enabled 
her to appreciate the disheartened, almost demented, condition of those yet in 
the valley of tha shadow, through whic'.i she had passed. She entered the sick- 
room with all the confidence of a martyr and dispensed the holy and comfort- 
ing assurances of a saint. There was alniost healing in her touch. A man 
also, thus bereft, who, in one short week, buried all his pets, who rose from a 
sick-bed to lay his wifo away forever, also became a nurse, and for weeks, uu- 

the average temperature at midday was 8". 75°. In Brazil and Demarara it is noticed 
that whenever the disease varied or changed, it was usually preceded by variation of 
temperature. Though Dr. Parks states tliat the observations at Lisbon (in 1857), made 
by Dr. Lyons, shows tliat there is no rehitinn to the dew point in an epidemic of yellow 
ever, yet the experiments in the South show that the dew point of yellow fever is 70° 
to 80°; the disease rarely exists when it is under G0°. It is a common phrase to call the 
clear days of the season of the disease "yellow fever weather;" they are characterized 
by being very hot in the sun and cool in the shade, such days as when you are burning on 
one side of the street and on the other side you feel an inclinatian to button up your coat. 
During the worst periods of the epidemic at Galveston in 1867, the most frequent wind 
was from the cast; still more remarkable was the frequency and long duration of calms. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Ill 



til tlie epidemic closed, went about doing good. Another woman lioroieally 
iiursed and buried her husband and three children, and then lay down — a 
walking case — and, as she said, gladly welcomed death. Others, as sadly l^c- 
reft, vainly prayed for death to i-elease them from sorrows that could not be 
assuaged. Sadder cases than these were the orjjhans, who lost both parents, 
children who were dropped from comfort into poverty and robbed in a tew 
hours of the care, protection, and guidance of loving pareuts, to become a pub- 
lic charge and the inmates of public asylums. A time came when the care of 
these little ones was as great an anxiety to the few who were left to manage 
affairs as the burial of the dead. The asylums were already full, and their iu- 
mates were bearing their share of the awful burden of death. The peo2)le of 
Nashville kindly and generously volunteered their aid. They took the chil- 
dren, and the relieved citizens turned their attention to the uidmried bodies tliat 
were emitting the most noisome stenches, death-breeding and death-dealing. 
Some of these were found in a state little better than a lot of bones in a pud- 
dle of green water. Two bodies were found on a leading street in so ad- 
vanced a stage of decomposition that they were rolled in the carpets on which 
they had fallen in the agonies of dissolution and were lifted into boxes, in 
which they were hurried to the potter's field and buried. Half the putrid I'e- 
mains of a negro woman were found in an out))nililing near the Appeal office ; 
the other half had been eaten by rats, that wore found dead by hundreds near 
by. A young gentleman, w^ell known as a merchant, died in his room alone, 
after, it is supposed, a forty-eight hours' illness, and was only traced by the gases 
from his body, which was found so far advanced in jjutrefaction that it was with 
difficulty any one could be found to bury it. More than sixty unburied bodies 
, were found by the burial corps, hastily organized by the Citizens' Relief Com- 
mittee. Many of these were put away in the trenches where the paupers and the 
unknown sleep peacefully together. The carnival of death was now at its height. 
Women were found dead, their little babes gasping in the throes of death be- 
side the breasts at which they had tugged in vain. One case is recalled where 
the babe was literally glued to the bosom, where it had found food and shelter, 
and perhaps expired at the same moment as the mother, whose love was evi- 
denced even in a death embrace. Others passed away after the labors of birth 
had supervened upon the fever — mother and child l)eing buried in the same 
grave. The penalties of maternity, which always command the tenderest solici- 
tude and sympathy, were paid in nameless agonies, leading in all but two cases 
to forfeiture of life. No words can convey an idea of the peculiar sufferings to 
which women were subjected ; some who had passed safely into the vigor of 
old age, were again taxed with functions long since silenced, and in the moment 
of death, and even after it, this curse of the sex asserted itself to an amazing 
and an astonishing degree. Not a few were affected with swellings that took 
on the form of goitre, increasing the disgusting consequences of a disease that 
to the patient is one of the most offensive — as much so as small -]wx, or the 
black plague of the East. Its effects upon men were equally forbi<l(ling. It 
was no respecter of persons; good and bad went down togethei-, but those 
whose physical system had been impaired by diseases which are a special pen- 



112 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



alty of lecherous excesses, died soonest. Peculiarly a disease of the nervous 
system, it was f.ital to those wiiose energies had been exhausted by debauchery. 
But neither cleanliness nor right living -were a shield to stay the hand of this 
destroyer. He invaded the homes of tl;e most chaste, and the den of the vilest. 
He took innocence and infiin)y at the same moment, and spread terror every- 
where. Where sorrow was so general there could l;e no parade of it. There 
were no funerals, and but few demands for funeral services. The luxuries of 
woe were di.-pensed with. In most cases tl;e diiver of Ihc hearse and an assist- 
ant comprised the funeral i^arty. Not unfrequently many bodies were left in 
the cemetery unburied for a night, so hard pressed were the managers for labor, 
and so numerous the demands upon what they had. The bell at the grave-yard 
gate was for a long time tolled by a lovely girl, who for weeks was her father's 
only help. She kept the registry of the dead, and knew what the havoc of 
the fever was; yet she remained at her self-selected post, her father's coura- 
geous clerk, until sickness conquered her physical energies ; but she recovered, 
and after a few days resumed her place, keeping tally until the plague itself 
Avas numbered with the things that were. No bell save that of death was 
tolled. The churches were closed. Tiie congregations were dispersed. The 
members were far apai't. Some were safe, many were dead. Only a few 
survived, and these were manifesting their faith by works. The police* 
Avere cut down from forty-one to seven. Their ranks were recruited, and 
again were thinned. They were a second and a third time filled uj"), and 
yet death was relentless. He was jealous of all sway but his own. The 
fire departmentf was cut down to thirteen. One by one they fell, dying 
at their posts; yet those who remained were always ready, with their com- 
rades of the police force, to protect and save the lives and property of their, 
fellow-citizens. Their bells, too, were silenced out of tender regard for the 
sick — so changed do rugged nnd even rough men become in the presence of an 
overwhelming and incomprehensible calamit}'. Their hearts went out in sym- 
pathy to all alike. The city was to them as one house, and all the stricken 
inmates of one family, to which they themselves belonged. They were pervaded 
l)y the spirit of the Howards, of the Citizens' Relief Committee, and of all the 
organizations for the relief and succor of living or dead — the spirit of charity. 
Fortunately there were but few fires, and these made no gieat demand upon 
the exertions of the department. But petty thieving prevailed as an epidemic. 
This was, however, principally confined to food and clothing, and wood or coal, 

'* Of the Police Department, Iwenty-seveii out of a total of forty-eight men were 
attaclced, of whom ten died and peveiiteen convalesced. The dead are as follows: Cap- 
tain William Homan, Sei'gcant .James McConnell, and Patrolmen James McConnell, 
William Unveisagt, I. .J. Hnber. W. H. Sweeney, M. Cannon, M. 31. Allison, Fred. 
Restmcyer, and Tim Hope. 

tXhe following named members of the fire department died: Capt. P. Haley, Jno. 
Considine, Patrick Cronin, J. R. Luccarnia, Thomas Brennan, Felix Plaggio, Dennis 
Sullivan, Michael Fepny, Martin Carney, Michael Farrell, Tony Grifiin, Jno. Leech, 
Patrick Connell, B. Lunch, Frank Saltglamaohia, Frank Frank, Jno. Heath, C. E. 
Riorden, James Hannon, Austin Beatty, Sam'l Townsend, Edward Moran, Edward Lee, 
Thomas Heath. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



113 



or botli. A few who came to nurse died, leaving full trunks of silverware, 
hijoutei-e, bric-adjrac, and clothes, to prove how industriously they could ply 
two trades, and make one cover up and make up for the deficiencies (if the 
other. A few, also, of them made themselves notorious for lewdness and 
drunkenness. To these many deaths are due. Tliey shocked decency and out- 
raged humanity. They were no better than the beasts of the field. Male and 
iemale, they herded together in vileness. They made of the epidemic a caiiii- 
val. It was the one opportunity they had been looking for above all others. 
But the worst of them were cut short in their career ; only one or two escaped. 
Many were sent whence they came ; many others, a majority of them, died. 
They were taken in the midst of their transgressions. One of these, a woman, 
who could not, or would not, control her appetite for strong drink, while stupefied 
from wine and brandy, allowed a poor woman to leave her bed, naked as when 
born, and wander out into the country on an inclement night, calling as she went, 
for the husband who had preceded her to the grave by a few days. Two others, 
men, were found helplessly drunk, lying half-naked upon the fioor, beside the 
dead body of the patient, whom the atteniling physicians said ought to have recov- 
ered. In the house of an ex-judge, wlience a whole family had been borne to the 
grave, the victims of neglect, four such nurses died, and in the two trunks cf one — 
and the worst of them, a woman of seeming refinement — there was found the fam- 
ily plate and wearing apparel of tlie judge's wife, then absent in Ohio. This woman 
and her paramours fell victims to the fever which they invited by their debauch- 
ery, and hastened by their excesses. In the whole range of human depravity 
there are few parallels to these cases. The}^ illustrate the extremes of degrada- 
tion ; they sounded the lowest depths of vice, and shamed even the low- 
standards of savage life. At a time when the hearts of nearly all were filled 
with sorrow and Aveighed with care, a few like these indulged in orgies thi'.t 
were an extreme contrast to the pr,;valent solemnity and sadness; they ga\e 
way to the vilest and most brutal of human weaknesses, and surrendered tliem- 
selves to a shanielessness that at any time would horrify decency. It was delib- 
erate lechery. There was nothing in the surroundings, or in the life, which was 
hurried forward with such rapidity to death, to prompt or encourage lewdness; 
on the contrary, there was every thing to forbid and repel it. Those, therefore, 
Avhogave themselves to it, did so in obedience to a propensity deliberately nursed, 
any, the faintest, expression of which makes one shudder, even at this distance 
of time, to contemplate. Out of these cases of excess grew a statement of whole- 
sale rape of white women by negro male nurses. No charge ever made was so 
baseless, so wanton, so cruel, so unjust. This class of the population, whatever 
they may have been to each otlier — and not a few of them were inexcusaljly neg- 
lectful, and even brutally indifierent to each other's wants and Avoes — were defer- 
ential and respectful to the white race, and as soldiers, policemen, and nurses were 
earnest, honest, and devoted.* Not even one of them attempted a crime that 

■'The following list of colored soldiers, who died during the epidemic, attests their 
devotion and their courage: McClellmul Guards — Peek, sergeant; Cobb, sergeant; Ilarris, 
jirivate; Lane, private; Crntcher, private; Carey, private. Zouave Guards — W. X. 
Hanson, lieutenant; A. "VV. Brown, private; Tom Lewis, private. 



114 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER, 



would have courted and been punished by instant and merited death. Idle 
many of them were, and shiftless and thriftless, as is to be expected of those 
who are in the A, B, C of civilization ; but they were neither cruel nor 
criminal in this direction. The only case of the kind that was reported, was 
that of a young white man, who was arrested charged with outraging the 
person of a woman who, herself, bad called him to nurse her. Investigation, 
extending over many mouths, proves this to have been baseless, and that the 
woman invited the exhibit of dejiravity on which the charge was based.* A 
contrast to this debauchery was furnished by a few" of those whom society 
deliberately abandons to a shameless life. One unfortunate " woman of the 
town " — a phrase that only too well tells her trade — gave up her house to be 
used as a hospital ; and herself, until she fell in the act, nursed the sick, and 
closed the eyes and covered the faces of the dead. Others, doomed like her 
to become a curse instead of a blessing to humanity, followed her example. 
One such came from a great city of the West, disguised as a widow, and 
faltlifully and assiduously continued to do her duty, running the gauntlet of 
death every houi- ; even after all, like her, were <lenounced in her jjresence as 
irreclaimable, and abandoned of God, by an earnest Christian Avoman, whom 
she nursed to convalescence. The physicians were greatly aided by hun- 
dreds of faithful and competent nurses — men and women of experience. 
These are indispensable to recovery. AVhere they Avere not to be liad, and 
patients recovered, it was regarded as little less than miraculous. But not all 
of the deaths were attributable to ignorant or badly-disposed nurses. The 
patients themselves, many of them, were solely resjwnsible ; some died of 
fright ; not a few died after but a few hours in bed — what is known as walk- 
ing cases — victims of their stubbornness in refusing to yield to treatment. 
More than three hundred died in the convalescent stage — one from the simple 
exertion of writing a note, another from changing his position in bed, another 
from reading newspapers, another from reading lettei'S, another from drinking 
tea and eating toast ; and others, not a few, from sexual excesses, which were 
sure to end in death. One man, whose convalescence seemed certain, dropped 
dead only a few steps from the saloon where, a moment before, he had indulged 
himself in a glass of beer. A treacherous disease, the yellow fever usually 
leaves its victims in that condition where the spirit is Avilling but the flesh is 
weak. In vain doctors advised and the press plead. Deceived by the clearness 
of their mental vision, convalescents, to the last, continued to take counsel of 
their fancied strength, and threw awaj^ their lives. The horrors of the fever 
were thus increased, and the despair of the living was made more desperate. 
But there were not Avanting some cases of another character: a few Avho wore 
afflicted with chronic complaints found themselves completely restored to all 

The young man referred to was found by a woman nurse helplessly drunk, lying 
across the body of the dying woman, who was naked and exposed. The nurse, wlio de- 
clared to thus finding him, was, on the trial, proven to be herself in love with him, and 
tliat her jealousy of the poor creat^l^e, whose weakness for him had induced her to call 
for him to nurse her, impelled her to make a charge that was groundless. A few hours 
after the arrest of the young man, his alleged victim died, a typical case of yellow fever. 



A HIHTOEY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



llo 



their faculties by attacks of the fever. One sucli case was that of a little girl 
approaching her twelfth year, who had, three years before, lo.-t both hearir.g 
and speech; she was paralyzed also on one side, and was afflicted with ,-<,me- 
thiug akin to St. Vitus' dance on the other; thus, more dead than alive, a 
burden to all about her, she was attacked by the fever, a long siege of wiiicii 
she not only withstood, but emerged from completely restored. Her hearing 
and speech came hack to her, the paralysis disappeared, and with it its 
opposite, the. excessive nervous affliction; her nerves were completely restored 
to their normal condition, and she is to-day mistress of all her powers of mind 
and body, as fresh and vigorous as if they had never been impaired. Thus 
while some were crippled for life, all their functions partially or wholly 
suspended, others were restored to powers, the exercise of which they indulged 
in at first as if not sure of them, as if they could not trust their suddenly 
acquired sense of them. But these blessed results v.ere so few as to be a 
special wonder, bordering on the miraculous. 



III. 

On the 14th of September, the day of the heaviest mortality, many buoyant 
natures succumbed. They looked about them for convalescents, but they 
were not to be found ; a few were reported, but they seemed nearly all of 
them to have been permanently disabled. The cry for food, for clothing, for 
money, for doctors, for as many as a thousand coffins, went out by telegraph 
to the ends of the earth, and a prompt and generous response came back. By 
telegraph, by express, through the banks, by private hands, money was for- 
warded by hundreds, l)y thousands of dollars — New York City alone sending 
altogether 143,800. Long trains of railroad cai-s were loaded with provisions 
and clothing, and medical supplies were sent in plethoric abundance, accom- 
panied always with a heartfelt sympathy, and often by advice and by theories 
of treatment, earnest, but generally ill-advised. One train came almost 
altogether loaded with coffins. The people of the North were especially 
urgent; it seemed as if they could not do enough. "We send," they said, 
"what we can; but you, who know wdiat you need, must ask — 'Ask, and ye 
shall receive.'" The Republic, to its remotest confines, was moved, as if by 
a divine impulse. The leading artists of the lyric, as well as the dramatic 
stage, were especially conspicuous in good gifts, in generous contributions. 
Personally, they gave freely, and, with the aid of their brothers and sisters 
less gifted, gaye benefits that netted large amounts. No class surpassed 
them in the expression of a pi-ofound sympathy, or in the eflorts they made 
to mitigate, as hr as possible, the results of the dreadful visitation. The 
miner in the Nevada hills, the ranchero in far California, and the farmer in 
distant Oregon vied, in dispensing a charitv equal to the growing exigencies 
of the time, with the people of the older States of the East, where organiza- 



116 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



tions in every city and village Mere eagerly engaged in the good Samaritan' 
work. This contagion of kindness passed beyond the limits of our own 
country, and France paused amidst the festivities of her International Exhi- 
bition to expnss her sympathies and send her share of succor. England, 
t;)o, and Germany, were early in the field; and from India and Australia, 
as from South America, contributions poured in upon a people who 
have vainly tried to express their gratitude for it all. Hundreds of 
men and women volunteered as nurses, who were destined to a speedy 
death. They poured in from all the States. Those from the South 
Atlantic and Gulf coast cities were especially welcomed on account of their 
experience, ami because tliey had had the fever, or Avere acclimated by 
long residence in cities or sections of the country that had bsen frequently 
visited by it. They were to a certain extent 2:)roof against it. Northern and 
Western men and women, on the contrary, had hardly begun work ere they 
fell victims to it. They went down so fast that the medical director of the 
Howard Association, Dr. Mitchell, felt called upon to admonish them as they 
ari-ived of their liability, and give them the option of returning to their homes. 
In but few instances they refused to go back. They came, and they would 
remain to nurse. So long as they could, they did so patiently and assidu- 
ously. A. long line of graves in Elmwood Cemetery tells the story of their 
fidelity to a mission that was one purely of mercy and loving-kindness; to 
which they brought great powers of endurance, a much needed discretion, and 
the couragB'of the veteran of many wars; some of them a previous prepara- 
tion in the best hospitals of the country. Moved to the work by a feeling the 
most profound that can stir the human heart, they began where their dead com- 
rades left off, eventually, and in a few hours sometimes, to foil on the spot hal- 
lowed by their martyrdom. Like the advancing column of a forlorn hope, on 
which the fate of empires hang, they pressed forward in the face of a foe whose 
mysteries have never yet been fathomed. The sense of danger was dumb ; 
the sense of duty was eloquent. If they had moments when the step faltered, 
the hand became unsteady and the heart Avavered, it was never known but to 
themselves. Theirs Avas a work of love, to Avhich they grew the more the 
demands of the unfortunate pressed upon them. They lived to sa\'e life, and 
died in an heroic effort to conquer death. They fought nobly against dreadful 
odds. Out of a population of not more than 20,000, they lost 5,150, 1 in 4 of 
the whole number, or 70 per cent, of the Avhite people who remained in the city.* 
By comparison Avith the statistics of other campaigns Avith this fever, these, 



"•■The medical estimate puts the total population, dni-ing tlie eiiidemic, at 19,600, :ind 
tlie total sick at 17,600, the deaths, as stated, being 5,150, a little less tlian one-third. 
Members of the Howard Visiting Corps, who have resided in the city many years, 
and know it well, and whose bnsiiicss, during the cjjidcmie, it was to visit every ward, 
every day, say that at no time was there more than 20,000 persons in the city, if so many, 
and tliat of tlieso fully 14,000 were negroes, leaving only 6,000 white people. Of the 
14,000 negroes, 946 died of the fever, and of the 6,000 whites 4,204 died, being 70 per | 
c?nt. of tlie whole nnmhrr. N'lt mure than 200 white pe()i)le escaped the fever, and most 
of these had been victims of it in previous epidemics. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



117 



though significant of the havoc it made, were not so discouraging as annihila- 
tion.* So long as all were not sick or dead there was some hope. Building- on 
this hope, inspired by narrow escapes, they continued to the last, growing fewer 
in numbers every day, so that only a squad of a once division could answei- to the 
roll-call on the day of discharge. The doctors fared no better than the nurses. 
Deatli revenged himself upon them. Less exposed to the 2>oi*on than the 
nurses — who were confined for days to the same rooms as their j^atients — and 
with S0U13 advantage of exercisa in the open air, riding or walking, it was hoped 
they woidd escape in niimbers sufficient to justify the hazards they took. It did 
not prove so. Their pioportion of sick and dead was quite equal to the general 
average.t The physician could not heal himself Some of them, as some 



■3:- N„jj,,]y jjyjj (i^jj,^ j„ jn-,,py,-tion — worse wlicn the greater number i<. considered — 
is the havoc of siiiall-pox, fever, and dysentery (and some think the black [ilagiic) in 
Brazib Of this a New York Herald correspondent wiites that paper as follows: " The 
whole number of re<T;istered deatlis in November for the two cemeteries of San .Jnan Eap- 
tista and Lagoa-funda was 11,075. Of these 9,270 were small-pox cases. But I think we 
must add to this at least one thousand buried, as I have saiti, in the woods, or sunk in the 
sea. At this time there were 30,000 sick — more than a third of tlie population. Still 
the death-rate increased. On December 10,808 small-pox dead were buried in (he ceme- 
tery of Lagoa-funda, at least 75 in San .Juan, and probably 150 in the woods and the 
sea — a total death record of over 1,000 in a single day — and tliis out of a population 
(now reduced) of only 75,000. The great plague at London reached this death-rate, but 
that was from a population of 300,000. After this the mortuary rate decreased, but only 
because tlie disease had nothing more to feed on. A certain per centage of a community 
are exempt from small-pox. A few, no doubt, were saved Ijy vaccination. By the end 
of the year the death-rate had gone down to 200 per day. The entire numberof deaths 
for the iiiontli was not far from 21,000. In all great epidemics, it is said, the people 
become indifferent to their danger. In Fortaleza this indifference was sufficiently aston- 
ishing. When I reached the place, on the 20th of December, the death rate was 400 per 
day; but business was going on much as usual, and hardly any body had been driven out 
of the city by the danger. . . I onh' know what has been — a province utterly 
ruined ; a population of 900,000 reduced to 400,000, and those dying at an enormous rate. 
Probably there have been 300,000 deaths in the other <lrought-stricken provinces of 
which I have few notices. There is nothing in liistory that will cumpare with it. God 
grant that there never may be again !" 

tThe following is a complete list of the physicians who died: 

Resident Physicians. Volunteer Physicians. 

Avent, Dr. V. W. Bond, Dr. T. W.. Brownsville, Tenn. 

Annstrone, Dr. A. .1. Bankson, Dr. J. S. Stevenson, Ala. 

Bcecher, Dr. P. D. Bartholomew, Dr. O. D., Nashville, Tenn. 

ClarUe, Dr. S. 1!. Burchani, Dr. R., Columbus, Ohio. 

Dawson, Dr. S. R. Chevis, Dr. L. A., Savannah, Ga. 

Dickerson, Dr. P. M. Easlev, Dr. E. T., Litlle Eock. 

Erskine, Dr. .John H. Force, Dr. F. II., Hot Sprinns, Ark. 

Hodges, Dr. W. R. Forbes, Dr. J. G., Round Rock, Texas. 

Hoiison, Di-. H. II. Fort, R. B., Howard. 

Ingalls, Dr. Gorrell, Dr. .1. O. G.. Ft. Wavne, Ind. 

Lowrv. Dr. W. R Harlan, Dr. L. B., Hot Springs, Arlc. 

Otey, Dr. Paul H. Hicks, Dr, .John B., Mui freeshoro, Tenn. 

Rogei-s, Dr. ,J. M. Headv, Dr. Sherman, Texas. 

Robbins, Dr. W. H. Keating, Dr. M. T., New York. 

Rogers, Dr. John C. Kim, Dr. N. 

AVatson, Dr. P. K. McKim, Dr. .T. W., St. Loui.s. 

Wood ward^ I)r. J, W. IVlcOres^or, X)r. T, H., Tipton Co., Tenn. 



118 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW PEVEE. 



nurses, proved unmanageable as patients. Even " with their eyes open " to the 
extreme dangers that resulted from fatigue, they rushed on to destruction. One 
of them, a volunteer from abroad, is recalled as a type of nearly all the rest. 
He was a man in middle life, small of stature, with a healthy mind and a 
healthy body, a trained thinker, and with some pretensions as a philosopher. 
His experience with yellow fever was as extensive as that of any of his brothers ou 
duty. He had walked the wards of the charity hospital of New Orleans with 
the elder Stone, who, long before he died, had compassed and had lectured on 
all that is to-day known of yellow fever. He was proud of his profession, and 
practiced it skillfully, and with all the assurance of an adept. Broad and 
liberal in his views, he did not disdain the practice or experience of others in or 
out of the profession. He was anxious to save life, and counted his conva- 
lescents with an almost unspeakable joy. He visited every patient three times 
each day and carefully noted the changes from the first diagnosis. He went into 
the sick-room with an air that re-assiu"ed the sufferers, and gave ho|5e and 
imparted courage to desponding friends. He was diligent and earnest, and 
drawing from a rich store of experiences in the old as in the new world, made 
for himself a place in the hearts of all who have survived him. He went delib- 
erately to his death. So, too, did the priests of the Roman Catholic Church. 
The fever has always been to them singularly fatal. Only two escaped. This 
doctor was called to see one, the last of eleven — a man whose excessive nervous 
constitution foi-bade even the faintest hope of his recovery. He determined to save 
him. He did so at the cost of his own life. For 65 hours he remained by the 
bedside of this priest. When he emerged from the sick-room he was ex- 
hausted. His clothes stained with black vomit, his blood was poisoned beyond 
the power of any neutralizer. He was taken with the fever in a day or two, 
and after a few hours of " life in death," passed away, a " type of his Order." 
Another case, a type of the home physician, is recalled. He was a man of 
large mold. Physically he was perfect. Very tall, veiy stout, he was the pict- 
ure of health. His handsome face was lighted by a perpetual smile. Good 
nature, good heart, and a cheerful soul were the convictions his manner carried 
to eveiy beholder. He was a manly man. He had been a soldier, and he 
bore about him the evidences of gallant service. Nervous and eager, devoted 
and anxious, he went down to his grave the victim of overwork. He was an 
inspiration to his friends, an example of constancy, steadiness, unflinching 
courage, and unflagging zeal. To the sick-room he brought all these quali- 
ties, supplemented by an unusual experience, an inexhaustible stock of knowl- 
edge, and a sympathy as deep as the sad occasion. Tender as a woman, his 
heart ached at the recital of miseries he could not cure. Besides his duties as 
health officer, John Erskine was earnest in his attentions to patients, .whose 
demands were incessant. For days before he succumbed, observant friends 



Menes, Dr. T. W., Nashville. 
Montgomery, Dr. E. B., Chattaiiooj^a. 
Meade, Dr. W. C, Hopkinsville, Ky. 
Nelson, Dr., St. Louis. 
Nugent, Dr. P. C, St. Louis. 
Pierce, Dr. Hiram M., Cincinnati. 



Eenner, Dr. J. G., Indianapolis. 
Smith, Dr., druggist, Shreveport. 
Tuerk. Dr. P., Cincinnati. 
Tate, Dr. R H., Cincinnati. 
Williams, Dr. E. B., Woodburn, Ky. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 



119 



felt that lie must fall. He had tasked his powers far beyond eiKluraiice. His 
heart was, to the last, keenly sensitive to the sorrow about him. The mitigation 
of it was his anxiety. He chided himself because he could not do more for 
the people who loved him, and by whom he will ever be remembered ; and, to 
the last, was questioning himself for a remedy for a disease that has so ofte n 
conquered the aldest of a noble profession. No better man ever laid down 
his life in the cause of humanity. Old and young men vied with each other, 
and enthusiastically, not only in the infirmaries, in the hotels, and in houses of 
comfort and ease, but in the cabins of the negro, the absurd architecture and 
grotesque interiors of which were the comic settings of a deep an<l awful trag- 
edy. Every call was obeyed, no matter when it came, or from whom. They 
made the most of time, and distributed their skill among as many as they 
could. While thus employed, every energy strained, they did not forget the 
cause of science. Observations were made and treasured, and nearly three hun- 
dred autopsies, at a greatly increased risk to health and life. They met every 
night to compare views and report results. These meetings were the light and 
life of each d;iy. There they refreshed themselves in social intercourse, and 
gathered fresh hops for a struggle that seemed endless. Each day brought 
the same duties and similar experiences. Only one change was noticeable — the 
decrease of their numbers. And so it went on to the end. 



I V. 

The same earnestness and devotion characterized the priests, preachers, and 
nuns who committed themselves to good offices as ghostly counselors, and to 
all the tender solicitudes as nurses. As has already been said, the Roman 
Catholic priesthood suffered most severely.* Only two of the resident clergy 
escaped. One of the~e. Father Kelly, had survived an attack in 1873 ; the 
other, Luisolli, whose life was at one time despaired of, was preserved by the 
almost superhuman exertions of his physician. They were tireless in the ad- 
ministration of their sacred offices. They obeyed every call. These came every 
hour, accompanied by urgent appeals from the relatives of the dying, who stood 
appalled at the suddenness of dissolution. Absolution is, by all the members 
of the most ancient of the Christian sects, considered a prerequisite to an 
assurance of final happiness— hence the pleading demands upon the priests, 
who, in every instance, were found worthy of the sacred trust committed 

* The following is a complete list of the Eoman Catholic clergy who died: Rev. 
Martin Walsh, Pastor St. Bridget's Church, born in Ireland, 40 yiiars of age ; Rev. M. 
Meagher, Assistant Pastor, Tipperary County, Ireland; Rev. Father Asinus, Assistant 
Pastor, Germany, age unknown ; Father Maternus, St. Mary's Church ; Rev. J. R. Me- 
Garvey, a volunteer from Harrodsburg, Ky., aged 32 ; Rev. J. A. Bokel, from Balti- 
more, Md., aged 27 ; Rev. Van Troostenberg, from Kentucky, hut originally from Bel- 
gium, aged 3.1 ; Rev. .1. P. Scannell, a volunteer from Louisville, Ky., aged 27; the 
Very Rev. M. Riordan, Pastor, born in Ireland, aged 35 ; Father Marley. 



120 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE. 



to them. Every visit made by them was a step toward death — yet they weiit 
on. Every prayer for souls pluming for flight brought them nearer to the heav- 
enly shores to which they sent confessing sinners. Overworked, their energies 
taxed beyond all that men under ordinary circumstances can endure, they fell 
easy victims to the disease, tlie poison of which they inhaled, in strongest infu- 
sion, with every act of shriving. In vain the best physicians were taxed for 
skillful treatment ; in vain the best nurses watched every hour and every mo- 
ment, every change. There was found no medicine in the whole range of the 
world's experience that could bring back health and life — they died as certainly 
as they were taken with the disease. So did the sisters of the Church, the 
nuQS, who, as one, fell in the sacred work, were quick to volunteer, so that 
their saintly habit might not altogether pass away from the eyes of a world 
which had closed on so many forever. Their days and nights were devoted to 
the sick and dying. Their schools closed, there was nothing to distract them 
from what they loved as the most ennobling of duties. If they were to die 
(as they did, in numbers sufficient to give rise to the belief that they were 
specially marked by the destroyer), they w^ould make their election sure. They 
were incessant in their visitations and attentions. They had no rest, no time for 
recuperation. Unlike the ordinary nurses, they never suspended to re-vitalize 
their wasted energies, ^yhat sleep they could get at brief intervals in the exer- 
cise of an occupation that more than ever required a sleepless vigilance, they con- 
sidered a heaven-sent relief This was not enough. Tired nature, wanting 
the sweet restorer, broke under the strain. They went down before the reaper 
like ripened grain. Theirs were not long to be beds of j^ain and anguish. A 
few hours of consuming fever, the pulse in the nineties, and the temperature as 
high as 1063°, and death came mercifully to their release. Life ended, their 
tasks were done. But their mission was not completed. Other feet were al- 
ready treading in the same path ; other sweet and saintly lives were solemnly 
pledged to the same heroic sacrifice. The endless chain of events so sad as to 
shock the world beyond and summon from the remotest parts of the earth a 
benevolence that illumined the time with the blessed light of an abounding 
charity and hearty sympathy, still demanded that these brides of Christ should 
endure a long agony and literally bloody sweat before translation. They came 
and went willing sacrifices. No murmur escaped lips that had been sealed, 
save in prayer. Serenely, as to some feast, they went, bearing with them al- 
ways the aroma of lives made precious by self-denial, and flooding the sick 
chamber with the glory of hearts wholly given to God.-'- 

All members of the Christian Church are alike in their aspirations. They are 
inspired by the same hopes and restrained by the same fears. Tiiey pray, if not in 
the same language, in the same sjjirit. With or without ritual, w^ith or without 
ceremony, they call- upon the same name and build upon the same basis of faith. 

* The following are the names of those who died : Alphonso, Mother, aged 34 years ; 
Rose, Sister, aged 30 years ; Josepha, Sister, aged 44 years ; Bernardine, Sister Mary, 
aged 40 years ; Dolor a. Sister Mary, aged 24 years ; Veronica, Sister Mary, aged 19 years ; 
Wilhelminn, Sister, aged 30 years ; Vincent, Sister, aged 22 years ; Stanislaus, Sister, 
aged 21 years ; Gertrude, Sister, aged 28 years ; Winkelman, Sister, St. Louis. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEl;. 



121 



To the sick, ministers or priests spealv of heaven, urge repentance and preparation 
for death, and give absolution in the name of Him by whose comniissicm they 
officiate, or repeat his assurances of pardon and eternal ])eace. Confronting 
the inevitable, doctrine and dogma almost ^^ holly disappear. The terms of 
forgiveness and restoration to the Father's love arc the same with all. What 
difference there is, to the sick does not appear. They have thnir thoucrhts 
fixed upon the end, and their vision is strained to see bevoud. The Protestant 
pastors visit all who are distressed in mind, body, or estate, veiy much to the 
same purpose as their Roman Catholic bretlu'cn. They desire to lead souls to 
the solemn contemplation of deatli, and all that it involves, and smooth the 
way, so doubtful and so dark even to the lie.-t, with the assuiance of Him who, 
in the agonies of dissolution, pi-ayed to the Fathej-, " If it be thy will, let this 
cup pass." Honest, earnest men, convinced of the truths they pre:;ch, thev 
take w'ith them on their mission of mercy not only hojie for the dving, but 
compassion for the living, whom death most distresses. During the epidemic 
the demands upon them were in proportion to the "new cases" that every 
day developed. Men of family, they found themselves besieged at home, their 
hearts hedged round about with a profound anxiety for those whom nature as- 
serted had first claims upon them. iSharing their faith, believing in their mis- 
sion, their wives, no less courageous, sustained them and upheld their hands.* 
But even thus fortified, they could not wholly dismiss the a])prehensions of a 
situation horrible in the extreme. Tiiey, nevertheless, were true to their obli- 
gations. But few in number (a majority of their brethren having fled at the 
breaking out of the epidemic), they were in constant demand. A German, 
Rev. Mr. Thomas, was the first to die. He had been a diligent, faithful, ear- 
nest minister, a pastor to his people. Another of them, a Presbyterian, Rev. 
Dr. Daniels, fell early in the action, and did not regain his strength until (he 
scourge had disappeared. Indeed, he has not regained it yet. Another, a Meth- 
odist, Rev. Dr. Slater, whose heart beat in unison with all who needed his coun- 
sel and advice, and who was universally beloved fin- an abounding charity and 
most amiable disposition, was borne to his grave after a few days' sickness, 
mourned by all in the city — still lamented by his people. Still another, a 
Baptist, Rev. Dr. Landrum, who differed widely from the preceding in, at 
least, what he considered one essential, after toilsome weeks, during which he 
officiated as a member of the Relief Committee, besides attending to pastoral 
calls, was ari-ested in his noble career, and, while in the throes of a sorrow be- 
yond words to express — for the loss of sons whose j)romise was brighter than 
young men now often give— to the dismay of the then little band of heroes, 
was seized by the fever, and, with liis wife — taken about the same time— made a 

* The following are the names of those who died — men whose names are embalmed 
in the hearts of the people of Memphis as those of martyrs, as worthy of canonization 
as any on the long roll of mother church : Eev. Mr. Parsons, P. E. Chnrch ; Rev. Mr. 
Schuyler, P. E. Chnrch ; Eev. Mr. Thomas, German Eefcrmed Church ; Eev. Mr. Moody; 
Eev. A. F. Railey (col.) ; Rev. E. C. Slater, Methodist ; Eev. David R. S. Roscbrough, 
Methodist; Eev. P. T. Scruggs, Methodist; Eev. S. C. Arnold, wife and five children 
died ; Eev. Victor Bath. 



122 



A HISTORY OP THE YELLOW FEVER. 



narrow escape. Yet another, a Presbyterian, Rev. Dr. Boggs, who was a worker 
with the Howards, and who had made the care of the orphans a special charge, 
and devoted himself to it in addition to his parish labors, fell when the force 
of the epidemic had expended itself, and, with his wife, too, survives, revered 
by men of every name. The Episcopal ministers were also severely tried. All 
who were residents when the fever broke out were attacked, and one died — Rev. 
C. C. Parsons. The circumstances of his life made his death felt as much, 
perhaps more than any "that had preceded it. He had been an officer of great 
promise in the United States Army, and during the civil war had achieved 
distinction for discretion, skill, and bravery. After the war he continued in 
the service, for which he had been educated at the national military school, and 
rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel. His future was assured and held out 
to him a brilliant promise; but he voluntarily surrendered all to enter the 
ministry. Called to Memphis in 1875, he was not long in making for himself 
a place in the hearts of others than the people of his own faith. . In manners 
he was gentle and unaffected. In his intercourse with his fellow-citizens these 
qualities, supported by his reputation as a brave soldier and his apparent cul- 
ture, won upon them, so that his circle widened. His opportunities for good 
were thus unusual. The hopes formed of him were not disappointed. As a 
priest lie was faithful, anxious, and earnest. When the epidemic was an-* 
iiouneed, he prepared for it as for a battle, and, as on a battle field soldiers love 
to fall, he fell at his post doing his duty. His place was taken by a brave 
young volunteer from tiie North, Rev. Mr. Schuyler, who entered gladly on 
his work, but who, in eight days after his arrival, was carried to his grave. 
Another volunteer, from Shreveport, Louisiana, Rev. Dr. Dalzell, who served 
as physician as w"ell as priest, escaped, and fills to-day the place of the noble 
soldier-priest who died. Two of his brother clergy recovered — Rev. Dr. George 
White and Rev. Dr. George Harris — the former a venerable man, who has 
seen as many years in the ministry as most men live, survived his young- 
est son over whose remains he read the beautiful service which his church 
has appointed for the dead, he and his wife alone forming the funeral party. 
Few incidents, at a time when heart-breaking incidents abounded, so affected 
the public as this. It touched every heart and called out a sympathy of which 
the aged priest is the center to this day. The Sisters of St. Mary's (Episcopal), 
like those of the Roman Catholic Church, were active in works of mercy and 
benevolence. The mortality among them was sudden and severe,* an attesta- 
tion of their devotion and of the malignity of the scourge they so hei'oically 
encountered. It would be impossible to speak in too high terms of laudation 
of these women. Educated and cultivated, they had dedicated themselves to 
a work much more agreeable and more in consonance with their tastes and 
tiieir refinement and delicacy. They had made no provision for an emergency 
so dreadful, yet when it was announced they did not hesitate as to their duty. 
Some of their number were in the East, enjoying a brief vacation of repose 



*0f fjeven who, from first to last, were engaged in the work, Sisters Constance, Thecla, 
Frances, and Kuth died. 



A HISTORY OF THE YEI>I,0\V FKVKR. 



123 



upon the banks of the Hudson, tlie most beautiful of our i-ivers, when the 
fearful tidings of "yellow fever hi Memphis" was flashed along the telegraph 
wires. They at once abandoned the comfort and ease of a delightful religious 
retreat, and, against the earnest entreaties of friends, made their way, as rap- 
idly as steam could carry them, to the stricken city. They found work await- 
ing them. Their school building and convent was soon embraced in what, at 
the first of the epidemic, was known as the "infected district;" and several min- 
isters as well as sisters wei'e among the long list of the sick. In a few weeks 
many of them had gone over to the mnjority; and when the e])ideniic Mas de- 
clared at an end, it was found that they had suffered more and sustained heavier 
losses than any other of the relief organizations in the city, save the Roman 
Catholic priesthood and sisterhood. But they had won for their order an im- 
perishable renown. They had proven that heroism and Christ-like self-denial 
are not the virtues of a particular sect. They had set an example worthy the 
sistei'hood of apostolic times, and had silenced those of their creed whose Prot- 
estantism blinded them to the possibilities of an order whose vows are volun- 
tary, and to be revoked at will. They had illumined the historj' of their sex, 
so rich in charity, by a religious zeal, softened and temjiered by a sweet com- 
passion ; by unflinchingly encountering all that is terrible in one of the most 
loathsome of diseases ; by braving death with the resignation of martyrs ; by 
the outpouring of a sympathy as profound as the general sorrow, and by a 
pathos which could alone have its source in the faith of Him who has been 
painted for us — "A man of sorrows, acquainted with grief."* 

*" The Nashville American, in an article published while the epidemic was yet at its 
height, said of these devout and devoted women: "The Episcopal Church in Menipliis 
has a large and flourishing school for girls and an orphanage, in charge of the Sister- 
hood of St. Mary. The bishop of the diocese (Rt. Rev. C. T. Qnintard) began the work 
.some eight years ago, and, in 1873, the ladies of the Sisterhood opened their f chool in 
the Episcopal residence, immediately after the epidemic of that year. Their faithful 
and devoted labors, during the yellow fever of 187.3, had won them hosts of friends, and 
when the school was opened its patronage was abundant. "When the epidemic of this 
summer began, the Sister Superior was absent, with Thecla, enjoying a much-needed rest, 
but at once returned on being informed that the fever Jiad made its appearance in the 
city. Faithfully, constantly, unflinchingly, and with holy zeal, these faitliful women 
administered to the sick and dying until they were themselves stricken down. Of six 
of the Sisters who were prostrated, four laid down their lives and wore the martyr's 
crown. Three additional Sisters from New York took up the work, but of the original 
Sisterhood only one remains. They have indeed (jlorijied the cause for which they died. 
In a letter written the day before he himself was stricken by the fever. Rev. Charles Car- 
roll Parsons wrote: 'The Sisters are doing a wonderful work. It is surprising to sec 
how much these quiet, brave, unshrinking daughters of divine love can accomplish in 
efforts and results.' The following tribute has been forwarded to Bishop Quiutard by 
the Bureau of Relief of Hartford, Connecticut ; 

" ' IN ME^rORIAM. 

"' Having been brought into very pleasant relations with Sister Constance, Sister Su- 
perifir of the Sisterhood of St. Mary, at Memphis, the ladies of the Bureau of Relief 
mourn her death. I desire to testify their deep sense of the loss which they and the 
whole church have sustained. Her noble labors among the |)oor and orpliancd and 
in the schools, before the fatal pestilence of this suuir.ier l)r<)ke out, are such as we 



124 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



V. 

The ministers and sisters of all the Christian sects were alike conspicuous for 
their zeal and fidelity. The absence of a few of the pastors, who fled at the out- 
break of the fever, was all the more remarked upon. Indeed, no discordant inci- 
dent of the epidemic gave rise to more general indignation or as bitter comment 
in the public press. They were denounced in unmeasured terms by the religious 
as well as irreligious. A few ill-conditioned zealots, taking advantage of this 
state of the public mind, made coiuparisons between the Protestant ministers 
and the Catholic priests, which the circumstances did not warrant, with a view 
to the injury of the Protestant churches. But this failed. It was admitted that 
there could not be a greater contrast; but while this was so, it Avas also true that 
most of the Protestant clergy walked in the footsteps of Him whose ministry was 
among those who were sick, who were heavy laden and needed rest ; and that only 
tlie few had deserted their posts, and made no effort to repair the great wrong 
they inflicted upon themselves and the cause they were sworn to serve, above wife, 
children, and even life itself. It was claimed by those who most severely cen- 
sured them, that, in dread of their lives, they had violated the most sacred 
pledges of their calling, and set an example of faithlessness which Christ himself 
has denounced. " If any man come to me," he says, " and hate not his father and 
mother, and wife and children, and brethren and sisters, 3^ea, and his own life 
also, he can not be my discijile." It was also said that they forgot this assui'- 
ance of the Master: "He that loveth his life shall lose it, and he that hateth 
his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal." The broken-hearted 



may well remember long with gratitude. But her heroic return to her post after the 
fever began to rage, in the face of such fearful danger, her unremitting toil for the sick, 
the dying, and the dead, amidst horrors which we, af this distance, can but faintly im- 
agine, her care for the suffering and bereaved children, ministrations prolonged beyond 
her strength, even until stricken with unconsciousness, we feel are beyond the common 
words of praise. While we give thanks for the good example of our sister, for her 
beautiful life crowned by a martyr's death, we rejoice that her reward is on high, with 
the Divine Master, in whose footsteps she has so closely followed. To her — to Sisters 
Thecla, Frances, and Ruth, and to all who thus count not their lives dear unto them, 
while ministering to their suffering fellow-men in His name, we seem clearly to hear 
Him say : " Inasmuch as you have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, 
ye have done it unto me." 

"^Resolved, That wo ofF^r this loving tribute in memory of Sister Constance, to her late 
associates, to the mother superior of her order, to her pastor, Eev. Dr. Harris, and to 
Right Rev. Dr. Quintard, bishop of Tennessee, with our heartfelt sympathy and prayers. 

MRS. F. D. HARRI]\IAN, President. ' 

:MRS. JOHN BROCKLESBY, Vice-Pre.vdent. 

MRS. STEPHEN TERRY, Correspond inr/ Secretary. 

WRS. SARAH E. DAVIS, Recording Secretary. 
"'Hartford, Conn., October 4,1878."' 



A HISTORY OF THE YEI.T.OW FEVER. 



125 



miii'lit be healetl, l)iit it would not be by their aid ; tliey would preach the 
gospel, but not to the poor and afflicted. They would bra\'e the condemnation 
they had so long hurled from the jndpit, and refuse to visit the sick. They 
would neither carry the cup of cold water, nor bear the bread of life to th(ise 
wdio were stricken with the fever, and who called in vain I'or iheir ministra- 
tions. They could not even faintly imitate the compassion of Christ. They 
falsified their own teachings and inflicted an injury on the church that the w ork 
of their braver brethren could only in part repair.* The constancy and devo- 
tion of these c-trengthened the weak, imparted hope to the despondent, and in- 
spired the despairing. They proved their faith by works, not a few of them scal- 
ing with their lives the fiith which they thus so heroically illustrated. They 
knew that if there is ever a time when religion can bring peace and consolation, 
it is when panic, fear, and dread are aiding plague and pestilence in their work 
of wholesale destruction. They could not only minister to tiie sick, luit they 
could be examples of that fearlessness and unselfishness which Jesus demanded 
of his disciples when he bade tliem t.ike no thought of the morrow : to do their 

■•'These attacks upon the ministers who sought safety in fliglit were not permitted to 
pa.ss unnoticed. Many of tlieir brave and heroic brethren, before they succumbed to the 
fever, or after they had recovered from attacks of it, made haste to defend what their 
own conduct and sufferings, to the popular mind, made more glaring and less excusable. 
They wrote long, and some of them able and manly vindications of a line of conduct 
they themselves could not, certainly did not, adopt, and by citations of Scripture, liy 
arguments and precedents, sought to disabuse the people of what they deemed a i^reju- 
dicc. This they were not able to do. Whether just or unjust, the j)eople everywhere 
regard it the duty of ministers, as well as priests, to visit the sick and carry consolation 
to the dying ; that it is the most sacred part of their mission to i^repare men and women 
for the passage through death to life, and that the greater the dangers and difficulties, 
the greater the triumphs for the church here, and for themselves hereafter. The laymen, 
who were in the midst of the fever, read these communications to the daily press with 
impatience, and insisted that such ministers as those were who remained, aids or helpers, 
should be the companions at least, of the Howard Visitor, or Citizens' Belief Committee. 
On the other hand, not a few agreed with Eev. C. K. Marshall, of Yicksburg, a gentle- 
man whose religious zeal and broad humanitarian views were only equaled by his 
courage, earnestness, and efficiency in a life-long experience in yellow fever epidemics. 
He said — and the writer knows many influential and intelligent persons, both Catholic 
and Protestant, who agree with him — that, " were it not for the doctrine of extreme 
unction, deemed so essential by Catholics, the presence of clergymen and Sisters of 
Charity in sick-rooms, except as regular nurses, is the last thing I would permit were I 
a physician, unless the patient, not his friends, icere to express a desire jor such ministrations. I 
fully believe there are not a few lying asleep in the graveyard, whose end was hastened 
by the presence of clergymen and others, who, no matter of what denomination, have 
felt called upon to rush into sick-rooms to show their sympathy (?) and get the ]iatient 
ready to die. Oh! will we never learn any thing higher and better than that? Every- 
where this is the case. The ignorance of the dark ages still hangs in gloomy folds about 
us. Can five minutes' religious services over a poor fellow covered with blisters, choked 
with black vomit, and barely able to tell his nurse what he wants, probably not that, 
renovate a moral nature steeped in unbelief and sin for fifty years, Idanch the blackness 
of a purely wicked life to snowy whiteness, and fit for angelic associates a man, who, if 
he were to recover, would laugh at the idea of wishing religious services at the time his 
death was deemed at hand ? " 



126 



A HISTOnY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



duty and leave the consequences with God. No incident of the epidemic is more to 
be regretted than the desertion of their charges by so many of the soldiers of the 
cross, mustered into an army pledged to special service in times of distress. It was 
not, it was said, so bad, but it was held to be akin to the desertion of wives and 
children by husbands and fathers, in whom fear, dread, panic, and personal 
safety dominated over love and duty, killing all sense of the sacred obliga- 
tions which even the brutal savages sometime fulfill ; and it was all the more 
remarkable, and, in view of the cause of religion, all the more to be deplored, 
that even outcast women, and men not so good in life or living, were 
jeopardizing their lives, and that some of them died in the performance of 
those offices which, it is held, are a part of the duty of the pastors and 
masters of the Christian Church. 

Devotion in life, and heroism even to death, were not alone the products of relig- 
ions life, though to Christianity must be given the credit of the humanity and 
charity of the age. The societies (of which the city has a large number) were 
conspicuous through their relief organizations; and the several nationalities made 
provision for their fellow-countrymen. The Free Masons,* the Odd-Fellows, the 
Knights of Pythias, Knights of Honor, the Hebrew Hospital Association, the 
Typographical, the Telegraphers, and many others, were remarkable for an active 
benevolence, a sleepless vigilance, and an intelligently directed energy worthy 
of all praise.f The members of the Hebrew Hospital Association were espe- 
cially notable for ardor, for steadiness, for single-heartedness, and for un- 
stinted charity. They were no respecter of persons. They w^ent from house 
to house, asking but one question, "Is aid needed?" They made no distinc- 
tion. The lessons of humanity which tliey had learned in the synagogue 
they illustrated by a heroism iu nothing less than that which inspired their 
Christian fellow-workers. The printers^ and telegraphers were also conspicu- 
ous for good works. The nature of their employment exposed them more 
than any 6ther class, save the doctors and nurses, to the fever poison, which 



* This body, which, like the Odd-Fellows, rests its claims to consideration upon love 
and charity, was conspicuous for good works through its members, one of whom, Ex- 
Past Grand Master Andrew .J. Wheeler, was a noble examjile of what a Mason should 
be under circumstances so extraordinary. He had passed through the preceding epidem- 
ics unscathed, and would not be persuaded to abandon what he deemed his post of duty. 
He worked faithfully and enei'getically, notwithstanding he seemed to have a premonition 
of death. Masonry was his creed, and, according to the testimony of his brethren, he 
lived up to it as faithfully as man could. At a lodge of sorrow, held at Nashville, in 
January, 1879, and which was attended by the most distinguished Masons of the State, 
lie was eulogizsd as a man of mark in an Order more illustrious than any other in the 
world, and as one whose memory should be embalmed for all time as that of a Mason 
worthy and well qualified for the higher honors of the heavenly Grand Lodge. 

t The results of the labors of all these benevolent organizations will be found in the 
Appendix, at the close of this volume. 

t The names of the printers who died will be found in the Appendix. The names of 
telegraphers who died are as follows : M. J. Keyer, Henry Mynatt, H. M. Goewey, E. 
W. Gibson, C. R. Langford, J. T. Connelly, Thomas Hood, J. \V. McDonald, Howard 
Allen, J. R. Henrick, A. S. Hawkins. 



A HISTORY OF THE YKLLOW FEVER. 



127 



at night, Avlieii they were at work, is lliought to be most deadly. They lell 
very last, and died so quick as to seein doomed to auniliihition. Oidy one 
of all tliose euiployed by the telegraph company -escaped, and of the pro- 
prietoi's, editoivs, con)positors, and pressmen of the daily press, only one 
escaped of the Ledger, four of the Avulanche, and two of the Appeal. Their 
numbers thus so rapidly decreased, these heroic men continued not only to 
fulfill the duties exp?cted of them by u public iuipatient for every fact and 
incident of the epidemic, but nursed their sick and buried their dea<l. 
Though often wearied to exhaustion, ready to fall for want of strength, they 
continued to send messages and print papers, and to succor those who had 
claims upon them. Tlieir fidelity, courage, and humanity could not be sur- 
passed ; and their love and devotion for one another was as tender and 
solicitous as that of a mother for her child. They exhibited, from first to 
last, tlie noblest traits, and commanded the respect and admiration of the 
world. Something is also to be said for the bankers, who were necessarj^ as 
the channels through which the money of the charitable and sympathizing- 
people of the world reached those it was intended for. The cashiers of 
the finir principal banks were attacked by the fever, Init all fortunately recov- 
ered. The paying tellers of two, and the principal book-keeper of one, 
succumbed, and were numbered wath the dead. These casualties only nerved 
the few whom panic and the fever had left to continue to deserve the commen- 
dation and confidence of the puldic. The Southern Express Company and all 
of the railroad companies were conspicuous for good deeds. Subjected to severe 
losses by the total suspension of business, they made ample provision for their 
employes, and continued their operations as conunon carriers, regardless of ex- 
penses, running trains, and bearing to the doomed city, free, the contributions 
of coffins, food, and clothing, sent from cities often thousands of miles away. 
They kept up their full estate of employes, and, with a generosity unparalleled, 
surrendered their machinery and all that they had to the public service. The 
Southern Express Company was especially con.?picuous in this regard, and, of 
cour.se, lost heavily. Its superintendent* and many of his subordinates sickened 
and died, and yet its work was continued as if it was merely part of the general 
machinery by which the city was governed land the sick and needy were pro- 
vided for. There was no nobler exhibit of unselfishness than this of a corpora- 

* Major W. A. Willis, superintendent of the Southern Express Comp.iny, was con- 
t;])icuou8 as a member of the Citizens' Relief Committee. He was a noble example of 
true manhood. A man of fine address, of unsurpassed business qualifications, honest, 
earnest, and brave, he enjoyed the confidence of the public, and was looked to as a man 
for any emergency. At the most critical period of the epidemic he was entrusted Ijv 
(cen. Wright with an important duty, which he entered upon with enthusiasm, perform- 
ing it in such a manner as to confirm the prevalent opinion that he was a soldier in tlie 
best sense of the term. He died of the fever on Sunday, the 15th of September, and it 
is not saying too much, was mourned for by every man in the city. His services in bc- 
lialf of the sick and needy can never be forgotten. Discreet in council, he was invalu- 
able in the administration of the affairs of the committee which, organized to dispense 
lood and clothing to the needy, gradually, as necessity compelled, absorbed all the func- 
tions of municipal government, and became the prop and stay of society. 



128 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



tion that might have closed its doors without even a suspicion of seeming 
neglect. It might have done as the merchants did, and for the same reason ; 
indeed it was urged to do so ; but its officers chose to shoulder their shai-e of the 
hurden, let the result be what it might. The fatality which a\Vaited them was 
appalling, yet their record Avas never dimmed — it was luminons to the last. 
They were worthy of the community, whose deplorable condition and intensified 
sufferings were the theme of eveiy household in Chrisleudom, exacting the 
tears of sinners and faints alike. The steamboat companies were also very gen- 
erous; and the Western Union Telegraph Company placed no limit upon the 
gratuitous work it did — a work, the value of which is beyond any possi- 
ble computation It surrendered its lines in the cause of humanity. The post- 
office was also administered by heroes. It was kept open every day, and the 
jnails were regularly delivered, though at a very great cost of life. But it was 
not quick enough, and, owing to the detention of some mails, was not reliable 
enough. The telegraph became, therefore, more than ever, a necessity'. It per- 
formed a service the postal department, worked ever so faithfully, could not. 
It linked Memphis with the great centers of political, financial, commercial, and 
literary activit}', so that the momentary shocks of pain and anguish were felt 
simultaneously everywhere, even to the furthest parts of the continent, and ap- 
peals for hel]) were heard almost as quick as uttered. Without the telegraph, the 
suffering must have been more severe than it was. There was nothing to inter- 
vene between it and the most rapid and satisfactory service. Those who were 
far removed from the epidemic could not object to its messages, as they did to 
the letters by mail, that they were tainted with yellow fever poison. They might 
have objected that, like the jiost-master* and his employes, the telegraphers 
were dying too fast, and that even so valuable a service was too dearly 
bought. But they did not. Dominating all other thoughts there was that 
one of interest in the thousands who were victims of the plague, and for 
wdiom these gallant men laid down their lives. "Duty" was thus exempli- 



* Mr. R. A. Thompson, i>ost-master, was also one of the editors and proprietors of 
the Avalanche. To these two positions he gave the closest attention, an attention that 
was redoubled as the epidemic increased in violence and his assistants died, as they did 
very rapidly. When taken with the disease he was promptly attended to. The city 
editor of the Avalanche, Mr. Ilerbert Landrnm, took him to his home, and there he 
received all the nursing care that the best intelligence and the most friendly interest 
could inspire. He went through the crisis of the disease without much trouble, and was 
declared convalescing very nicely. But the second or third morning after he reached 
this stage, and contrary to the advice of Dr. Mitchell, who was attending him, he changed 
his pillow from the head to the foot of his bed, and changed his position correspondingly, 
in order to see better. Thus, as he thought, comfortably fixed, he indulged himself in a 
look through the morning papers, and perhaps some letters, partaking at the same time 
of some tea and toast. Little as this seems, it cost him his life. In sixteen hours 
after he was thus found by his doctor, he died, and in a few days was followed by liis 
devoted friend young Landrum. Col. Knowlton, who succeeded him in the manage- 
ment of the post-office, also followed him very soon, as did Mr. Catron, the associated 
press agent, who assisted Landrum in performing the last sad ofl5.ces of cncoffining his 
remains and putting them away forever. 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



129 



fied to Le, as General Lee declared it, the best word in our language. 
The railroad companies, later on, when the fever had taken nearly every white 
jjcrson in the city — when there was no longer any food for it, and its decline 
was so perceptible as to encourage the beneficent organizations in tlic Ijclief 
that they could turn their attention to the suffering comnuuiities near by — 
crowned all their previous liberality by placing daily ho8])ital trains ;it the dis- 
posal of the Howard Assoeiati;)n and Citizens' Relief Committee, on which 
were carried nurses, doctors, medical supplies, and food to places but 
lately invaded by the decimating disease. The dreadful visitation had 
thus its bright side. Humanity and benevolence enlisted the active coopera- 
tion of all sorts and conditions of men, and of corporations that, though 
suffering severe losses at that season of the year when they should have been 
making up for the dullness and deficiency of summer, spared no expense, 
counted no cost where a life could be saved and the charity of the world was 
to l)e dispensed to a sick and dependent people. Heroism was the rule in all 
the walks of life, neglect and desertion the exception. Forbearance, fidelity, 
and fortitude were qualities that were illustrated every day, and by persons 
widely separated by birth, education, habits, condition, and experience. This 
was most apparent .in the beneficent organization known as the (,'itizcns' Relief 
Committee, which, with the Howard Association, was looked to by all classes, 
not only for help and sustenance, but for protection. An organization better 
calculated for the purposes which called it into existence could not have been 
devised, nor could one have been more faithfully managed. It is not too 
much to say that but for its officers anarchy, confusion, robbery, arson, and 
murder would have prevailed to increase the burdens of a period, every hour 
of which was freighted with special horrors, and that perhaps the city would 
have been destroyed.* A clamorous and hungrj' mob, which did not hesitate 
to threaten, and support its threats, with a manifestation of disposition as 
cruel as its words, were prevented from carrying these threats into execution 
by the prompt and determined orders of the Citizens' Relief Committee, for 



•■' Of this organization, but a few meinl)ers survived the epidemic — these were Messrs. 
Luke E. Wright, .Jas. S. Prcstidge, C. F. Conn, W. W. Thatcher, D. F. Goodyear (acting 
Mayor), J. M. Keating, and D. T. Porter. Charles G. Fisher, so long the President of 
it, died of the fever. One of the first among tlie merchants of tlie city, he wonkl not 
yiehl to the importunities of his relatives or friends. He helped to organize the asso- 
ciation, and he would not desert his self-selected post. He was a tireless worker. Not 
content with the performance of the duties devolving upon him as president, he made a 
liospital of his residence, and there, while giving to the sick the hours he should have 
devoted to sleep and rest, he contracted the fever and died, after but a few days sick- 
ness. No more generous, warm-hearted man ever lived than Charles G. Fisher — no 
man, of all those who illustrated the best qualities of our race by self-sacrificing devo- 
tion to the cause of humanity, stood higher than he with his fellow-soldiers. Calm 
amid despair, self-contained and self-poised, he was jirepared for any emergency, and 
when the summons came, met it with the resignation of a Christian. Beloved ])y his 
lellow-citizens, his death was a staggering blow to the few who survived him, and who 
iiad learned to know how strong, how reliable, how earnest, how truthful, honest, and 
good he was. 



130 



A HISTOEY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER, 



the suppression of a lawlessness, the dread of which, for a time, weighted 
the energies of all Avho were administering public affairs. With the po- 
lice and fire departments reduced to a mere handful, it would not have 
been difficult for those so inclined to have jjuslied on to the consummation 
of the vilest purposes. With four or five thousand vacant houses, aban- 
doned by tlieir inmates, or by the death of the servants left to take care 
of them, hundreds of them filled with valuable family treasures, enough to 
excite the cupidity of the criminals who swarmed the unguarded streets, 
on Avhich, sometimes, not a living thiug was to be met with by night 
or day, it required more than the earnestness and determination of ordi- 
nary times to prevent the excesses so much dreaded by thinking men as 
the worst of the results of the epidemic. It was estimated, at one time, that 
not less than two hundred tramps and thieves invaded the stricken city, 
coming from no one could tell where, ultimately going no one could tell 
whither. They stole the badges of the nurses, and, representing themselves as 
Howard employes, gained entrance to homes where the fever had paralzyed 
all it had not killed. It was the operations of these vagabonds, under such 
circumstances, that first excited inquiry, and finally their expulsion. In a 
few days, owing to the measures for protection set on foot by the Citizens' 
Relief Committee, tliey disappeared, and with them went all fears for the 
safety of life or property. The police were instructed to arrest all persons, 
after nine o'clock at night, who could not give a satisfactory account of them- 
selves — all who were not emplo3^ed as nurses or doctors, or who were not employed 
by the telegraph company, or in the several newspaper offices. Two negro 
military companies were encamped opposite court-square ; a train Avas held in 
readiness to bring in the BluflT City Gray?,* then doing duty at Camp Joe 
Williams; and the Chickasaw Guards were recalled to Grand Junction, where 
they remained until the possible necessity for their aid had passed away. A 
company of one hundred and five citizens, at Raleigh, in the vicinity of the 
city, volunteered for service, and a like company in the southern part of 
the county, near the Mississippi line. An illustration of the -apprehension 
then existing, furnished by the experience of Captain Mathes, editor of the 
Ledger, will satisfy skeptics, if any there be, that the information on which 
these preparations were based was not groundless. This gentleman had 
had the fever — a violent, and, for a time, it was feared, fatal attack of it — 
and was convalescing slowly; he had been, additionally, cursed by several 
sets of nurses, whose depth of depravity was only in part expressed by the 
robbery of his stable, his wife's wardrobe as well as his own, and the 
"cleaning out" of his well-stocked larder. Anxiety for him, as well as the 
condition in which she found herself — exposed to the vilest associations in the 
sick-room — prostrated his wife, and made her an easy prey for the fever, which 
she bravely fought, however, until her husband was out of danger. So soon 

"■This company, under the command of Captain Jolin Cameron, who was also a vahi- 
able aid of the Relief Committee, lost the following- named members by the fever : Harvey, 
lieutenant; Ferguson, corporal; "Wheatlcy, corporal; Goodwin, private; Haynes, W. D., 
private ; Everett, private ; Spiegel, private. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



131 



as prudence would permit, lie -was on his feet — (this ought to Ije foot, .^iiice he 
left one of his legs on the iield of Chickamauga). His presence at her bed- 
side greatly aided in her recover_y. Cheered and comforted by the knowledge 
that he was safe, she summoned all her strength and overcame the fever. 
She approached convalescence, but the indiscretion of a most attentive, kind, 
and gentle nurse, who had succeeded the vagabonds who had fled or been 
driven forth, induced a relapse, and in a few hours, in the house where joy 
prevailed, mourning had almost succeeded. The survivor of a dreadful civil 
war, and two previous ejMdemics, the husband nerved himself for the end, 
in all such cases deemed inevitable. While waiting for the call that was 
to announce to him the death of lier who had pi'oven herself Avorthy t(_> be 
called wife — to whom he owed his own life — the nurse broke into his rCiom, 
affrighted and nerveless, almost breathless; and in a suppressed tone of voice, 
called "Fire!" His thoughts were at once busy for his dying wife's safety. 
In a moment his mind pictured for her a fate that made him shudder. He 
thought, to use his own words, "that perhaps the thieves, by whom he had 
suffered so much, had begun their threatened work of wholesale crime.'" 
He hastened to his wife's room. She was sleeping tranquilly, her face indi- 
cating the blessed change from death to life. Noiselessly he pulled down the 
blinds of the windows, so as to exclude the glare of the light from the fire, 
which he then knew was near by — near enough even to endanger his home — 
and he turned on the gas, lighting all of the burners of the chandelier. If she 
should awake, the light of the room would hide that of the fire without, 
Avhich, in spite of all he could do, found its way in. Leaving his wife to the 
nurse, with injunctions to keep from her wliat was passing beyond, he went 
out to find his garden filled with burning shingles, the air thick with smoke 
and sparks. To j^revent the ignition of his own premises, he was kept busy 
for hours, and not until the fire died out, and the danger had passed away, did 
he think of his condition and a possible j'elapse. But he, as well as his wife, 
passed even that dreadful crisis. How great was his relief to learn from the 
papers of the next day that the fire, which had such terrors for him, was the 
only mishap of the kind in the previous twenty-four hours, and that the 
Citizens' Relief Committee had amply provided for a contingency, even the 
thought of which had blanched his clieek, and made him afraid indeed ! To 
])ass safely such a test is an ordeal that seldom occurs in the life of the most 
adventurous; but it was only one of many that followed in the train of the 
l)estilence. Information of tiie military preparations, and the shooting of a 
}'ufiianly negro, who attempted to intimidate a colored soldier on guard at the 
commissary department, had the most hai)py effect. It proved to those wlm 
contemplated crime that, though f'W in numbers, the men who were manag- 
ing affairs could not be trifled with, and that, at any liazard to themselves, 
they would enforce law and order. Ex-Attorney-Cieneral Luke E. Wright, 
who was an active and zealous member of the committee, and who was in 
the commissary Iniilding when the shot was fired, went quickly to the front, 
and in a tone of voice, distinctly heard above the wails of the terrified 
negro woman, thanked the sentry for his devotion to duty, complimcjjtcd 



132 



A IIISTOEY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



his company for its firmness, and assured all present that the shot, which was 
so well aimed, was merely the prelude to what Avould certainly follow if any 
attempt was made to violate the public i^eace, or interfere with the business of, 
or steal the goods entrusted to, the Relief Cominittee by the people of all tbe 
States. It was a perilous moment. The tide seemed for some days to have 
been with the evil-disposed. The quickly delivered shot of the negro guard, 
and the brave speech of General Wright turned it, and thereafter there was no 
trouble. The white man who incited the negro desperado, so summarily made 
an example of, was, it is said, soon after "lost." He has never been heard of 
since. Thus warned, the hitherto impudent thieves made their way from a city 
where they felt themselves besieged, and where they began to realize punish- 
ment swift and sure Avould be meted out to all of their number arrested for 
crime. Many citizens, and the press generally, hinted the necessity for a gallows. 
It was also suggested, by one of the papers, that, since there were no courts, the 
most summary process would be in order, as a certain means of insuring public 
safety. There was no time to dally with criminals, and but little disposition to 
bear with what was wholly inexcusable. No one suffered for food or clothing. 
Both were in abundant supply, and both were as regularly given as asked for, 
through the persons employed to see that there was no favoritism indulged 
in. A commissary department was organized, which took charge of all sup- 
plies that did not belong to the Howard Association. This department 
was admirably conducted. Order and precision characterized its manage- 
ment, notwithstanding the clerks died so fast, that for a time those who suc- 
ceeded to their labors were compelled to work at night as well as by day. 
Rations were issued on requisitions supplied to the needy by ward committees. 
These requisitions were filed as vouchers, so that every pound and ounce of 
food, or bushel of fuel, or suit or jmrt of a suit of clothes was accounted for.* 
Of course there Avere complaints. Out of these grcAV misrepresentations that 
were gross libels upon a committee whose usefulness and influence was thank- 
fully and gratefully acknowledged by every class of the citizens of the ill-fated 
city. Human nature is weak, and every one is liable to err. But the adminis- 
tration of the Citizens' Relief Committee's aflTairs challenged the admiration of 
all who know what it is in ordinary times, when there is no epidemic to disorder 
the public mind, to minister to the poor. At one time, of all who at first gladly 
enrolled themselves members of it, only three remained, and of these one had re- 
covered from a severe attack of fever. Its officers were constantlj" on duty. 
As they became known they were appealed to in the streets; but the}' unflinch- 
ingly adhered to the rules they had laid down for their own, and the guid- 
ance of those they employed. They had regular hours, during which they were 
to be found in their places. Between these hours — from nine A. M. to three 
P. M. — they indoi-sed all requisiti(ms that came to them properly authenticated 
by the Avard committees. By this system the bounty of the North, of the 

* In the appendix part of the report of the Citizens' Relief Committee, there will Le 
found a tabulated statement by tlie commissary, Captain .J. C. Maccabe, in which every 
ration (its kind and weight) are given as they were taken from the bool^s, which were 
kept with as unerring precision as tlrose of any mercantile house in the country. 



A HISTOEY OF THE YELLOAV FEVEr.. 



South, and of Europe, found its way to the really needy, as was intended by 
the donors. There was no extravagance, no waste, no unnecessarv delay ; 
nothing- that oould be avoided, nothing that would needlessly intervene between 
those who needed the charity and those who gave it. Without money or i)rice, 
these gentlemen, braving tlie epidemic, labored in the public behalf They had 
no reward to expect other tlian that which is the recompense of every good 
action — the satisfaction of its perfbrn)ance. No honors awaited them. Xo 
government stood ready to decorate them a.s heroes. An approving conscience 
and the indorsement of those who knew what they were doing, how faithfully 
and honorably they did it, and with what largeness of sympathy for those to whom 
they were almoners thoy accompanied it — that was all. They preserved order 
and saved property from the touch of the thief and the house-breaker and the 
torch of the inceudiury. They prevented, by a timely precaution, by an exhibit 
of determination, by an ari-ay of troops, the destruction, perhaps, of the cit\', and 
so .saved the lives of thousands who, in the excitement of riot, would have per- 
ished on the streets, perhaps in the flames of their ljurning dwellings. It is no 
exaggeration to say that, had it not been for the firmness of this comituttee, chaos 
would have ensued upon the panic of August, and the most frightful excesses 
^vould have resulted. They enforced order and obedience to law, and reassured 
Jill who were engaged with the sick and the dead, that they could labor in peace, 
in absolute security, with none to make them afraid. With such an auxiliary, 
under the protection of such strength and firmness, the Howard Association lelt 
free to prosecute its beneficent w(n'k without the dread, greater than that of 
death, which springs out of the existence of hiwlessness, license, and disorder; 
could peacefully pursue its work and continue to .stem the torrent of death and 
desolation. It could rely with certainty upon the will and resources of the 
lieiief Committee, and rest secure that its beneficent and sacred task would not 
be interrupted or interfered with. 



VI. 

The Howai'd Association of Memphis, like its prototype of New Orleans, 
grew out of the necessities incident to an epidemic of yellow fever, winch 
found the people of the city unprepared to cope with it. The first visitation 
of this disease, which occurred in 1855,* although it made a very profound im- 
pression upon the people of jNIemphis, was not of so .serious a character a.s to 
eall for or compel any thing like associated efii)rt in behalf of those exposed to 
it. Memphis was then a small town of not more than twelve thousand five 
hundred inhabitants, and of the,«e nearly all were personally known to each 
other, anil were in the daily habit of those neighliorly offices which distinguish 
the conduct of intimates and acquaintances. They, thereibre, shared the bur- 



"*It is said to have prevailed eijideuiieally in 1828 at Fort Piekeriiig, now a suburb 
of Memjiliis. 



134 



A HISTORY OF THE YELT.OW FEVER. 



dens of a calamity that claimed between sixty and seventy-five victims and 
brought, perhaps, two hundred and fifty persons under treatment. Besides, 
there was not then the dread of the fever which has since prevailed. Up to 
that time, and for as many years as the place had any existence, passengers 
from New Orleans were allowed to land without question at all seasons of the 
year, and persons who had contracted the fever in New Orleans, and in whom 
it only developed on their way up the river en route to their homes, were al- 
lowed to be landed and taken in vehicles through the streets to the hospital, 
or to private houses for treatment. Tlie notion that prevailed throughout the 
country, and that still has hold on many otherwise ■svell-informed persons, that 
there is a yellow fever zone, beyond the limits of wliich the dreaded disease 
can not flourish, had a great deal to do in the encouragement of a hardihood 
which, during 1878, cost Holly Springs and other places every life that was 
lost by yellow fever. The atmosphere and unclean conditions under wliich the 
disease is propagated did not exist, or the poison was not imported when 
they did exist until 1855, consequently, it was braved with reckless indifference, 
the almost yearly immunity strengthening the assumption of the zone theory 
and blinding the people to the possibilities of the plague that had swept New 
Orleans just two years before (in 1853) like a besom of destruction, costing her 
the lives of seven thousand nine hundred and seventy persons, and in the 
year following (1854), two tliousand four hundred and twenty-three lives, 
and in that year (1855), two thousand six hundred and seventy lives. Inter- 
vening between the first and second visitations of yellow fever to Memphis 
came the civil Avar and the subsequent political trials, during which the im- 
pressions left by the epidemic of 1855 had passed from the minds of a popula- 
tion that had more than doubled, and whose very traditions had been swept 
away by the great tide of revolution. The problem of social and political life 
exclusively monopolized attention and consideration. Tlie rehabilitation of 
homes and hearths, well nigh ruined, Avas of more importance to them than 
any other, or all the rast of the issues of life. Every thing was forgotten in 
the struggle for existence, aggravated, as it was, by the merciless attitude of 
the Northern States, the cunningly-devised agitation of political leaders, and 
by the shadow of the first of a series of commercial disastei's by which Mem- 
phis suffered in common with all the other cities of the Union. Thus, sitting 
amid the ruins of the past, overwhelmed by the memories of a war, on tlie re- 
sults of Avhich all had been staked, by the gloom engendered by defeat, and by 
the foreshadowing clouds of a future, tliat proved worse than the most for- 
lorn croakers could conjure, Avitli an almost criminal neglect of the simplest 
sanitary laws, Memphis Avas for the second time, in September, 1867, visited 
by a plague, the origin of Avhich is still a question, the pi-ogress of Avhich is 
still in doubt, the best jnethod of curing- Avliich is still debated, the sad results 
of Avhich are alone apparent. It made its appearance late in the season, yet 
it lasted more than seventy days, the first two deaths occurring in the week 
endmg Sej^tember 29th, and the last three in the Aveek ending Decem- 
ber 1st. More than two hundred and fifty people died, and there AA'as, per- 
haps, a total of fifteen hundred sick. The necessities of this dread cmer- 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



135 



gency, uiilooked for and iinex})ected, suggested the organization of the Howard 
Association, which took phice cn the twenty-ninth of September, 1867. A 
call which appeared in the city press was jM-oniptly responded to by tlie fol- 
]!)wing named gentlemen : R. W. Ainslie, William Everett, H. Lonargan, 
John Heart, C. T. Geoghegan, J. K. Pritehard, A. D. Langstaff, J. B. Wasson, 
J. P. Gallagher, .Jack Horn, E. J. Mansford, John Park, Eev. R. A. Sinip- 
.son, Dr. P.^'P. Fraime, J. P. Roliertson, T. C. McDonald, J. T. Collins, E. 
M. Levy, W. A. Strf)zzi, E. J. Gorson, Dr. A. Sterling, A. A. Hyde, G. G. 
Wersch, W. S. Hamilton, A. H. Gresham, Fred Gutherz, W. J. B. Lons- 
dale, and J. G. Lonsdale, Sr. These, fully understanding and appreciating 
the work of the immortal philauthro2)ist, John Howard, resolved to i'olhjw his 
example and devote themselves under his name to the succor of the sick, the 
relief of the suffering, and the burial of the dead.* After the officers Avere 
elected, on the 30th, announcement was made tin- ough the press that the 
Howard Association of Memjihis was prepared to provide medical attend- 
ance, nurses, and medicines for the indigent sick. Physicians and ministers 
of religion were requested to cooperate and repoi't all the fever cases coming 
to their attention which needed the help of the Association, M'hich soon found 
its hands full. All the mend)ers were shortly employed, and before the 
end of the second w'eek it became necessary to call for aid and assist- 
ance. This call was promptly responded to by the citizens of Memphis 
and the surrounding towns, so that the Association was at once enabled 
to employ skilled nurses, among t'aem several from New Orleans. Gj'eat good 
was accomplished. The total amount of money subscribed was $4,996.56, 
all but $130 of which was expended, and the number of patients taken chai'ge 
of and relieved was 244. The labors of the epidemic were not without sad 
and sorrowful results to the Association. Of the twenty-five who ccjmposed 
its membership, two died — laid down their lives that others might live. The 
beneficent experiences of 1867, and the high favor in which they were held by 
the public, determined the members to perpetuate the Association. They, 
therefore, applied to the legislature for, and obtained, a charter,! which gave 

E. W. Ain.slie was elected President, John Heart, 1st Vice-President, C. T. Geoghegan, 
2nd Vice-President, William Everett, Recording Secretary, H. Lonargan, Corrc.sponding 
Secretary, and J. K. Pritehard, Treasurer. 

tSr.CTiON 1. Be it enacted by the General Anseiiiljli/ of Hie Slate of Tennessee, That Joliii Tarlc, R, 
A. Simpson, J. G. r,oiiS(lale, Sr., John Heart, E. T. Geoghegan, li W . Ainslie, J. P. GaUa- 
ghcr, T. E. McDonald, A, A. Hyde, and J. P. Robertson and tlieir associates be, and tliey are 
hereby declared, a body politic and corpoi'ate, witli ninety-nine years succession, by the name 
of tlie HoWAUD Assucr ATioN OP .MEMPHIS, wliose o'lject shiill b.^ to jirovide nursrs"ancl neces- 
tiarics Cor those wlio may be t iken sick, wiio ai'e without means and witliout Innds, nnd i)ar- 
ticnlarly duriu;; the prevalence of epidemics. Said Association, by tliis name, may contract 
and be contracted witli , may sue and be sued in all courts, as ol lior cliartered corporations, in 
all matters whatsoever, and nave full power to acquire, bold, possess, and enjoy, by nilt, 
tiiant, <M- otherwise, and tlie same to .sell and convey any or all sucli real, personal, or mixi d 
est ite, and invest and re-invest the same from time'to time, as ma.v be necessaiy for the ben- 
efit, support, and purposes of said 1-Ioward Association of Mkmi'II is, or which ma.v be con- 
veyed lotlie same f ir the security or payment of any debt or debls which may becinne liue 
and owim; to said Asso -iation, aiid may make, have, and use a common seal, and the same 
break, alter, or renewal pleasure; Provided, That the property, funds, and re\eiuie of .said 
llowAUi) As-ociATiON OK Mi';mphis shall not be u.sed lor any other than the purposes of 
s till Association, and that all of said real, personal, or ini.Ked estate shall be exempt from 
.'^tate, county, and corporation taxes and a.ssessments, as the sole object of the Association is 
relief of the destitute 

Sf.o 2 H'' it farther en.'ieled. That the real and personal estat'", propert.y, and funds and rev- 
enues of said .-\ssociation, and the administration of its aftaiis,shall be under the exclusive 
direction and control of the active numbers of saii IIowarli .\s;ociaiion of JlESirHis. That 



13G 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



it a status worthy of its name and the purposes had in view, and strengthened 
it in the respect and confidence of the jpublic abroad, as well as at liorae. 
Thus constituted a body corporate, with powers adeqr.ate to any emergency 
of epidemics aiid the scope of their work, the Association was reorganized, 
with a greatly enlarged and influential membership. But the " changes and 
chances" of life in four years reduced their numbers. Some had removed 
from the city ; others had died, so that, on the 14th of September, 1873, 
when the I'oll was called, in obedience to a summons to work, only eight re- 
sponded : Messrs. J. G. Lonsdale, Sr., Dr. P. P. Fraime, A. D. Langstati', W. 
J. B. Lonsdale, J. P. Robertson, E. J. Mansford, A. G. Raymond, and Fred'k 
Gutlierz. On the 14th of September, two days after the Board of Health de- 
clared yellow fever epidemic, these gentlemen met and organized for a campaign, 
the dread results of wliich no one of them could then foresee. They found just 
$130 in the treasury, all that remained of the fund subscribed in 1867. They, 
therefore, made an appeal to their fellow-citizens of the other cities and States 
through a mass-meeting, held on the 16th of the same month, and the result 
was the almost immediate supply of a sum sufficient to enable them to begin 
work. A call was then made for recruits. This, too, was promptly re- 
sponded to, and they were enabled to reorganize on as efficient a basis as the 
necessities of the occasion demanded. The new members, who thus swelled 
the list of the Association to something like the proportions necessary to 
grapple with the disease and prove successful almoners of a nation's bounty, 
were: J. J. Murphy, B. P. Anderson, J. G. Simpson, W. J. Smith, W. P. 
Wilson, G. W. Gordon, J. H. Smith, E. B. Foster, A. E. Frankland, W. S. 
Rogers, W. A. Holt, F. F. Bowen, J. F. Porter, R. T. Halstead, T. R. 
Waring, S. W. Rhode, W. J. Lemon, W. G. Barth, L. Seibeck, J. E. Lan- 
phier, J. H. Edmondson, John Johnson (Attorney), J. W. Cooper, F. A. 
Tyler, Ji-., C. A. Leffingwell, F. G. Connell, P. W. Semmes, D. E. Brettenum, 
and D. B. Graham. Strengthened by this company, many of whom, like Ander- 
son and Smith, survived to win imperishable renown by their devotion and skill 
in 1878, the Association nobly and honorably illustrated what self-sacrificing 
philanthropy is through many weeks, during which they were subjected to 
weariness of soul, as well as body ; to the anguish of heart inseparable from 
an overwhelming calamity, to mitigate which it seemed sometimes as if, they 



the parties named in tlie first section of tliis Act, or any five of tlieni, mny call tlie suljscribers 
of said Association togei her, alter liaviiig given five days' notice in soiiu- daily |)ai.icT |>ublisli«i 
in the city of Menipliis, and proceed to organize tlie same, by electing a Pi esidt nt, tw <i\'icc Pres- 
idents, Treasurer, .Secretary, and six Directors, wlio shall constitute an Executive t onuuiltee, 
five of wlioiu shall he a quorum, who shall conduct the affairs of the Association, and who 
sliall continue in office until a new eleition is made The regular election lor officers shall 
be made on Hie first Monday in April, 18(i8, of which due notice shall be given in a daily i^aper 
published in Memphis. The members of said Howard Aj-sociation oi' jMemi'His shall make 
such by-laws and regulations for tlie admission of members and the government of the Asso- 
ciation as they may deem necessary ; Prorided., That no by-laws, rules, or regulations shall, in 
any wise, be contrary to tlie Constitution and laws of tlie State of Tennessee or tlie United 
States. 

Sec.:?. Be il further mnclrd. That all the efTects, real, personal and mixed, of every descrip- 
tion, belonging to the said IluwAiiD Association, thai maybe remaining on hand af the 
expiralion of this charier, shall be turned over to the Board of Mayor and Aldermen of the 
city of Memphis, or to whomsoever may be the representatives of the people of said city at 
that fime, Ibi- the benefit of the poor and destitute people thereof 

.Sec M.Beit further enacted. That the foregoing Act shall take eflTecl from and after its pas- 
sage. ¥. S. UICHAHDS, 

Speaker of the HtDiac I'f lii jn rsenlidives. 

D. W. r. SKNIER, 

Passed January 23, 1SG9. /Speaker of Heiude. 



A HISTOEY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



137 



Avorkerl in vain, and as if their heaven-appointed labors would prove barren of 
results. For more than two mouths they confronted death and bore witness, in 
their self-denial and devotion, that heroism did not die with the age of chiv- 
alry, that it still lives, purer and loftier, just as our age and time is purer and 
better than any that have preceded it. Many of them had had, on otlier occa- 
sions, some experience of the heart-rending scenes and snflerings that make u]) 
the horrors of an epidemic. Besides the eight old members that held together 
since 1867, who were the nucleus of • the reorganization of an association, whose 
Avork is a monument of human love, some of the new had als;) encountered the 
fever elsewhere, and two of the eldest of them not only nursed in 1867, but also in 
1855, when, as has been previously remarked, there was no organization, and the 
people had not learned how dreadful a sc(nirge yellow fever is under conditi;jn.'- 
favoring its propagation and spread. These two members — one of them Alajor 
F. F. Bowen, advanced in years and well-spent in life, and the other, (fcnenil 
W. J. Smith, a soldier of two wars — have survived attacks of the di.-case, 
passed through the last epidemic, and survive, to live, it is hoped, many 
years among the highest and noblest examjiles of constancy in labor, per- 
sistency in duty, and cool, calm courage in the face of danger. Butler 
P. Anderson, who, in 1878, immortalized himself and made for the Asso- 
ciation a name far beyond the limits it set for itself, .was also among the new 
members. A man of positive convictions, noble impulses, and the highest sense 
of honor, he entered enthusiastically ujtou the work, and so fearlessly and thor- 
oughly performed every duty assigned him, that, before the close of the cam- 
paign of 1873, he was regarded by his fellow-soldiers as just the man to lead a 
forlorn hope like that of Grenada in 1878. They looked up to him as to a 
born leader, a man in whom they recognized all those qualities essential in 
a successful commander. They had been with him in the imminent and 
deadly breach, and saw how cool he could be, concerned only for those whom 
he had volunteered to succor and to save. They were proud of him ; proud 
to be associated with a man so self-sacrificing, so indifferent to his own safety, 
so pure, not merely in intention, but in the entire dedication of self to a serv- 
ice whose recompenses were limited to an approving conscience. They were 
not surprised, therefn-e, when, in 1878, he volunteered with General W. J. 
iSmitli, and went down to almost certain death at Grenada.* This step was in 

"*The Mempliis Ledger, of the 8tli of April (LS79), thus pays tribute to these worthies: 
" Butler P. Anderson was a martyr to his humane impulses and his sense of duty. He 
did not go to Grenada, as some have supposed, in a spirit of romance and adventure, 
but from a stern sense of duty, when others would not go. When the mayor of that 
stricken city sent an appeal to the Howards of Memphis for nurses, Gen. W. J. Smith 
and Col. Anderson and other Howards found it a difficult matter to find them at once. 
Several hours were spent in the effort, and, finally, ten were assembled at the depot to 
take the special train. They were inexperienced nurses, the most of them, and without 
a head would have been useless. The question arose as to who should go with them. 
One after another had reasons for saying, ' I pray thee, have me excused.' General 
Smith, as the first vice-president of the Howard Association, said he would go. No 
one else volunteered. It was a critical moment. At the last minute Col. Anderson 
stepped on the train and said: 'I will go myself.' After making the decision, he had 



138 



A lIISTOrtY OF THE YELLCAV FEVER. 



keeping with the promptings of a nature moved by the most humane impulses. 
It was in keeping witli hLs life, i)art of the best years of which he devoted to 
the amelioration of the condition of the poor, the insane, the blind, the deaf and 
the dumb, and all whom affliction had made dependent upon public charity ; 
to the cause of public education and the advancement especially of the negro, 
recently made free. He was a tower of strength to the Association, in whose 
Avell being he always took tho liveliest interest. Physically a splendid type of 
the men of the south-west, he was as good r>nd pure as he was handsome. Asso- 
ciated with him, besides Major Bowen and General Smith, there were manv 
other old citizens of equal character and weight. Working day and night they 
found themselves unequal to the demands made upon them. They, there- 
fore, called for help. Nurses, as well as money, clothes, and provisions, were 
at once sent by the other cities of the country, New Orleans and jMobile vieing 
with each other, and New York rivaling both. Dr. Luke P. Blackburn, of 
Kentucky, a gentleman, whose skill in the treatment of yellow fever had long 
before secured him preeminence among his profession at home and abioad, with 
Major W. P. Walthall, of Mobile, were put in charge of an infirmary, which 
was of great advantage to the How^ards, as it secured prompt and proper treat- 
ment for a class of patients who already crowded the city hospital under Dr. 
Thornton, city physician and surgeon in charge of the Marine Hospital. 
Other societies and organizations aided in the work of cooling the fevered brow 
and closing the eyes of the dead. Conspicuous among them, the Odd-Fellows, 
the temperance lodges, the Free Masons, Knights of Pythias, Knights of 
Honor, and Christian Churches, the Hebrew Synagogues, the police and fire- 
men, the telegraphers and typographers. The ministers of religion were, many 
of them, especially conspicuous, as much so as the physicians, in ministering to 
the wants of the sick and needy, relieving the widows and orphans, and carry- 



only time to send a verbal message to his family. That was the last ever seen of him 
alive in Memphis.* He and General Smith found the city in the wildest confusion and 
fright. They went to work, forgetting themselves, and bent only on relieving the sick 
and dying. They often worked from early morning until long after midnight. The 
mayor fell the day after they arrived, and soon died. The six physicians of the place 
who remained all died. The mortality was appalling. They could not leave. The 
highest sense of duty and humanity impelled them to remain as they did, until one fell 
at his post and the other was brought away with the fever throbbing in every vein. 
And incidentally here we will say, that all the terrible trials and emergencies of the 
yellow fever period of 1878 did not develop a nobler, braver, and more unseliish man 
than General W. J. Smith. Of English birth and ideas, entertaining political opinions 
at variance with those of most Southern people, he had been the object of dislike and 
coolness. But when the occasion was presented, he went to the relief of those who, in 
a sense, might have been considered his enemies at the risk of his life. From this cir- 
cumstance we may learn a lesson of forbearance and wisdom that should never be for- 
gotten." 



'■'The Ledficr is mistaken in this. Col. Anderson returned to the eity after some days of liard Libor 
at (ireiiada, bntdnly remained for t\venty-fo\ir hours. lie went Ijacl; to his self-selected pest, ivhere 
as master of tlie sitnntioii. he continued, until the fever seized liim, to administer to the necessities of 
tht sick and the dying, acting as mayor and chief of all departments and societies. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEXRR. 



139 



itig consolation to all who were desiilaterl and oppressed by tlic hand of the 
de.itroyer. All classes of the community suffered, and terror, dlsnmy, and sor- 
row were universal. Heroes and heroines abounded in cvei-y rank of society. 
Mi)re than one outcast, more than one waif, who had strayed far from the 
admonitions and teachings of early life, vied with the religious jiastors and 
Kia-ters in sacred ministrations. As death levels all, so in the presence of 
death all are leveled. The whole community .stood face to ftice with, and 
in awe of, this King of Terrors, and there was no time to ask questions, 
there was no time to weigh the nice distinctions of social life. Whoever 
offered life a willing sacrifice on the altar of duty was hailed and treated 
as brother or sister. There was but one standard of justification — works. 
Those who gave the cup of water were mustered, among the faithful; they 
were the liglits that lighted up the gloom ; they were the rich and blessed 
product of disease and death. Calm amid despair, l)rave in presence of 
a relentless foe, deliberate where Death himself was hurried, they practiced 
the sublimest lessons of Christian charity, and added fresh luster to the record 
of human endurance. In this campaign, the terrors and hardships of M'hich 
were uupiralleled by any then known experience in the annals of the South- 
west, only five of the memljers of the Association contracted the fever, all of 
whom, it is pleasant to record, recovered. This amount of casualty out of a 
membership increased from eight to thirty seven, by prompt responses to the 
calls for new members, was little less than miraculous. When the fact is 
recalled that out of a population estimated at not more than 15,000, lialf of the 
number negroes, more than 7,000 sickened, and moie than 2,000 died, it was 
little less than miraculous — in view of the dangers of the pestilence, the lurking 
contagion in every stricken house, tlie suddenness of the fever's attack, the 
almost fiendish eagerness with whicli it prostrated, and the almost lightning 
speed with which it killed — it was little less than miraculous, that, returning to 
fever haunted beds, after .sometimes many nights and days spent in the sick- 
room, the nervous system all unstrung, their clothes loaded with the never-to- 
be-forgotten stench of the fever, and often stained from head to foot with 
black vomit, they did not all die, as warnings against a temei-ity that would risk 
life in what most regarded as a forlorn hope. But they Avere mercifully spared 
— spared for .still more harrowing scenes, spared, nnuiy of them, to seal with their 
lives, during the greater calamity of 1878, their sublime devotion in 1873. 



VII. 

With this record, possessing the public confidence at home and abroad, the 
Association, on the fourteenth of August, 1878, was once more summoned 
to work, this time to face an ordeal, compared with w'hich all previous 
epidemics were but a biief agony. Between that day and the fourth of No- 
vember — nearly three months— they were to see 70 per cent, of a population of 



140 



A HISTORY OF THE YEI>I,0\V FEVER. 



about 19,600 sicken of the fever, and of that number 5,150, or more than 25 
per cent., die, tlie ratio of mortality among the whites being 70 per cent., 
and among the negroes 8 per cent. In 1873 they expended over $100,000, em- 
ployed 825 nurses, and furnished doctors, nurses, medicines, and supplies to over 
8,000 persons. In 1878 they were to expend over -1500,000, employ 2,900 
nurses, and furnished doctors, nurses, medicines, and supplies to more than 15,000 
persons.* Taking no heed of their own safety, the members of the Associa- 
tion, placing themselves under the guidance and control of A. D. LangstafF, First 
Vice-President (who was President in 1873), prepai-ed for the long siege during 
M'hicli they were to be tried as men have seldom been tried in this world. 
Visitors were at once appointed to the districts into which the city was 
mapped, and a census of the sick Avas taken, revealing a state of things that 
ahnost surp issed belief. By the end of the first week they found more than 
1,500 sick, and the mortality averaged 10 each day ; by the end of the second 
they found 3,000 sick, and the mortality had jumped to 50 per day. Con- 
sternation and panic increased the horrors of the situation, and the fear and 
dread that sat on every heart increased the difficulties of doctors and nurses 
in the treatment of the disease. The city hospital was full of poor, patients, 
and the able, humane, and tender-hearted phj^sician in charge, Dr Thornton, 
was already almost worked down. To relieve him, three infirmaries were estab- 
lished, but could not, for want of mechanics to fit them up, be made available ear- 
lier than the middle of September. A medical corps, under Dr. R. W. Mitchell, 
an experienced and able jihysiciau, was organized, and performed a work beyond 
all praise. With their aid, and such help as the other charitable organizations 
and benefit societies could give, the Association continued to battle with the pes- 
tilence, which, aggravated by other diseases, bid fair at one time to decimate 
the city. Toward the close of August it invaded their own ranks. The heioic 
General W. J. Smith was back from Grenada prostrate, as a difficult almost 



Tlie work of the Howard Association was conducted systematically tliroiigh Visitors 
appointed, two to each ward, whose duty it was to visit every liouse, and repoi t, as promptly 
as discovered, every case of fever. They made their tours of dnty in buggies, in which they 
carried a liberal supply of medical stores, such as are most needed in llie incipient 
stages of the fever, and wliich tliey distributed as they found it necessary. When llie 
cases were reported at tlie Medical Director's office, the physicians detailed for tlie ward in 
which they occurred were notified, and they gave tliem immediate attention, reporting at 
night, at the medical meeting, their wliole number of cases, the new ones being particu- 
larized. All prescriptions for medicines by Howard physicians were filled at the 
expense of the Association, and all orders for medical supplies for the convalescents were 
lilled at the depot of supplies, where, as well as the prescrijitions at the drug-stores, all such 
orders were filed as vouchei's, to be used in the final settlements which were made at the 
(■lose of the epidemic. The Secretary received and leceipted for all donations of money 
or supplies, and turned them over — the money to the Treasurer and the supplies to the 
officer in charge of the depot — taking their receipt therefor. All bills were made payable 
on theorder of the President and Secretary, which orders, with bills accompanying, were 
the vouchers of the Treasurer. At the close of the epidemic these were examined by the 
auditing committee, who passed upon them and certified to their correctness, as will be 
.seen in the Reports in the .\ppendix of this book. 



A IIISTOKY OF THE YEI>LOW FEVER. 



141 



hopeless case. The heroic Butler P. Aiulerson was on his bed, dyinc;, a m.artvr 
to the cause of humanity. W. A. Fiunie, W. A. Holt, and J. W. Cooper 
were down. John Forbes was dead. By this time di.'^may was visible on every 
face. It began to dawn on the minds of even tlie most sanguine, that the citv 
was only on the verge of a fearful visitation. By the middle of September 
the death-rate averaged 200 per day, and there were i'ully 8,000 sick, joerhaps 
10,000. On the 14tli of that month the mortality for that day was stated to be 
127. It was more than 200. Nineteen Howards, including the president, were 
sick or dead. New members were called for. Out of a population greatlv re- 
duced, nearly all of whom were engaged in the benevolent work of nursing the 
sick or bmying the dead, eleven responded, every one of them already doing 
good work as volunteer Howards. They brought an invaluable experience, a 
courage and sympathy to the work assigned them as niend)ers quite up to the 
reputation the Association enjoyed. Langstaff, who ultimately recovered, 
went down with the fever on the 12th of Sejitember. His place was taken 
by Ex-Mayor John Johnson, and afterward by General "W. J. Smith, who 
had just recovered. The hero martyr, Butler P. Anderson, whose name 
is forever to be hallowed with the people of Meinphis, died on the first. 
Edwin B. Foster died on the 15th, and Edward J. jNIansford, one of the 
original members, and a hero of three epidemics, died on the oOth ; A. jNF. 
Stoddard was taken on the 20th, but recovered; P. W. Semmes, taken on the 
9th, recovered; A. F. C. Cook died on the 8th, Frederick Cole died on the 
9th, and AV. D. McCallum died on the 16th ; Nathan D. Menken, the 
philanthropist, and an honor to the ancient race, whose good name he sus- 
tained by his life and living, died on the 2d ;* D. G. Reahardt, taken on the 
25th, recovered; John T. Moss, taken on the 15th, recovered; C. L. Staffer, 
taken on the 9th, recovered; Louis S. Frierson, taken on the 16th, recovered; 
Jesse W. Page, Jr., taken on the 18th, recovered; Cliarles Howard, taken 
on the 15th, recovered; James W. Heath died on the 17th, and W. S. Ander- 
son was taken on the 28th and recovered. Of the honorary members, four in 
number. Rev. E. C. Slater, D. D., died on the 10th; Rev. S. Landrum, 
D. D. , was taken on the 15th, in the midst of a deep affliction for the loss of 



* Mr. Menksn was in many respects a remarkable person. One of the weahhiest 
merchants of the city, a man of a very high order of talent and cultivation, and, 
although deeply devoted to his wife and children, he, long before the epidemic was 
i)thcially declared to exist, resolved to give himself np to the good Samaritan work of 
the Howards. He so wrote to his wife in letters that were full of the purest and loftiest 
sentiments. Conscious of the risk he ran, he advised her of his last wishes, and, thus 
prepared, entered himself a willing worker in a cause he might have turned his back 
upon without any question as to his motives. Of a nervous temperament, like many 
others, he attempted too much, and fell an easy victim to the fever. At first, and for 
some weeks, he labored by himself, then with the Hebrew Hospital Association, and 
afterward with the Howard Association; all the time giving of his own bounty, his 
purse being as open as his heart. How many he relieved, how many griefs he assuaged, 
how many widows and orphans he comforted by ready lielp and a generous sympathy, is 
only known to the God he served so faithfully. His loss was a severe one, and his 
ileath was felt to be a public calamity, only overshadowed by the plague. 



U2 



A HISTORY OF THK YELLOW FEVEIl, 



liii two sons, but, happily, recovered ; Rev. W. E. Boggs, D. D., was taken 
on the 26th, but recovered ; and Chief of Police Athy was taken on the Slst 
of August, and recovered. The ranks of the Association -were thus, in Septem- 
ber, literally decimated. By the end of the first week in Octobei', Vice- 
President Edmondson, John Johnson, Superintendent of Nurses, and J. H. 
Smith, Secretary, were, of all the officers, alone on duty. By that time the 
death-rate had declined to twenty-eight per day ; yet the work was harder, and the 
demands upon the time of those who could work were greater than ever, their 
numbors considered. They were never off duty, save to sleep, and, of that, many 
of them were cut down to half the usual time. This induced exhaustion, and 
invited the plague. Jolin G. Lonsdale, Sr., Treasurer of the Association, and 
a hero of four epidemics, died on the first of October, a few days after bury- 
ing his youngest son and his wife; J. H. Smith, the Secretary, was taken on 
the 11th, but recovered; Samuel M. Jobe, conspicuous among the citizens of 
Memphis for an active benevolence and a pure and stainless life, died on the 
4th • and W. J. B. Lonsdale, who had done good Avork in 1873, died on the 
2d of November. This was the last death among the Howards, and the last 
case of fever. Those not thus mentioned escaped ; they were — Vice-President 
J. H. Edmondson, who had the fever in the West Indies in 1865 ; Ex-Mayor 
John Johnson, who had the fever in 1873 ; Major F. F. Bowen, who had the 
fever in 1847; W. S. Rogers, who had the fever in 1873; T. R. Waring, who 
had the fever in the West Indies; Jacob Kohlberg, and Robert P. Waring, 
neltlier of whom ever had tlie fever. Thus, out of a total — including honorary 
members — of thirty-nine, only seven escaped, and, of these, only two of them 
had not had the fever during some of tlie preceding epidemics in this country 
or the West Indies. Twelve of the thirty-two attacked died. On the 7th of 
October, the fever having diminished to fifty -seven new cases and twenty-four 
deaths, and the labors of the Association having been correspondingly de- 
creased. President LangstafT determined to answer the calls of the surrounding 
communities on a scale equal to their necessities, and, for that purpose, organ- 
ized relief trains, to be run on tlie three pi-incipal railroads — the ]\Iemphis and 
Charleston, the Mississippi and Tennessee, and the Memphis and Louisville (or, 
as it is known abroad, the L., N. and Great Southern). Tlie first of these trains 
went out on the 8th on the latter road, the second on the 9th on the first-named, 
and the third on the 13th on the Tennessee road. They carried provisions as 
well as medical and hospital supplies, medicines, physicians, and nurses, and, 
although it was late in the epidemic when they started, accomplished a great 
deal of good. Never were the good gifts of good hearts more heartily Avelcomed 
than were the comforts thus dispensed to their needy felloAV-sufTerers by the Mem- 
phis Howards. What the people of tlie small towns along the roads mentioned 
had endured was beyond belief Death had in many cases taken nearly one 
hundred per cent., leaving only one or two to tell the awful tale. In A'ain 
the sublimest heroism was exhibited. In vain every suggestion of science wns 
exhausted. The fever swept past every obstacle and carried all with it who 
could not withstand the shock — and they were few. From time to time the 
Memphis Howards had done what they could to relieve these sorely tried and 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



143 



bereaved people, Init until the relief trains were organized, it was found 
impossible to do all that was necessary. For two weeks this most j^ractical 
of the benevolences of the time continued, the trains being every-where hailed 
with gladness hy the prostrate people, to whom they brought what money 
with tliem could not then purchase. Almost simultaneously from all the 
stricken towns, toward the close of October, the glad news went out to an im- 
patient world that the fever was near its close. Its days were numbered. On 
the 2dt\i the Memphis Board of Health declared the epidemic over. Many 
cases of fever existed, and some few occurred after that, but in ei)idemic form 
it had expended itself The work of the Association was brought to a close. 
The relief trains ceased to run ; the last of the nurses were called in and paid 
off; other help was discharged ; the suburban agencies for the distribution of 
medicines and supplies were closed ; the medical department was also closed, 
and the physicians were dismissed. This was gracefully accomj^lished at a 
banquet at the Peabody Hotel, whereat speeches were made and resolutions 
passed, expressive of the weight of obligation resting upon every citizen of 
Memphis, for services that were beyond any computation or value. Thus 
Avas brought to a close the third and hardest fought campaign of the ]\Iem- 
phis Howard Association. The personal trials of its members had been 
severe. They had lost heavily, not only of their own members, but of phy- 
sicians and nurses whom they had come to regard as of their number. 
Death dealt so severel}'^ with them that they were obliged to organize a burial 
corps, under a young Hebrew named Louis Daltroof, who deserves " sjwcial 
mention" for the courage and discretion with wiiich, at such a time, he 
performed the last sad offices, generally alone and unaided. Some of the 
oldest and noblest of the original members had jsassed from human sight, 
and many who, though young in the cause, had brought to it the enthusiasm 
of natures ardent and eager to learn the sublime lesson of humanity. But 
as these fell the ranks were closed up, the step became firmer, the move- 
ment steadier, resolution stronger. So long as there Avas one case of disease 
and one Howard, so long there was need for the exhibition of all those 
qualities which, invaluable in the sick-room, were precious incentives to duty 
on future and similar occasions. Three times the Alabama Street depot was 
closed by the death of the agent. AVhole families had perished in its vicinity. 
It was the hot-bed of the pestilence, yet every dead Howard was succeeded 
by a living one — the bridge of Lodi was held to the last. A painful inci- 
dent of the epidemic, this illustrates the courage which liraved all things to 
succor and save poor, helpless fellow-beings. Die they might, but die in the 
good cause to which they had devoted themselves the Howards Avould. The 
annals of war aflbrd no higher evidence of courage, of unselfish devotion to 
duty, of a pure and lofty heroism ; and it is doubtful if any other people 
than ours, trained to self-control in the school of personal liberty, could equal 
it. Theirs is a glorious I'ecord — of \vhich their fellow-citizens are j^i'oud. 
It is a spotless record, free from all taint — a record that embraces all that is 
worthy of imitation in human goodness ; it is a record that recalls the early 
ages of the Christian Church, when the zeal of the martyrs, inspired by a 
10 



144 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



sublime hope, carried them through the fires of persecution, and enabled them 
to be an everlasting testimony to the faith, some of whose sublimest assurances 
are expressed in the texts : " Inasmuch as ye did it unto the least of these, my 
brethren, ye did it unto me." And, "Greater love hath no man than this, 
that a man lay down his life for his friend." 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE. 



145 



INCIDENTS OF THE EPIDEMIC. 



The incidents of tlie epidemic in Memphis, 1878, which are here given, are, 
as nearly as possible, arranged in the order, accoitling to dates, in which they 
were found in the daily papers, from which they are, for the most jDart, taken. 
They are given in the language of the time, and are believed to be faithful 
reports of facts as they occurred. As notes made and printed during the prog- 
ress of the scourge, they serve the purpose here of proof, that what is stated 
in the preceding pages is not, in any sense, an exaggeration of the truth, but 
that the writer has kept quite within the limit of flicts, verified by eye- 
witnesses of the scenes and participants iu the labors incident to the dreadful 
visitation. 

The mayor, by a proclamation, July 27th, declared a quarantine established, 
a competent physician, with medical stores, provisions, bedding, and all things 
needful, taking possession of the quarantine buildings, and jireparing for a rigid 
enforcement of the laws. The Board of Health held two meetings on the 29th. 

If there is any virtue in quarantine, Memphis ought to have felt secure 
against yellow fever this season, as Franklin, Louisiana, Natchez, Port Gibson, 
and other villages, in Mississippi, established quarantine against New Orleans 
as early as the 2yth of July. 

The so-called plague-stricken steam tow-boat, John PoHcr, passed up the river 
with her tow, at seven o'clock, on the evening of July 30th. Quite a crowd 
of citizens were on the bluff watching the l)oat. Dr. Erskine, health officer, 
boarded the Porter from a tug, and found but one man sick on board. The 
officers denied that any yellow fever had been or was on board. They stated 
that they lost four men from over-heating, or sunstroke. The men had been 
working around the furnaces and been drinking ice-water. The Porter was 
ordered not to stop or land, but to move on up the river. 

In spite of the safeguards, witli which the iiealth board had surrounded the 
city, a few persons from New Orleans found their way here by railroad. One 
of these, who, for two weeks after his departure from New Orleans, had been 
up White River, arrived in the city on the night of the 1st of August, and, 
becoming sick, and being poor, was sent to the city hospital, where, after aii?w 
hours, the disease developed into a clear case of yellow fever. The health offi- 
cer was at once notified, and had the sick man promptly removed to the quar- 
antine hospital. Wlicn the unfortunate man was removed, the bed and bed- 
clothes on which he slei)t, and the clothes he wore were burned, and the hosjjital 
M'as thoroughly disinfected. It was a clear case of development of disease 
contracted in New Orleans. 

The man, William Warren, who slipped into the city from the yellow fever 
infected steamer Golden (VoH')),and who was sent to tlie quarantine hospital for 
yellow fever treatment, died, at quarantine, on Monday, August 5th. 

The city was startled on Sunday, the 11th of August, by a series of telegrams 



146 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



from Grenada, Mississippi, confirming the suspicion that yellow fever, of a 
malignant type, had broken out in tliat city. The telegrams from officials and 
private citizens of Grenada created a sensation and somewhat of a panic among 
our citizens, wliich did not wear away before late last night. The Board- of 
Health, Howard Association, Masons, Odd-Fellows, and Knights of Pythias, of 
tlie city, received telegrams of a most startling character, and up to tlie follow- 
ing day the telegraph office, on Madison Street, was crowded by visitors, all 
anxious to hear from Grenada. 

The Howards assembled, on hearing the news, on Sunday, August 11th, and de- 
termined to aid the people of Grenada, in response to a telegram received bv Mr. 
J. H. Smith, Secretary of the Association, asking for nurses. At half past seven 
o'clock, Sunday evening, a special train lelt for Grenada, carrying Colonel But- 
ler P. Anderson and General W. J. Smith, of the Howard Association, seven 
experienced nurses, and Dr. R. F. Brown, secretary of the Board of Health, 
who concluded to go to the ground and inspect the sick, with a view to learn 
the character of the disease. 

On Monday, August 12th, the Howard Association met at No. 16 Madison 
Street, and prepared to respond to the call for aid from Grenada. On the 
afternoon train, twenty-one experienced yellow-fever nurses were sent by the 
Howards, four by the Masons, and two by the Odd-Fellows, making thirty -four 
in all sent since the previous day. 

A policeman, named McConnell, who had been sick for several days, died on 
the night of the 12th of August, his physician declaring his to have been a case of 
yellow fever. But other doctors disagreeing, it did not create much of a flurry. 

On August 13th a clearly defined case of yellow fever appeared in this 
city, and was duly announced, according to promise, by the Board of Health.* 
Tlie case was as follows: Mr. B. Bionda, wife and two children, lived at Xo. 
212 Front Street, a few doors north of Adams Street. Mr. Bionda and wife 
kept an eating, or snack-house, principally frequented and patronized by river 
men, or people from the landing. They cleansed and cooked fish, meats, etc., in 
a room back of the snack-shop, where they fed their guests. They slept in a 
room over the snack-house and kitchen. Mr. and Mrs. Bionda were indus- 
trious, hard-working people. Their slops and refuse matter, from their snack- 
house, were thrown out into the street, or further out toward the river. Mrs. 
Kate Bionda was taken sick on August 9th, and was attended by Dr. Willett. 
Symjitoms of yellow fever began to develop slowly but surely, and Dr. Willett 
became satisfied. He notified Dr. Saunders and Dr. Erskine, of the Board of 
Health, and Dr. Heber Jones, who visited the case. They at once pronounced 
it a well-niai'ked case of yellow fever. Immediately Health Officer Erskine 
took charge of the building and vicinity. The rooms, house, and premises 
were thoi-oughly fumigated and disinfected with carbolic acid, copperas, 
etc. The sidewalk and street for half a square on Front Street, and the same 
distance back on Adams, were also disinfected. An obstruction or railing was 
placed across Adams Street at Center Alley, and the locality, No. 212, was 
fenced in around Front Street to the intersecting alley running east and west. 
Mrs. Kate Bionda died at eleven o'clock in the morning, and was bui'ied at 
four o'clock on the afternoon of the 13th. The officers of the Board of Health 
are of the opinion that Mrs. Bionda contracted the disease from some guest who 
had come np the river from the infected district south. Not only was the 
building in which Mrs Bionda died disinfected and isolated, but all adjacent 
Iniildings in the block were likewise disinfected, and policemen were stationed 
to prevent people from visiting the particular locality. 



* This was not, as was supposed at the time, the first case. See preceding pages o) 
" Epidemic in Memphis in 1S78 " for the facts. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



147 



Yriien it was officially announced that there was an undoubted case of j-ellow 
fever in the city (Mrs. Bionda) considerable alarm was created. Many at 
once proposed to send their families away, and quite a number left the city 
l:)ffore night. There was a feeling of alarm and uneasiness, but no panic or 
stampede. 

The yellow fever developed, August 14th, to the extent of twenty-two new 
cases, but only two deaths were reported. The news found early and ready 
dissemination, and a panic was the result. The trains on the Charleston and 
Louisville Railroads, as a consecpience, went (jut crowded, and every seat and 
berth was taken for the trains on both roads for the next two days. Business 
was in great part suspended, and every l)ody that could left before the week 
ended. The Board of Health isolated the infected district, and literally satu- 
rated the buildings, streets, and alleys with disinfectants. Though the type of 
the disease was virulent, and did not readily yield to treatment, the sanitary 
officials were not without hope of mitigating its severity, if they did not over- 
come it. 

The hegira from Memphis via the Louisville and Charleston Railroads, 
August 15th, was greater than ever. It was a regular panic and stampede. 

By this time, many of the scenes and incidents in the infected district were of 
a sad and heart-rending character. Strong men and women and helpless little 
children lay sick and ilying. The dead, the dying, and the sick in the same 
house — often in the same room, sometimes in the same bed — presenting a pitiful 
sight, one well calculated to affect the heart and soul of the most callous. 
Many of the poorer jieople who were sick were suffering for supplies and 
necessary attention. These were dreadful sights, not soon to be effaced from 
memory. 

At the suggestion of Dr. Paul H. Otey, which was at once indorsed l)y 
Health Officer Erskine and others, a telegram was sent by the United States 
collector of internal revenue, and the postmaster of the city to Hon. G. W. 
iMeCreary, Secretary of War, to which an answer was received from the Secre- 
tary, ordering one thousand tents to be sent from Evansville, Indiana. Another 
telegram was sent by the same gentleman asking for rations. The idea is to 
send the poor people out of the city and form encampments at such eligible 
places as can be .secured. The Bluff City Grays, a white militia company, vol- 
unteered to act as a guard for one of the camps (Joe Williams, so named after 
a physician who died during the epidemic of 1873). The IMcClellan Guards 
(colored) also volunteered. The services of both companies were accepted. 

On August 16th quarantine was raised, people and freight being enaljled to 
get to Memphis by rail or river, all restrictions having been removed. Those 
who were found sick on arrival were removed to'the hospital. 

A joke is told on Brownsville, which town had quarantined IMemphis. Tlie 
citizens refused to permit a barrel of gin and several barrels of carljolic acid, 
shipped from Memphis, to be delivered in town before they were thoroughly 
disinfected. 

Hundreds of people now adopted the plan of leaving the city at sun-down, 
going out into the suburbs to sleep, and returning to business in the morning. 

The outgoing railway trains continued to be crowded, and vehicles were in 
demand to carry people out the dirt roads to the countrv. 

It is estimated that from 15,000 to 20,000 white people fled from this city 
l)y the 18th of August. 

Mary Sloan, a white woman who had been nursing yellow fever patients, 
was arrested, and locked up at the station-house, on the charge of drunkenness. 
Sonn after, she developed symptoms of fever, and was sent to the hos]Mtal. 
The mattresses in the cell were burned and the cell and surroundings 
disinfected, 



148 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



In response to a telegram sent on Monday, August 20tli, by Mayor Flippin 
and othei's, asking for rations for the poor, a response was received the following 
day from Geo. W. McCreary, Secretary of War, at Washington, stating that 
orders had been issued to send rations for 2,000 people for twenty days, upon 
the ground that the city Avas unable to secure relief for the sutierers irom 
public charity. 

Three persons were reported who had brought yellow fever upon themselves 
by indulging in drunkenness. After a drunk the stomach and entire system is 
out of order, which places the unfortunate inebriate in a too favorable condition 
to take the fever. Above all acts of imprudence, drunkenness should be avoided. 

Cases of fever appeared in the southern portion of the citj^, on August 21st, 
at different places. The physicians believe that in these cases the disease was 
contracted in the infected districts. 

President Langstatf, of the Howard Association, received the following on 
August 21st: — 

" Husband is dead. Please send or come down, as I am in need. I do n't 
know how to get him buried. If you would help me, I could work for you all. 
Please do n't say you can't, if possible. Mrs. ." 

The Howards immediately made arrangements to have the dead husband buried, 
and responded with aid to the above appeal. 

Captain Jno. C. Forbes died at the city hospital on the evening of August 
22d, whither he had been taken a victim of the fever, with which during three 
visitations he had battled as a member of the St. Andrew's Societj', and, lastly, 
of the Howard Association. W^ule nursing Mr. Campbell and his wife, on 
Alabama Street, he also visited all the fever-stricken patients in that worst part 
{,{ the infected district, and finally accepted the dangerous post of supei'intend- 
ent of the distribution depot of the Howard Association, the duties of which 
he had been discharging but a few days when the scourge seized him, and he 
died after three days' illness. All that was possible, and the care of one of our 
best physicians, was done for him, but to no purjiose. Though a man of vig- 
orous frame, he succumbed. To the last the work he had uearest to heart 
asserted itself in speech. A little girl of seven years of age— a fever patient 
• — on being taken into the same ward, he gave minute directions as to her 
treatment, and when she died and was carried forth for burial, he said, "I 
have lost my life." This expression he repeated many times to those who 
visited him, and to whom he had endeared himself by many noble exhibi- 
tions of that quality of heart which Christ promised reward for in the words: 
" Forasmuch as ye have done it unto the least of these my brethren, ye have 
done it unto me." In view of his good Samaritan work and the hope of this 
text, we lose sight of the short-comings, the frailties, and infirmities of the man, 
and sorrow for one who bravely and unselfishly went about the Master's work, 
succoring the sick, and bringing aid and comfort to those who were in sick- 
ness and distress. 

The Sisters of Charity could be found daily and nightly visiting the sick and 
afflicted. 

But few nnigistrates could be found in the city by August 22d. They had 
taken a change of venue to other localities. 

The telegraph operators were about worked down, so great was the additional 
amount of work which they already had to do. 

On August 22d, the Board of Health passed a resolution urging all who 
could to leave the city, as the only hope of checking the spread of the fever 
was by depopulation. 

Camp Joe Williams assumed the air and proportions of a military encamp- 
ment. Men, Momen, and children enjoyed themselves, and were pleased with 
the prospect of being safe from yellow fever. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



149 



Avalanche, August 23d. — "The smile of nature beamed mockingly in the 
bright sunshine, and the gently-blowing winds ))reathed softly over this plague- 
stricken city. . . . Despite the dazzling light, the darkest of shadows en- 
wrapped street and alley, highway and l)yway — the unseen shadow of disease 
and death. . . . The roll of stricken ran up alarmingly, and stout hearts 
began to shiver. . . . Brave men are fighting the plague with a heroism 
that can not be surpassed." 

The colored citizens became alarmed over the fact that many of their race 
were do^vn sick with the fever, they not being exempt from the I'avages of the 
scourge. The colored people were cautioned that their houses and premises be 
kept clean and properly disinfected daily with carbolic acid ; that they should 
also be more prudent in their diet ; in fact, that they should observe all the 
rules of health which were observed by large numbers of white people. 

John Roush, one of our leading mechanics, a man of great energy and skill 
in his business, succumbed to the fever, and died, August 23d. Mr. Roush 
served one term' in the legislature, and had been for some years a very active 
jiolitician, especially among his fellow-Germans. He came to Alemphis imme- 
diately after the war, through which he served in the Federal army, and by 
industry and perseverance made himself an enviable place in the ])ublic esteem 
as an e.xample of what integrity, united to industry, can accomplish. 

The Board of Health, August 23d, declared tlie yellow fever epidemic in 
the city. The fever l)r(>ke over the line on that day, and appeared at many 
points south of Madison Street. The circle of the infected district was thus 
extended. 

The heavy medical report of August 24th, 106 new cases, caused hundreds 
of citizens to fly to the country. This was the last great panic and hegira. 

The Appeal, of the morning of the 24th. — " Up to six o'clock yesterday 
evening, three hundred and six ca>es of yellow fever had been reported, and 
ninety-three deaths. . . . We all know the effect of fear upon those who, 
yielding to it, fled the city at the first announcement of yellow fever; how 
much more severe must be its effect upon those taken with the disease. They 
give up all heart and hope, and yielding to the fear inspired by the oft-re- 
peated assertion that ' they all die,' make no eflbrt to rally from the disease, 
and die as much from fright as from the plague. To what an alarming ex- 
tent the fears of the people of Jtlemphis have been excited it would be impos- 
sible to tell, and it would be equally impossible to say liow much it has had 
to do in making the death-list and working the sorrow, the penury, want, and 
destitution which tlie Howard and other benevolent associations and the Citi- 
zens' Relief Committee have been and are trying to mitigate. . . . Instead 
of denying hope to ourselves, we should do eveiy thing to inspire it, and, in- 
stead of asserting that all who take the fever have no chance <jf recovery, we 
sliould labor for it as if we had the assurance that in some remedies, in attent- 
ive and judicious nursing and skillful medical attendance, it can l)e found." 

Two of the saddest cases of fever reported were .those of ]Mrs. John D.)no- 
vau and ]Mrs. Beno Hollcnberg. The former, twelve hours after being taken, 
was delivered of a still-boru babe, and the latter o-ave birth to a fine healthv 
child. 

From the 1st of August to six o'clock on the 2()th, 573 cases of yellow fevei- 
had been reported to the Board of Health, of which number 160 had died, and 
about forty had convalesced, leaving 373 still sick. Our only hope for an 
al)atement of the disease lies in the ability of the city government to compel, 
the people — white and black— who still remain to leave for the ca:ni)s. We 
need more nurses and physicians. After dark, it was impossible to find, nv, 
if found, to secure the services of a doctor. In addition to this, it was found 
almost impossible to get medicine after night-flxU. 



150 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



Among the new cases reported August 26th, were Sisters Veronica and 
Dominica, of La Salette Academy. 

Little Jimmie Winters, aged six years, was found lying on a door-step at 
the corner of Exchange and Front Streets, on the morning of August 26th, 
suffering with the fever. His story was, that he came in fi'om the camp look- 
ing for his brother, whom he did not find. He was carried to the hospital. 

Mrs. Bennett and her daughter, of the family of Charles Bennett, the 
bricklayer, at No. 101 Robeson Street, was stricken with the fever on the 26 th 
of August. Mr. Bennett and his son left home a few days prior, the latter 
saying they were going to Cincinnati, and had not been heard from since. 

A colored woman declared herself insulted, one day late in August, because 
an item of the rations awarded her at the commissary depot was, as she termed 
it, " nasty, ole, greasy bacon." She said : " Dey 'se got some nice streak o' lean 
and streak o'fat dar, but dey gi me dat ole stuff, fat enough to kill a hog." 

A citizen coming into the city, on Poplar Street, was nearly sickened by a 
nauseating stench proceeding from a building near the bayou bridge, west of 
the market-house. He went into the building from which the stench proceeded, 
and bursting in the door of a room, he discovei'ed the dead body of its occu- 
pant lying on the bed, in a decomposed condition, where it had, evidently, been 
laying for four or five days. It was the body of a barber, who formerly occu- 
pied the lower floor as a barber-shop. The room presented a sickening sight. 
The remains were wrapped in a sheet, encofiiiied, and interred the same day. 

The fate of the Donovan fixmily occasioned much comment, in which I\Ir. 
Donovan, who was formerly held in high esteem and exercised considerable 
influence, politically and socially in this community, was severely censured for 
positively refusing to return to his family when notified that his wife and chil- 
dren were stricken down with the fever. Mrs. Donovan gave bii'th to a still- 
born child, and, soon after, died herself; one of her children died the same 
day. Mr. Donovan was notified by telegraph, but coolly responded with in- 
structions concerning the burial of the corpses, but still remained awa3^ An- 
other of the children died, but Mr. Donovan remained at Brownsville, fifty 
miles away. 

Annie Cook, who kept the noted demi-moiule establishment, the Mansion- 
liouse, discharged all her female inmates, and taking yellow-fever patients in her 
elegantly furnished rooms — being herself an expert in the management of the 
disease — she personally superintended the nursing of all the patients. 

Avalanche, August 28th. — "It is blue, very blue. The record of j-esterday 
shows only a passage from liad to worse. . . . The plague is as great a 
gourmand as ever, and was only gorged by ninety-six new cases in the city. 
Total deaths in the city, thirty-two." 

The Appeal of August 28th. — "Ninety-six new cases and thirty-two deaths 
from yellow fever are the appalling reports from the books of the Board of 
Health. . . . The close, damp, disagreeable weather is increasing its rav- 
ages, and the scarcity of nurses and physicians is leaving the cases entirely 
:at the mercy of the disease. Several of the nurses have been stricken down 
already. It is blood-curdling to listen to the details of the heart-rending inci- 
dents encountered by the visiting nurses in various parts of the cit}-. . . . 
To-day the nurses reported at the Board of Health office, two, three, and four 
corpses in one house, the undertakers not being able to bury them. . . . 
One of the remarkable features of the disease, as it jirevails now, is, that 
whole families liave been swept out of existence — father, mother, and children 
liave followed each other in rapid succession to the grave, and in some in- 
stances several members of a family are lying dead at the same time, hav- 
ing died almost within the same hour. This was the case in sevei'al instances 
in what was known as the ' infected district.' " 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



151 



The labors of Butler P. Anderson, at Grenada, were witliout a ])arallel in 
the history of epidemics. He nfit only nursed cases himself, but supervised all 
the philanthropic laborers, and, for a time, actually administered the atiairsof 
the plague-stricken town. A hero among heroes, he carried hojie and comfort 
to a people without either, and, from the chaos and confusion incident to so 
fearful a visitation, brought the order and system to which the few who sur- 
vive the fever owe tlieir lives. Like many another brave soldiei', he was, at 
last, beaten by the enemy, and stricken with the fever. 

Mr. Denie, by direction of the Board of Health, threw five hundi'ed barrels 
of unslacked lime into the bayou, which he reported to be in a condition 
filthy beyond belief. He stated that the negro men he employed to do the 
work threatened to leave him, so horrilile was the stench created by stirring 
up tlie f )ul water. He, however, prevailed upon them to keep on. 

Of the 119 new cases of yellow fever reported in the twenty-four hours end- 
ing at six o'clock, August 28l1i, thirty were colored people, and yet negroes 
were to be seen at any and all hours of the day, in the alleys and back-ways, 
gorging themselves with watermelons and all sorts of unwholesome trash. 

The absence of funeral processions, which contril)uted much to the horror of 
the epidemic of 1873, was noted. The dead were conveyed to the various 
burying places as quietly as possiljle, and the public were thus relieved of the 
one harrowing exhibition of sorrow. 

The fever record of August 29th was one to make the stoutest heart quail. 
Briefly stated, it was 140 new cases — forty of them colored — and seventy 
deaths, twenty-four of them colored. This surpassed the worst of the terrible 
days of 1873, the deaths being fifteen in numl;er more than was announced on 
the tenth of October, the worst day of that year. When it is remendjered 
that the white population was less than that during the epidemic of 1873, by 
perhaps 5,000, and that at least 2,000 negroes had left the city, these figures 
became truly appalling. 

Avalanche, August 30th, written midnight, 29th. — "We are doomed. It is 
hard, as we write in this dark, dismal niglit of death, not to realize the full 
meaning of that brief sentence. . . . Scarcely any are left, but those who 
are crowding down personal care, in the noble purposes of others' good. . . . 
To die for man is to imitate the greatest event in the history of our globe, it 
is to imitate the death of the Savior of the world. . . . Seventy dead and 
one hundred and forty new cases ! God help us ! If hope were not worn to 
a skeleton, if she had not taken herself to prayer, we might find a sjxark to 
kindle a weak glow of light in this impenetrable darkness, and expect that 
the heavy shower of to-day would wash from the air, from the gutter, and 
from the bayou a part of tiie foul pestilential air which is breeding death. 
The horrors of the hour can not l)e told, even if tlie heart did not sicken at 
the task ! " 

It is Ijelieved that the sudden In'eaking out of the fever in tlie jail was caused 
by the incarceration of infected prisoners, and not from any lack of attention 
to the rigid sanitary regulations which characterized the management of that 
institution. 

JMrs. Newman, of 128 Washington Street, died August 30ih, ai;d willed all 
her worldly goods to the children of a friend, and was buried by the county 
undertaker, at her own request. 

Great sympathy was expressed for General W. J. Smith, First Yice-Pies- 
ident of the Howard Association, in the loss of bis son, a bereavement which 
adds to his trials and makes his burden heavy indeed. 

The illness of Chief of Police Athy, which occurred on the last day of 
August, was a severe blow in those critical times. 

Among the number of shocking incidents of daily occurrence, that of the 



152 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



fate of Dr. K. P. Watson, -was perhajjs the most horrible. Dr. Watson was 
an efficient worker, both as physician and nurse, during the epidemic of 1873; 
and when the fever broke out in 1878, he entered the field again, and devoted 
himself and his talents to the work of staying the i-avages of the disease. He 
made no boast of the work he was doing, nor stojiped to discuss the nature of the 
l^estileuce, but wherever he found sufiering he worked with all his energy to 
alleviate it. Finally he was missed, but it was thought that he had followed 
the spread of the disease into other quarters of the city. Sergeant JNIcElrov, 
of the Signal Service, who worked like a Trojan, doing all in his power to help 
the sick and distressed, happened to be passing by No. 56^ Second Street, and 
Avas told that there was something wrong there ; that in all probability a dead 
body lay in there. Without hesitation he kicked the door in, when he beheld 
a sickening sight. There lay the corpse of Dr. Watson, on an old mattress on 
the floor, no bedstead or other furniture excejDt a single chair and a table. 
Being personally acquainted with Dr. Watson, he thought he recognized his 
features, and a closer examination confirmed his first impressions. Diligent 
inquiry in the neighborhood failed to elicit any information as to when or why 
he came there, how long ago, or any thing that could give a clue to his myste- 
rious death. The condition of the corpse and surrounding circumstances told 
the story too truly. He had been seized with a violent attack of the fever, and 
during the attendant delirium, he had crept into the place, where he may have 
lingered for days, or it may have been only for hours, finally dying unattended 
by nurse or physician, not even a friend to smooth his dying pillow. His name 
appeared among the interments of August 31st.* 

A man named Myers kept a second-hand clothing and dyeing establishment 
on Washington Street, between Main and Second Streets. Some one entered 
his place August 31st, and found him lying dead on the floor; no one could 
find out how long he had been in that condition. He bore evident marks of 
having died with the fever, without any attention whatever. 

A iwor woman was found on Main Street, near the Louisville Depot, in a 
miserable hut, sitting stiff", stark dead in a chair, with a dead child hanging by the 
nipple of her left breasjt on which it had closed its little gums as it breathed its 
last. Another child was lying in a pallet just breathing, and died a few mo- 
ments after the entrance of the Howard visitor, who said the walls, floor and 
every thing in the room was covered with black vomit and excreta, the sight as 
well as smell being sickening in the extreme. Mother and children were buried 
in the same box. 

On Poplar Street the remains of an old woman were found so far gone that 
tliej^ were gatiiered — putrid water and festering flesh — into the carpet on which 
they vvei'e lying, and so lifted into a box, in which she was buried in potter's 
field. 

Another of the noble Howards was buried on Sunday, Sejitember 1st ; Ed. 
Mansford, who, in 1873, and through the last epidemic, until two days before 
he died, was conspicuous for his untiring energy in a work but for which the 
poor Avould have no succor, passed away peacefully as Sunday morning dawned. 
His woik was done. He had fought the good fight ; henceforth there was for 
him the crown of martyrdom. He came out from the ranks of the peojile a 



* This was subsequently contradicted, but the person who originally made the report 
adhered to it until he died. Sergeant ]McElroy, signal service officer at this station, was 
the person. A more honorable or faithful soldier never served his country. He nursed 
the sick and braved all the perils of the times, doing all that a man coidd to mitigate the 
sorrow and trouble that surrounded him. He fought, in the regular army, all through 
the civil war, had encountered the Indians on the plains many times, and passed 
throigh one epidemic of yellow fever in New Orleans, but his last campaign (the epi- 
demic), he assured the writer, comljined the horrors of them all. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



153 



mere jirivate, he went to his grave acknowledged as a leader among those who 
were not afraid to die that others niigiit live. 

AvalancJie, September 1st. — " The King of Terroi's continues to snatch vic- 
tims with feai-fui rapidity. . . . But three short weeks ago our city was 
active with business of all classes, our people were happy and prosperous. . . . 
Now our streets are deserted, our stores and residences empty, and out of a 
2Dopulation of more than fifty thousand, l^arely five thousand remain, and of 
those nearly five hundred are in the grave, and perhaps double that number 
lie suffering with racking pains and burning fevers." 

Appeal, September 1st. — " We believe the new cases of yesterday will i-each 
two huiidreil (reported one hundred and fifty-two). The region of the city 
known as the 'infected district' is now so nearly depojtulated by death and 
desertion, that but few cases are being reported from that quarter, but the 
great increase in numbers from the Ninth Ward (noi-thern part of the city, 
called Chelsea) shows that the contagion has taken a firmer gvasp in that lo- 
cality. The Seventh Ward (south-east part) is also rolling up considerable 
numbers of new crises, as is also the Fifth Ward (north of the Seventh), 
where it is making frightful havoc among the colored ])eople. There is still 
great need of physicians." 

The name of N. D. Menkin, who passed away September 2d, will never be 
forgotten by the people of Memphis. He died at his post, a noble example of 
zeal and courage on a field where many brave men had fallen before him. He 
might, like many others of his class, have sought safety in flight, but he pre- 
ferred to share the lot of the people to whom he was known as an honorable, 
enterprising merchant, whose money seconded every suggestion he ever made in 
the public interest. Early in the fight he saw that few of the public men or 
noted merchants would remain to lead the small eomi)any who proposed to do 
the good Samaritan work of nursing the sick, burying the dead, and caring for 
the impoverished ; he therefore volunteered, and first, as the leader of a little 
band of his co-religionists, and afterward as a Howard, he went about, day and 
night, doing good, carrying comfort to sick-rooms, provisions to the destitute, 
and surpervising with all the energy of his nature the W(jrk of a district where 
the fever was raging at its worst. 

A colored man was pi'ostrated, September 2d, on the corner of Fifth and 
Saffarans Streets, in Chelsea. He was seen to fall by Captain A. T. Lacey, 
who went to him and found him insensible. Captain Lacey reported the case 
to the health office, and an ambulance w^as sent for him, but he was dead when 
it got there. 

Innumerable complaints were made at the health office, September 2d, 
about corpses lying unburied, some of them having been dead thirty-six and 
forty-eight hours. Undertaker Walsh declared his inalnlity to get material for 
coffins, or laborers to dig graves. 

Avalandie, September 3d. — "The fever has spread rapidly to the soutliern 
part of the city. Fort Pickering is full of it. Chelsea (noi'thern \rdvt) is 
covered with sick people, There is now no ])art of the corpoi-ate limits of 
the city not thoroughly infected with the fever poison. All of Sunday and 
yesterday hearses followed each other at a trot to the cemetery, unattended 
by any but the drivers. Even tliis was not fast enough, and corpses accumu- 
lated in various parts of the city, until the fl-arfid stench Ijecame alarmingly 
offensive." 

Eev. Dr. A. Thomas, pastor of the Oerman Free Protestant Clunvh, of 
this city, died, September 3d, of yellow fever, after a very short illness. Dr. 
Thomas was one of the noble army of martyrs, and since the breaking out of 
the fever had devoted himself entirely to the sick and afHicted of his parish. 
None were more earnest and self-denying than he, and his death was a severe 



154 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



loss to the city, as well as to the religious community of which he was the light 
and guide. 

The death of Mr. R. A. Thompson, one of the editors and proprietors of the 
Avalanche, and postmaster cif the city, occurred September 3d, and was the 
result of an attack of yellow fever. Mr. Thompson came to Memphis toward 
the close of the war, and was first engaged on tlie Bulletin as local, and subse- 
quently as commercial, editor. In 1^66, he was offered the position of com- 
mercial editor of the Avalanche, which he accepted, and has ever since been 
identified witli the fortunes of tliat paper. In 1875, he became one of the 
proprietors, and, a few months before his death, was confirmed postmaster. He 
possessed and was guided by a great many of the intuitions which are prized by 
the true journalist, was useful in every branch of the profession, was a good 
business man, and fully justified the good opinion of a large circle of friends, 
by whom his death was regretted and his memory cherished. 

Henry Stillman, at one time connected with the Ledger office, as engineer, 
was found dead in a residence on Broadway Street, in South Memphis, Septem- 
ber 3d. He had probably been dead three or four days. 

Butler Anderson's death was announced in the Apj^eal in these terms: No 
nobler spirit ever went out through death to life than that of Butler P. An- 
derson. He was of the stuff of wdiich heroes are made. Large, open, gener- 
ous, and self-sacrificing, intelligent as to the risks he ran, but counting them 
nothing when compared with the magnitude and character of the work to be 
done, he went down to Grenada when the call was first made upon us for help, 
and before we had even tasted of the sorrow with which our cup has been 
filled to overflowing many times since. He went cheerfully and willingly to 
the people of that once happy little town, and for them, during five weeks of 
almost unparalleled misery, he was as father and brother and husband, fill- 
ing all places of relationship, and of social or political influence, the one de- 
pendence of a people dazed in presence of the awful fact of the yellow fever. His 
labors were incessant, but he performed them with an alacrity that was an in- 
spiration to all those about him, and, while thus burdened, he Avent his rounds, 
carrying judicious advice for the sick, bearing cheering hope to the despondent, 
and inspiring those who, nerveless from despair, were giving way under the 
gloom which had settled over a once beautiful town. He was every thing to 
the Grenadians, and his must be to them the one specially cherished name 
above all others, bright and luminous as that of a hero who dies for his fellow- 
men. Here, wiiere he was tried in 1873, and whei-e he grew to proportions in 
the public esteem from which he never aiterward fell away, we deeply deplore 
his loss. 

The dead body of a negro woman was found at No. 13 Commerce Street, 
Se])teraber 3d, her living babe trying to nurse from her putrid breast. 

Visitor Anderson, of the Howards, September 4th, found J. Riviere in a dy- 
ing condition at No. 81 Main Street. He was alone, stark naked, and literally 
covered with flies. 

The Ledger, of September 4th, has the following : " "We regret to learn that 
our brethren of the press of this city are sorely pressed for help. Our after- 
noon contemporary has been obliged to suspend altogether. Mr. J. M. Keat- 
ing, assisted by Mr. W. S. Brooks, has all the labor and responsibility of run- 
ning the Appeal on his own shoulders. Mr. Henry White has charge of the 
business department, as usual. Of the Avalanche editorial force only Captain 
W. L. Trask remains. He is assisted, at night, by Mr. R. R. Catron, the as- 
siduous, accurate, and untiring agent of the Associated Press, who has like- 
wise, in his spare moments, befriended the Ledger with his services. IMr. F. 
B. Nichols, one of the proprietors, looks after the business of the Avalanche. 
The typographical force of these papers is reduced correspondingly. These 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



155 



gentlemen are steady to their posts, with noble fidelit}' to duty and the public 
good." 

Avalanche, September 5th. — "Great God! How his murderous work has 
increased ! Those that ai'e left are busy bui'ying their dead ; those that are 
left may be taken to-morrow. . . . Impotence lies at the feet of Omnipo- 
tence, and grovels there in the du.-t. Yesteiday's record is run up, and in all 
its blackness lifts its death's head and defies the best plague that ever did a 
job of slaying among the children of men. . . . Who has the heart to 
use the multiplication table in the arithmetic of sorrow, and figure out the 
hearts broken, the lives embittered, the houses desolated? . . . Surely 
our cup of sorrow must be full. Black as the dead list is, to-day, in our city, 
it fails to represent all those ready for burial yesterday. The county under- 
taker has four furniture wagons busy all day. Ujion each the coffins were 
piled as high as safety from falling would permit. These four great vehicles, 
doing the wholesale burial business, fliiled to take to the potter's field all of 
the indigent dead. At the time the officer made his report sixty bodies were 
awaiting interment. . . . The ])lagiie's course is surely and quickly toward 
the south. In the suburbs cases have appeared on every avenue almost, in 
many places deemed spots of perfect safety." 

September 5th, Annie Cook, the keeper of a bagnio on Gayoso Street, wdio 
had most heroically devoted herself to the care of the sick since the fever set 
in, was down with a bad case of the fever. 

September 5th, owing to the fiict that Mrs. Brooks, wife of Mr. W. S. 
Bi-ooks, of the Appeal editorial staff, had been taken down with the fever, Mr. 
J. M. Keating was alone on duty. Captain Fred. Brennan, city editor, Avas 
still lying in a precarious condition. All but one of the printers of the Ap- 
peal were absent or down with the fever. The one present was INIr. Henry 
Moode, who, besides setting type, hail to assist Mr. Richard Smith in superin- 
tending the printers' infirmary, and was, consequently, absent a good deal dur- 
ing working hours. 

September 5th, Mrs. Butler P. Anderson was taken down with fever. It 
had been hoped that slie would have been spared to her children. The noble 
wife of a noble husband, she has the sympathies of the people of ]\Iemphis. 

A man named Charles Gibson, who officiated as a nurse, was called to at- 
tend a family on Hernando Street, all stricken with the fisver. The mother 
was found dying, with a babe at her breast, the father in a comatose condition, 
and three children sick, all in the same room. One child, being well, was 
sent to the orphan asylum. The fixther, mother, and two of the children, in- 
cluding the sucking babe, died during the day, and the third child it was ex- 
pected would die during the night, having had the black vomit. The next 
morning Howard visitors came, and upon inquiry learned that the child was 
convalescing. The next day he got up, and recovered. 

Dr. Pritchard was called upon to visit a negro in Fort Pickering, who was 
said to be very low. On reaching the dying man, he found him prone on the 
earthen floor of a mud cabin, in a comatose state, his extremities cold, and evi- 
dently in the last pangs of dissolution. His wife and mother were dead in the 
room, and it seemed almost inevitable that the husband and son must so(m fol- 
low. The doctor, however, took hold of his case, and in three days he was 
out. He is now a roistering roustabout on the river. 

While the largest proportion of those wlio died fell by disease, this was not 
the sole cause of the immense deatli rate. The constant nervous strain im- 
posed, the uninterrupted labors to which the well were subjected, and the con- 
tinued apprehension felt, were powei'ful causes in increasing the daily lists.. 
To these can be added the negligence, inattention, and inebriety of nurses who 
were prompted in their labors by the hope of reward alone. 



156 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



The body of a negro woman, name unknown, was found back of the Appeal 
office in an out-house, defaced lieyond recognition, and half the body eaten by 
rats, hundreds of which were lying dead near by. The yellow fever jiroved 
too much for them, at least in that shape. 

Avalanche, September 6th. — "New cases in the city, only thirt}'-six reported 
(several physicians not reporting). Deaths, ninety-two. The physicians have 
no time to make out lists of new cases, so the reporter has to search for him- 
sslf . . . Verbal reports show at least one hundred and fifty new cases 
not officially reported." 

Tliere were but five operators on duty at the telegraph office September 6th — 
the chief auil one a-sistant by day, and the chief and two assistants by night. 

September 5th, a singular-looking genius made his appearance on Main 
Street, dressed in a semi-Greek costume, with a large sponge tied about his 
neck. He kept to the middle of the street, and attracted the attention and 
excited the risibilities of the few bystanders. 

A physician who died of fever, when first taken, called on a neighbor, on 
whose family he had waited like a brother, but the neighbor made no i-esponse, 
and the good doctor passed away, filled with mortification at the conduct of 
Ills one-time friend, who in a few days sickened and died, too. 

The force was so small at the post-office, that some of the letter-carriers 
were called in. 

Mr. W. S. Brooks, of the Appeal editorial corps, was taken down with the 
fever September 6th. He stood to his post to the last, doing all that he 
could to assist in getting out the paper. Enough can not be said in praise of 
his courage and devotion to duty. 

Avalamhe, September 7th. — "Total new cases reported in the city, ninety- 
five. Deaths, one hundred. These new cases were reported by eight physi- 
cians only. Verbal reports from twenty-three more (out of duty) reported 
three hundred cases. Dr. Mitchell (jMedical Director) gave it as his opinion, 
at eleven o'clock last night, that the new cases would aggregate for yesterdny 
(sick who had not seen a doctor before) fully six hundred. It is terribly dark, 
as the record reads to-day." 

Avalanche, September 8th. ^ — "Total new cases in the city, reports very 
meager. Deaths reported, , ninety seven. Another black leaf turned! An- 
other chapter in our book of misery turned! As castaways on desert isle each 
day for occupation's sake enter up in their 'log' the monotonous record of 
the dreary day, so we sit down to our log-book to-night. . . . The day's 
record is horrible. The few new cases reported are not a tithe of those which 
have occurred. . . . The nurses in two more days can not attend one-half 
the sick." 

Appeal, Sept. 8th. — Rev. C. C. Parsons, rector of Grace and St. Lazarus 
churches, died Sept. 7th, after six days of fever. From the first day of the epi- 
demic he labored incessantly among his parishioners, knowing no rest so long as 
there was good to be done. Mr. Parsons was a graduate of West Point, and 
served during the war in tlie Federal army distinction, rising to the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel of artillery, which he surrendered to take a place in the 
raidcs of the ministry of the Episcopal Ciiurch. He was first settled in charge 
of a parish, we believe, in New Jersey, then in New York, whence he came to 
this city al)out three years ago. He was not long in making his way to the 
hearts of our people. All classes learned to love and confide in him, and to 
look to him as one of tlie most gentle of Christian ministers. He was chap- 
lain of the Chickasaw Guards, and was beloved by his comrades as the unit 
of all that was strong, noble, manly, refined, and Christ-Hke. His loss was 
deeply deplored, not alone by tlie members of his own, but by those of other 
communions by whom he was beloved. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



157 



Sister Alphonsa, Mother Superior of St. Agnes, died on September 6th. 
Slie was the seventh of her order that succumbed to the dreaded scourge. 

Mrs. Butler P. Anderson died at Hernando, Mississippi, and Captain J. 
Harvey iNIathes, editor of the Ledger, was talieu down with the fever Sep- 
tember 7th. 

Most of the drug-stores were closed hy Septemlicr 7th, very much to the in- 
convenience of the doctors, and to the endangering of the lives of the sick. 
Druggists, like doctors, owe it to the public to stand to their posts at a time 
like tliat; but if they do not, they must expect to see others take their 
places. 

A. J. Wheeler, past grand master of IMasons of this State, and editor and 
proprietor of the Masonic Jewel, died September 7th, of yellow fever. Mr. 
Wheeler had devoted himself unflinchingly to the work of succoring the sick — 
not only of the craft, of which he was a distinguished light, but of all societies 
and conditions, and literally worked himself down. 

Appeal, September 7th. — "To lose over 1,200 men, Avomen, and children in 
twentv-seven days, out of a population of 19,000 white and black, and to be 
expending over §10,01)0 for 1,200 nurses and forty doctors, and for medi- 
cines and food, for more than 3,000 sick and 10,000 indigent, was a sad 
reality, enough to move even a Stoic to tears. But besides this there comes 
the tales of individual sorrow ; of whole families swept away in a Aveek, 
leaving not even one of the name ; of nui-ses dying at their ]30sts ; of priests 
and ministers and good sisters following tliose they succored so fast as to 
ap[)all the stoutest heart and 'give us pause' amid the general wreck and ruin. 
No pen can do these scenes and sights justice; no tongue exaggerate them. 
Lisping childhood, hoary and venerable old age, the vagrant and the mer- 
chant, the man of God and the unbeliever, all are taken, all are claimed 
alike by the awful pestilence. It thins all ranks, and brings sorrow to 
the mansion, tlie cottage and the cabin. The cry of the fatherless was heard 
every hour, claiming the pity, the sympathy, and the tears of the most hard- 
ened veteran. In this office, as we write, there are but two left of all who a 
month ago were employed in the editorial, counting-, and composing-rooms, and 
our pressman is down with the fever. Strangers to the office, as to the busi- 
ness, are attending to our affairs, while the only editor left on duty alternates, 
through sixteen hours a day, between his desk and a case. This is our per- 
sonal measure of the dreadful epidemic, and surely it is a sad one. It has 
moved us to tears many a time the past ten days, although we are not used to 
the melting mood. Our experience is one v,e will never forget, and it is a 
common on?. The fifth epidemic we have passed through, this surpasses them 
all in the horrors it has uncovered. Men have dropped deafl on the streets, 
while others have died neglected, only to be discovererl l)y the death-sjireading 
gases from their ho lies. Little children clamoring for tiie fo'.'d she could no 
longer give, have appealed to the dead mother, wlio gave up her spirit as she 
gave birth to her last, in an agony of tiie fever. jMinistere of the gospel car- 
rying messages of peace, hurrying from house to house, have iiad their weary 
feet arrested and their work stayed liv the pestilence that walks in the noon- 
day as at night. The priest, administering the extreme unction, and the bride 
of Christ, wiping the death-damp from tiie foreliead of those whose friends 
and kinfolk are far away, are almost ]>ara!yzed in the sacred act, and die even 
before we know they are sick. The business of tlie hour is the succor of the 
sick, the burial of the dead, and the care of the needy living. The last words 
of those who are well, are at night fai-ewells to the dead, and the fii-st in the 
morning ' who lives, and who has died?' All day, and every honr of the day, 
this question is repeated and the heart sickens at the rejiorts, and the soul grows 
weary over the repetition. And yet there is no relief nor any release. "W^orse 



153 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



and worse tlie epidemic has grown, until to-day it has capped the climax, and 
the hearts of the brave men who have stood in the breach are blanched with 
fear, with a dread that annihilation awaits us, and that we are destined to be 
blotted from the earth. Fear sits on every face and dread on every heart. 
We work, not in the shadow, but in the very face of death. We meet him on 
every hand and at every moment in the names of his victims and in the deso- 
lation he has spread about us. Hope, we have none. We despair of any re- 
lief, but we are nerved for the end. AVe pray blessings upon the generous who 
have helped us in all the States ; we pray for the safety of those who have 
come among us to nurse the sick and minister to the dying, and we ask that the 
names of the women and the men wlio have laid down tlieir lives for us shall 
be handed down forever as among the brightest and best of the earth." 

September 8th, Dr. Willett, in medical charge of the Catholic La Salette 
Academy, reported as convalescent Sisters Dominica, Cecelia, Alberta, and 
Eeginald. All tiiese were reported dangerously ill at one time. 

September 8th, another of the horrifying incidents, which startle people at 
home as well as abroad, and leave one dazed with amazement that human 
beings can be so cowardly, occurred on one of the streets of the originally 
infected district. A man and his wife and one child occupying a nice home, 
saw their little girl taken down witii the fever, whereupon the wife, full of the 
heroism of which her sex had made so many displays during this ejjidemic, 
advised the husband to leave, which he did without delay, and from a house 
only across the street saw the bodies of his child and faithful wife carried by 
strangers for interment in Elmwood Cemetery. 

At Camp Joe Williams a woman was taken sick, who, with her husband, 
had been occupying snug-looking quarters. When she was being taken to the 
hospital the physician remarked to the husband that he could follow to nurse 
her. He demurred, and repeatedly objected, when finally, all but overcome 
by the doctoi-'s importunities, he, pointing to the dog, said: "No; if I goes, 
who takes care of my dog ?" The brute should have been kicked out of camp 
right then. He is not fit to live. 

September 8th, another sickening case of desertion came to light. A man 
named Townsley lost a child by fever, immediately after the funeral of which 
his wife and little daughter Florence, twelve years of age, were taken. la 
despair he told the neighbors he was going to make away with himself, and 
has not since been heard of. After he thus basely deserted his wife, she died 
and was buried, and his little Florence and his youngest child, a boy, were 
wards in the infirmary. 

IMrs. Brooks, wife of W. S. Brooks, of the Appeal, was buried Septem- 
ber 8t]i, Mr. J. ]M. Keating and Eugene Moore alone forming the funeral 
pai-ty. 

John T. Moss, September 9th, found three little girls in a house sick with 
the fever, who had lost their parents two days before by the scourge. No one 
was in the house to assist the little ones, and Mr. Moss kindly jirocured food, 
medicines and a nurse for them. 

Thomas Hood, a volunteer telegrapher, from Philadelphia, died Sept. 9th. 

Appeal, September 9th.— Parents have deserted children, and children parents, 
husbands their wives, but not one wife a husband. 

Appeal, September 9th. — Let it be recorded to their credit that the negro 
militia and policemen have discharged their duties zealously and with discre- 
tion. We are proud of them. They proved their title to the gratitude of the 
people of jNIemphis. 

General Charles A. Adams, one of the ablest members of our bar, died on 
September 8th, of the prevailing epidemic, after a brief illness. 

Mr. Jesse Page, who had been constantly on duty with the Howards, doing 



A IIISTOHY OF THE YELLOW FEVEn. 



noble .service, was taken with tlie fever Se])tember 10th. He burled his father 
and brother, wlio died of the same disease, only a few day.s before. 

Appeal, September 10th. — Dr. Mitcliell reports that 68(3 new cases of yellow 
fever have been reported to him hy the physicians employed by the Howard 
Association for the forty-eight hours eml)racing Sunday and Monday. If le- 
ported to him, why not to tlie Board of Health, charged with the duty of 
compiling statistics of the growth, as well as results, of the disease ? The })u])- 
lic demands that the names and residences of all new cases shall be given, and 
we have urged that duty u\yim all the physicians, Dr. Erskine, the health offi- 
cer, threatening, by public advertisement, the full penalties of the law for 
every case of neglect to report. In the face of this, we have here a statement 
of 686 new cases for forty-eight hours, for which time the Board of Health re- 
ports only 137. This does not look well, to say the least of it. We ai)peal 
to Dr. ]\Iitchell to see that the physicians under his directions make reports to 
the Board of Health promptly. We must all of us ol)ey the law to the letter. 

Appeal, September 10th. — Rev. E. C. Slater has gone to his reward ns a 
faitiiful servant of Christ. He died yesterday. No man did more than lie in 
behalf of the sick. He carried consolation to the atilicted, and bore the 
blessed assurance of Jesus to the d3'ing. Night and day he traveled fi-om one 
bedside to another, knowing no relief so long as there remained one unattended 
wdio needed his ministration. A faithful minister of the Methodist Church, he 
Avent wherever called, knowing no divisions among Christians; as he said him- 
self many times, knowing "nothing but Christ, and him crucified." The 
years of his ministiy in IMemphis were full of grace to him and his people, 
though he passed with them through (he epidemic of 1873, and so far through 
this. Endearing himself to all classes, the presiding elder of the district, yield- 
ing to a general desire, left him with us as one who had done, and was still 
capable of more good. Genial and full of sunshine ; gentle, but strong in his 
religious convictions, he was at all times an example of the true Christian 
miuister. No one ever knew him but to love him, and none can name him 
but to praise. 

j4rr!/a))c/)e, September 11th. — " A stricken city ! Alas, fair Memphis ! What 
sights meet the eye of those who yet remain in your midst! . . . On every 
side is met the bowed form of some citizen who has lost a relative or a friend. 
The small burnt piles of bedding that are seen on every street but tells the 
. passer-by, 'A death has occurred here.' These blackened spots are growing in 
lunnber daily. . . . During the day there is bustle and confusion. Doc- 
tors are hurrying by. The hearse is met on every square. . . . Each day 
brings its changes. The form that but yesterday was seen in the full vigor of 
manhood, to-night lies tossing upon a bed, aching with fever. . . . Who 
will be left to tell the tale to-morrow?" 

Appeal, Sept. 12t]i. — Annie Cook, the woman mIio, after a long life of shame, 
ventured all she had of life and proprty for the sick, died Sept. 11th, of yellow 
fever, which she contracted while nursing her patients. If there was virtue in the 
faith of the woman who Init touched the hem of the garment of the Divine Ee- 
deemer, surely the sins of this woman must have been forgiven her. Her faith 
bath hiade her whole — made her one with the loving Clirist, whose example she 
f jliowed in giving her life that others might live. Amid so much that was sor- 
rowful to an agonizing degree, so much that illumined the giaces of a common 
humanity, and so much that disgraced tliat humanity, the example of that 
' brave woman stands by itself, singular but beautiful, sad but touching, the 
very expression of that hope the realization of which we have in the words, 
" Inasmuch as ye have done it unto the least of these my brethren, ye have 
done it unto me." Out of sin, the woman, in all the tenderness and true fidl- 
uess of her womanhood, meiged, transfigured and purified, to become the 



160 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



liealer, and at last to come to the Healer of souls, with Him to rest forever. 
vShe is at peace. 

President A. D. Langstaff, of the Howard Association, one of our foremost 
heroes, was taken with the fever on Wednesday morning, September 11th, 
about three o'clock, after the hardest day's work he had done during the 
epidemic. Perhaps it was the strain on his nervous system, consequent upon 
so much work, that brouglit on the fever. Any way he was down, very much 
to the sorrow of every body in the city, especially the Howard Association, to 
whom he was as a tower of strength, and by whose members he was considered 
equal to any work that might be devolved upon him. 

Mr. Catron, local agent of the Western Associated Press, was taken witli the 
fever September 11th. 

Sister Vincent died, Se^Jtemher 11th, of the fever. She has done her 
duty, and has gone to her reward. 

Colonel Knowlton, tlie efficient assistant postmaster, who was appointed 
postmaster after the death of Mr. R. A. Tiiompson, was stricken with the 
fever, September 11th. 

Avalanche, September 12th. — "The contest has been f.harp and decisiA'e. 
The battle-ground is strewn with dead bodies, and the Grim INIonster still 
advances. The aged and the young, the ricli and the poor, the high and the 
lowly, all share the same fate — death. What a sight will greet the absent 
ones when they return and count the little mounds tl.at have l^een raised over 
the spot where the heroic garrison lie buried." 

Dr. Avent, one of our best and oldest physicians, lias paid the penalty of liis 
devotion to duty. He died at his residence, 309 Vance Street, September 12th. 

Judge Robert Hutchinson, who was a candidate on the Democratic ticket 
for Circuit Court Judge, died September 12th of the fever, at tiie residence of 
Judge Halsey, on the Poplar Street Boulevard. 

Captain A. T. Lacey, at one time .the most opulent merchant of Memphis, 
and always a well-to-do business man, died of yellow fever, September 12th, at 
his residence in Chelsea. 

Appeal, September 13th. — Mr. Herbert Landrum, local editor of the 
Avalanche, died SeT)tember 12th of the fever, at the residence of his parents. 
Like his father, the reverend pastor of the Central Baptist Church, he knew 
no fear where duty was to he performed. He stood to his post, and braved 
all the terrors of the epidemic, not only performing his own accustomed 
laboi's, but taking on cheerfully the load that others dropped as they 
died or fled from the plague. How tenderly and with wliat watchfulness 
he nursed the late Mr. Thompson, to whom he was very much attaciied, 
all who knew him are cognizant of. Falling from exhaustion when his 
brother editor died, he recuperated, and again took his place as the only 
one of the Avalanche staff left. There he staid, doing double duty until the 
fever took him. After a comparatively brief battle he succumbed, and 
is now numbered with those who fell with their faces to the foe. The 
most promising man in the profession, his triumphs were only limited by 
the demands which each day made npon him. Quick, witt3% sparkling, and 
bright, he bade fair to outshine all his contemporaries as a paragraphist and 
chronicler of city affairs. He never knew a dull moment, and grasped as 
eagerly the points of others as he spontaneously made those of his own. Cut 
off in the bud and promise of a nseful career in a profession to which he seemed 
to be born, it will be difficult to replace him. To the mental qualities and 
readiness of pen which distinguished him, he added diligence and sobriety. 
No man could be more earnest or more industrious. He knew what was 
valuable as news by instinct, and grasped it without delay. To the members 
of the profession he was always courteous, kind, and affable. They recipro- 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



IGl 



cated fully his good feeling, and promptly as he won it, recognized his place 
ill the profession. His death was deeply mourned, and all earnestly condoled 
with ids parents upon the loss of a son who gave promise of a most useful and 
honorable career. 

Some of the Howai-d physicians report finding the dead bodies of negroes in 
the fields in the suburbs of the city. One body, so found, was actually eateii 
to the bones in many places by carri(jn birds. These negroes, no doubt, when 
attacked by the fevei-, dropped, and, without the care of physician or nurse, 
died neglected and alone. 

Avalanche, September loth. — "In the city, 203 new cases reported, ninety- 
eight deaths. The cup of sorrow has been drained to the dregs. Now we are 
nerved to any fate. . . . Death has lost its terrors. It has been witnessed 
so often of late, so many dear friends have been stricken, no longer is felt the 
pain of the wounded and bleeding heart. The dart is endiedded and the shaft 
protrudes, but the sense of feeling has gone. The eyes have wept until the 
fountain Jias gone dry. . . . The undertakers find it impossible to bury 
the dead fast enough. The keepers of cemeteries can not have graves dug in 
time to receive the coffins brought, and often it is that sorrowing friends must 
Avait until the narrow tombs can be made wdiicli is to hold the form of the 
departed." 

Major Stephenson, the oldest compositor in Memphis, and fir nine years 
past engaged upon the Appeal, died, it is with regret said, at his residence, 
Septembei-^ I3th, of yellow fever, after but a few day.s' illness. His sou was 
convalescing from the fever, and two of his daughters were very ill of it— one 
of them being insensible — a sad case, but one that had a hundred times been 
duplicated. 

Colonel Knowlton, one of the best of men, Avho succeeded the late R. A. 
Thomi)son as jwstmaster, died at an early hour Septendier 14th. 

One of the saddest instances of family annihilation by the epidemic is that 
furnished by the Flack family. The widowed mother, two sons and four 
daughters, were swept away in a few days, the last to go being Miss Louisa, 
who died and was buried September 14th. Their names and ages are as 
follows: Mrs. Barbara Flack, 51 years; Mr. Tom Flack, 28 years; Mr. Willie 
Flack, 19 years; Miss Laura Flack, 24 years; IMiss Louisa Flack, 22 years; 
jMiss Jennie Flack, 20 years; Miss Clara Flack, 18 years. They resided at 
No. 11 Elliott Street, and were cared for and nursed by H. J. Buhler, the 
scenic painter at the theater. 

The sexton of St. Patrick's Church reported a case where a man was 
shrouded and encofiined, but who, when the lid was about to be screwed down, 
opened his eyes and asked those pertbrming the last offices for him, " What 
are you doing?" A little trepidated, if not consternated, they lifted him from 
his close conifinement and put him into lied. Treatment was begun again, and, 
strange to say, he recovered. He was literally rescued from the grave. 

A foul smell, September 14th, attracted attention to the Mosby & Hunt 
building, and the examination of the premises, made by Gleorge Hayden, a 
colored policeman, revealed the discovery, in room 22, of the dead and decom- 
posed body of H. L. Waiing, cotton buyer. The appearance of the body 
indicated that he had been dead tv.'o or three days. 

General W. J. Smith, who divided the honors of heroism with Butler P. 
Anderson, at Grenada, completely recovered from perhaps one of the severest 
cases of fever known. 

Mr. R. W. Blew, publisher of the Western Methodist, with his wife and three 
children, has paid the debt of nature. He died on Sunday, September 15th, 
of the fever. He was a quiet, modest, unassuming gentleman, a good citizen 
and a pious Christian. 



162 



A HISTOEY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



"The need of nurses," writes the Louisville Courier- Journal correi-pondent, 
" was known to the country, and, as a distinguished physician put it, ' this fact 
brought upon us the scum of the nation — in fact, an invasion of cut-throats, 
thieves, and prostitutes, of as bad a type as ever trod the earth.' These 
people thrList tlieniselves upon Memphis, and the sutfering sick were at their 
mercy. 'Every thing depends uj)on nursing; a good attendant and a pail of 
water will accomplish more than all the medicines in the land,' says Dr. Wood- 
Avard. The hope of pecuniary pr(jtit brought most of these many nurses to 
INIemphis. This is an undeniable fact. Of their conduct in the sick-room I 
.«hall speak presently. Gathering at Memphis after the maimer of the human 
vultures who follow the field of battle, rol^bing the dead or dying soldier, 
tliese villains swarmed by the hundreds into the heart of the yellow fever 
country. SoVne few came through noble motives. They Avere not many. 
The large majority having resolved to flxtten their purees by pilfering the 
dead, they were not slow in seizing other opportunities to steal or swindle. 
This Avas managed by practicing frauds on the employers — the Howards — in 
spite of whose vigilant watching they made false returns and collected largely 
inexce.ssof actual services rendered. How much fraud was perpetrated in this 
manner it is impossible to estimate, nor is there any disposition upon the part of 
interested parties to say much about it. The conduct of the leader of this brazen 
band after reaching Memphis was even more outrageous than before. De moHuis 
nil nisi bonum is all right in its way, but if I uncover any unpleasant otlor I sin- 
cerely trust circumstances may justify. Sooner or later we meet our fate, and 

Mrs. came by hers rather suddenly. She will be remembered as the 

female who wrote a card full of what seemed to be virtuous indignation over the 
Gourier-Jonrnal's truthful story. . She would have jerked bald-headed the author 
of the publication, but the Loi-d — or, j>erhaps, the 'Lord-knows-who ' — 
had set his eyes upon her, and she was set down for an eaily doom. This Mrs. 

■ — would have soared to the front. She wished all she could get, and 

a trifie additional. She got both, and the Lord — or the Lord-knows -who — got 
her. She was distantly related to Oliver Cromwell of yore, if the record of 
her deeds go for aught. Mrs. was nursing in the family of a well- 
known judiciary officer. Esse quam vider'i is good enough in its way, but Mrs. 
preferred to seem rather than to be. She had abundant opportu- 
nity to exercise any extraordinary avaricious inclination she might possess 
daring the delirium of her patients; and having heard that the little busy bee 
improves each shining hour, she sought to profit by example and filled her 
trunk with valuables, such as jewelry and silverware. This trunk 

she sent to the express office to be shipjied to . Before it had 

gone Mrs. took the fever, or perhaps the fever took Mrs. 

. The Howards, being very naughty people, peeped into her trunk 

and discovered her stolen treasures. The relentless reaper, meanwhile, had 

set about harvesting Mrs. , and thus she escaped any punishment 

earth may have given her. ' One of the woret of my experiences with 

nurses,' said Dr. to me, ' was in the case of a female patient. It 

took four to kill her. The first one stole her clothing and ran away; the 
second got drunk and neglected her ; the third took sick and died ; and the 
fourth, getting drunk, fell over on her bed Avith a wine bottle held high in 
one hand, dancing like an Indian in his intoxication. This scoundrel Avas 
arrested.' 'One man Avhom I wished especially to get Avell AA'as deserted by 
his nurse at the most critical period,' remarked a physician to me, 'and 
other nurses I fbund drunk and their posts deserted. Some stole all they 
could, and many held drunken orgies in the rooms of patients.'" 

The Church Orphans' Home, September 17th, was a hospital, with twenty sick 
children and one convalescent Sister of St. Mary's. Two of the good sisters 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



163 



died in the perfonnaiice of. tlieir sacred duties, and two of the children. Un- 
der a happier condition of things the sisters were ghtd to give a ■welcome to all 
the orphan children that were sent them. As it was, they positively declined 
to receive any more until after the epidemic. 

JMajor W. A. Willis, superintendent of the Southern Express Compnnv, 
died on Sunday, Septeniher 15th, after nearly a week's battle witli the fever. 
As a member of the Citizens' Relief Committee, he had been of great service 
to the city at a most critical juncture of the phigue. A noble soul, type of the 
most cliivalric heroism, liis loss was mourned as that of a brother endeared by 
every tie. 

The death of J. G. Lonsdale, Jr., treasurer of the Citizens' Relief Commit- 
tee, was a .shock to the community, on Sunda}', September 15tli. He had 
worked so earnestly and cheerfully, and enjoyed sucli unusual good health that 
it was believed and hoped he would pass tlie crisis and convalesce. God willed 
it otherwise. 

September 17th, the proprietor of the Evmnng Ledger, ]Mr. Ed. Whitmore, 
conqiiei-ed the fever and was pronounced convalescent. His pluck and energy, 
conjoined to the labor of Captain Matlics, kept the ledger going. 

One of the most distressing scenes witnessed since tlie epidemic commenced, 
was that reported by a neighbor of E. W. Slew's. The gentleman called at 
Mr. Blew'.s on IMonday morning, September 16th, and there found four dead, 
and three very sick. The four deaths had occurred within twenty-four hours. 

A lady from Memphis, ]\Irs. Evans, who lost her husband on August 30th, 
and who had luid the fever, fliinted and fell on the platform at Waverly Sta- 
tion, on the Chattanooga road. She had a sick child with her. The announce- 
ment of the fiict stampeded the town, and the peo))le fled to the mountains. 

The Very Reverend JM. Riordan, vicar-general of this diocese, and pastor of 
St. Patrick's Church, died, Septend)or 17th, after two weeks' illness, from 
yellow fever. Like those of his brethren of the priesthood, who preceded him, 
lie fell at hLs post. He contracted the disease while in the discharge of the 
duties of his sacred office, and fell as the brave sohlierof the cross loves to fall. 

Dr. John Erskine, health officer, after a week's illness, died, September 17th. 
His death was a great loss to the city, and to the faculty of wdiich he was one 
of the chief ornaments. 

J. W. McDonald, the volunteer telegraph operator from Cincinnati, died, 
September 17th. Mr. McDonald was tlie sixth operator that succumbed to 
llie fever. It was strange, liut nevertheless true, that .so far no telegi-apher that 
had been attacked had recovci-ed. 

A very sudden death was that of Conrad Rasp, baker at the PealMidy Hotel. 
He gave up work at nine o'clock, September 17th, and died at five in the after- 
noon. He had had the fever for several days, but refused to take to his bed. 

i\Irs. J. W. Clark, of (3maha, who volunteered to nurse the sick, fell a vic- 
tim to the fever, and died September 18th. She was tenderly and lovingly 
prepared for the grave, and laid away by those who, knowing how noble her 
mission and how true she was to it, mourned for her as for a sister. 

Dr. Hiram Pearce, of Cincinnati, Ohio, who volunteered and was assigned 
to duty by Dr. Mit<?hell, of the Howard Association, died Septemlier 18th, very 
much to the regret of the medical corps and all wlio had met him. His mem- 
ory will ever be cherished by this ]")eopie, as a noble example to the niend)ers 
of a profession wh«?e ranks liad been maaiy tinses recruited and many times 
thiinied since the epidemic began. 

A gentleman, taken sick, was sent a imi se, who stole his iiorse and buggy 
and deserted him ; another was sent, who took sick and died ; a third was sent, 
who proved so worthless and inex]ierienced that he luid U> be sent away: and a 
fourth was sent, who got beastly drunk. 



164 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



A cheeky nui-se, but an incorrigible rascal and thief, who ■\vas sent to attend 
Captain Matlies, of the Ledger, stole his horse and buggy. September 18tli, 
Captain Mathes received a postal card, mailed at luka, Alississippi, notifying 
him that as his ulster was inconvenient to carry he had left it at some point 
(name not remembered), and viij horse could be found at Moscow. 

Among the dead, of September 18th, was the name of Rev. Mr. Schuyler, 
of Hoboken, New Jersey, who came, a volunteer, to do what he could to help 
his brethren of the Episcopal Church. He Avas in ilemphis but a few brief 
days when the pestilence claimed him for a victim, and he passed away to re- 
ceive the reward which awaits the bi-ave and the just. While on duty he was 
of great help, as Rev. Dr. White, of Calvary Church, and Rev. Dr. Dalzell, 
of Shreveport, were the only Episcopal clergymen to attend to the innumer- 
able and every-day increasing wants of the members of the church. Rev. Mr. 
Harris, of St. Mary's, was still in the agonies of the fe.ver, September 18th, 
and Rev. Mr. Parsons, of St. Lazarus and Grace Church parishes, had just 
been laid away to rest. 

When the fever began there were four Episcopal ministers on duty — Rev. 
Dr. George White, rector of Calvary; Rev. George Harris, dean of St. Mary's 
Cathedral; Rev. C. C. Parsons, rector of the two parishes of St. Lazarus and 
Grace Church; and Rev. Mr. Gee, rector of the Church of the Good Shep- 
liei"d. All of these gentlemen remained to share the fate of their people,- only 
two of them escaping — Dr. White and Mr. Gee. Mr. Parsons died and Mr. 
Harris recovered after a long and serious illness. When the last two fell a 
]irey to the epidemic. Rev. Mr. Schuyler, of Hoboken, New Jersey, and Rev. 
Dr. Dalzell, of Shreveport, Louisiana, volunteered. The former paid with 
his life for the noble act of heroism, and Dr. Dalzell was on duty in charge of 
St. Mary's parish. 

Of the Methodist ministers. Rev. Messrs. Slater and Rosebrough devoted 
themselves to their people, with a singleness of purpose w"orthy the martyrs of 
the early church, laying down their lives as an attestation and seal of their 
faith and zeal as officers of the church. 

Rev. Mr. Daniels, of the First Presbyterian Church, resided in the midst 
of what was originally the infected district, and fell early in the action, and 
found some difficulty in overcoming a severe attack of the fever. 

Of the Baptist ministers Rev. Dr. Landrum alone remained. Tlie witnesses 
of his zeal are as many as have died and lived. Even when the fever invaded 
his own household' he was laboring in the streets, as a member of the Relief 
Committee, and in the homes of the people, carrying " the bread of life." 

Of the German Protestant pastors, Mr. Thomas died from overwork, hut 
Mr. Holmes was a tower of strength to his people. Their praises were spoken 
by every one. 

The Catholic priesthood, for zeal, self-denial, and self-sacrifice stand unri- 
A'aled. The long roll of their dead attests this fact and challenges the admi- 
ration of all men, be their faith and nationality what it mny. Upbearing the 
banner of the cross, symbol of faith and hope, Rev. JMartin Walsh, pastor of 
St. Bridget's, fell, and with him his assistant. Rev. Mi'. Meagher. The Rev. 
Father Asinus, of St. Mary's (German Franciscan) also g-ave up his life in his 
efforts for his parishioners. St. Peter's parish, under the care of the Domini- 
cans, gave three martyi-s. Rev. J. R. McGarvey, a volunteer fi'om Harrods- 
burg, Ky., Rev. J. A. Bakel fi-om Baltimore, Md., and the Rev. Mr. Van 
Trojstenburg from Kentucky. St. Patrick's gave its pastor, the Vicar-Gen eial 
of the diocese. Rev. Martin Riordan, the Rev. M. INlcNamara, and the Rev. 
J. P. Scannell, a volunteer from Louisville, Ky. Only three priests remained 
on duty, Rev. Father Kelly, pastor of St. Peter's, Rev. Father Aloysias, of 
St. Mary's, Rev. Father Walsh, at St. Patrick's, and the Rev. F ather ^Mooney, 



A HISTORY OF THE YELI.OW FEVER. 



165 



who volunteered and arrived a few days ago from Iv"aslrville. To the list of 
martyrs is also to be added the names of Father Scanlin, of St. Peter's, and 
Father Maternus, of St. Mary's (German) Franciscan Church. 

Appeal, September 20tli. — The following is a copy of a telegram sent to 
New York, to be read in Booth's Theater on the 21st; " Deaths to date, 2,250; 
number sick now, about o,()0(); average deaths, sixty jier cent, of the sick. 
We are feeding some 10,000 persons, sick and destitute, in camps and in tlie 
city. Our city is a hospital. Fifteen volunteer physicians have died ; twenty 
otliers are sick. A great many nurses have died — many that had the fever 
before, and thouglit tliemselves ijroof. Fever abating some to-day, for want 
of material, perhaps, and tilings look a little more hopeful. We are praying 
for frost — it is our only hope. A thousand thanks to the generous people of 
New York." 

Ledger, September 20t]i. — "One phase in the condition of the plague-smitten 
Southern cities is scarcely realized at the North, even with the daily descrip- 
tions given in the papers, of the distress prevailing there. All industries have 
ceased. The stores are closed, the factories are not running, wharves and 
depots are deserted, for boats and trains neither arrive nor depart, so that 
means for earning their daily bread is taken away from those who are not 
stricken with the fever. . . . Work is the panacea for many evils, and 
at such times as these if the head and hands are occupied the danger is dimin- 
ished ten-fold; and besides the agony of brooding over the pestilence, hundreds 
and thousands of people have nothing to live upon. Their money is gone, and 
they can earn no more. Even if they could, the store of provisions is 
exhausted. Markets are closed, market wagons have ceased to come in from 
the country." 

After two weeks or more of fever, Dr. S. R. Clarke, to the surprise of his 
physicians as well as friends, died Septeniber 20th, at his i-esidence on Beale 
Street. Tlie loss of liis wife no doubt preyed upon his mind, and had much to 
do with the suddenness of his death. F(jr several days he had been pronounced 
convalescent, and was supposed to be slowly but surely reaching that stage 
toward complete recovery when his doctors would be able to leave him to his 
own course, when, without jiremonition of the end, he died. His loss was 
deeply deplored. He had a wide circle of friends among the best of our people, 
and specially euileared himself to those who, like himself, had remained to brave 
the e])idenuc, by his devotion to the duties of the office he held as a member of 
the Citizens' Relief Committee. In all the relations of life he was a true nmn. 
His loss was mourned as one of the severest the e])idemic had cost Memphis. 

The figures of September 20tli, as to the sick and dead by yellow fever, were 
most reassuring. The falling off in the number of both, from the average of 
the past ten days, att'orded occasion for devout thanks. 

September 22d, one bv one the surviving employes of the Appeal returned 
to their ])osts. Mr. White, business manager, was at Avork on the 10th 
of September; Mr. Brooks, river and telegraph editor, on the 23d; and Mr. 
McGrann, foreman of the composing-room, Mr. Woodlock, foreman of the 
]n-ess-rooni, returned to duty on the 17th. Of the compositors, j\lr. Scliiller 
has been at work since September lOtli, INIr. Hoskins since the 19th, fur a few 
hours each day, and Septend)er 21st, Mr. Will Taylor tried his hand for a few 
liours. JMr. Fred Breiuian, city editor, was still confined to his room, conva- 
lescing slowly, but purely. 

Septendier 22d the following postal card was received from George Francis 
Train : 

Madison Squake, P. E. 49. 

Citizen J. M. Keailnrj: 

The fever is born of panic, based on gormandizing diseased animal food — fi>h, 



166 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVEU. 



eggs, butter. Meat is the delirium tremens of flesh. All your remedies only 
m;ike matters worse. Stop alcohol, tobacco, brandy, quinine, drugs. But, above 
all, keep in the open air. Abolish hearses, fiuierals, and tlie grave-yard lior- 
rors ; they spread tlie pestilence. Commence at once cremating the dead. The 
disease is mental. It is not the j'ellow fever (tiiat my father, mother, three 
sisters, nurse, doctor, and five servants died of in New Orleans in a few days 
when I was but four years old), 'tis tlie Asiatic plague, or consolidation of 
all the diseases through mental action or fear of death. JMemphis knows me. 
If you have faith, 1 will stop the pestilence. Telegraph and I will come bv 
express. Mayor and citizens' committee must sign the dispatch. My guai'an- 
tee of good faith is that you will see me moving among the dying and dead. 

G. F. T. 

Appeal, Sept. 24th. — Mr. Robert R. Catron, agent of the Associated Press in 
this city, died last night of yellow fever, after four da3's' sickness. Every thing 
that the tenderest solicitude and the best medical skill could suggest and accom- 
plish was made use of, but to uo purpose. The disease invaded his brain, and he 
passed away peacefully in a semi-unconscious state. No man of his years and 
positioii did more or better work than he throughout the epidemic. When 
the editorial and reportorial staffs of the Avalanche and the Ledger were all 
down with the fever, some of them sick, and more dying, he volunteered, and 
for some days worked on both papers, besides doing wliat he could for imme- 
diate personal friends sick of the fever, and who, he thought, had paramount 
claims upon his time. Every moment of his Avaking hours was spent in doing 
good. Alive to the dreadful effects of the epidemic, and in full sympathy with 
the suffering people whom he knew so well, his dispatches were always witliin 
the limits of facts. He avoided sensationalizing as unworthy the occasion, and 
confined himself to the simplest statement of each day's sad history. AVhat 
efiect this had upon the public mind of every State in the Union, let the num- 
berless active charities tell, which continue to pour their beneficence upon us. 
Modest and unassuming, his growth in the profession was due to his own worth 
and abilities, and not to any fictitious aids such as sometimes help to push men 
beyond their depth. He was equal to all the demands made upon him whether 
professional or friendly, and went to his grave followed by the regrets of all 
Avho knew him, especially those who saw how nobly he met death at his post. 

Charley Brooks, the last member of the flxmily of jMr. Will Brooks, of the 
Appeal, died September 2od. 

The Gregg family Avere swept from the face of the earth. The father and 
six children had died, and, on September 24th, tiie mother died. 

Tlie brutality, barbarism, and indifi'erence developed by this epidemic stand 
out in marked contrast with the liei'oisms wliich cost so many lives. Scarcely 
a day passed that the community, bowed in sorrow for so many weeks, Avas not 
shamed by one or other of these hideous phases of inhumanity; as if it Avere 
not enough that the experiences of the times developed cases of total neglect, 
Avhich Avere brought to light when the sufferers Avere past hope and beyond the 
reach of human aid. But there Avere creatures, in the semblance of men,Avho, 
terrorized out of all reason, surrendered themselves to demoniacal passions, and 
expressed their fears in acts tliat were a disgrace to our race and blood. 

A little child of, perhaps, three years was surrendered to the keeping of one 
of the noble volunteer doctors by a mother who now fills a nameless grave in 
the potter's field. She Avas an outcast — had thrown herself aAvay because aban- 
doned by her husband — and finding herself fast sinking, from the combined ef- 
fects of the most loathsome of diseases and the yellow fever, gave her child to 
her physician, that it might find the lumie and care the cowardly father had 
denied to her and it. How shocking to every sense ! 

No man in Memphis had, during this epidemic, done more or better work 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FKVEK. ]G7 

tlian the Rev. Dr. Boggs, pastor of the Second Presbyterian Cliuich. Night 
and day he was on the move, going anywliere and evcry-where he could do 
any good. Nothing came amiss to lus liands. He j)raycd (U' nursed, counseled 
or consoled, as the time or place demanded; and he stoi.'d not for calls. He 
went about among his people and kept up with them. In the country or in 
the city, it was all the same to him. Poor or rich, they were all alike. He 
asked no questions. He saw what was to he done, and he did it. He was the 
messenger for the doctor, or the medicines, as often as any thing else, and yet 
lie never lost a moment as guardian of the orphans of the Leatli Asylum. 
His many anxieties concerning them were those of a father for his children, 
and when the fever made its appearance among thera he was one of the hrst 
to fly to their succor and relief. He was vouchsafed just two days' duty with 
the poor children, when he and his wife were taken down. Of course, he liad 
the best of nursing, care, and the first medical skill, besides which, he had a 
good' constitution and a Ijrave heart. 

Dr. Augustus Kuehiie, formerly of Ohio, at present of Memphis, paid the 
following tribute to his dead compatriots: "The phj-siciaiis who died were 
Hiram B. Pearce, Cincinnati; Robert Burcliman, Coliinil)us; Dr. Tuerk, Cin- 
cinnati, and Dr. Tate (colored), also of Cincinnati. Dr. Tate was a friend of 
the suffering sick of his own race — a true and noble man. Without hesitancy, 
he worked, without rest, day and night. His own race caused him the greatest 
(listress. Home physicians, with but very few exceptions, cared very little for 
the colored race. I have seen how colored men have placed their hands on 
Dr. Tate's coat collar, carrying him" per force' (the doctor) to their wretched 
habitations. If a man had been cast of iron, he must, under such trying cir- 
cumstances, have succumbed. Dr. Tate died in the house of a -colored frieiul, 
Mr. Morgan, a dentist, residing on Beal Street. It is a firct that Di-. Tate's 
life could have been saved had he not been too brave. He left his bed, after 
four days' sickness, believing himself strong enough to return for duty. The 
sand result was a relapse of the fever, which cut iiim down within three days. Dr. 
Hiram B. Pearce, animated by the true sense of duty as a physician and a 
man who believed in our Savior — that frien I beloved as he was to me — left 
Cincinnati in my company, notwithstanding he was surrounded by all the com- 
forts and luxuries of life. No mercenary spirit tempted him to sacrifice his 
life in order to save the lives of others. Before our departure from Cincinnati, 
Dr. Pearce told me that he had received a letter from his father, threatening 
him with disinheritance should he leave for Memphis. Hold this up to the 
medical pi-ofession of Memphis, and, at least, let them speak a kind word of 
those who are slumbering now in Elmwood. Di-. Pearce was taken with fever 
in room 91 of the Pe ibody Hotel. Dr. Tate and your informant removed 
liiin to the Court Street Infirmary. Dr. Bryan, from Texas, had charge of the 
place. It is an old dilapidated building, and a terror crept over me as soon 
as I had placed my foot within it. Misericorde — how could valuable Jives be 
preserved within such non-ventilated, but overheated, rooms like that? A 
long row of beds, and yellow fever pestilence every-where. Clouds of jioison- 
ous atmosphere were ens'.irouding the bedsteads of every individual patient. 
Dr. Bryan treated me with bru-icpie discourtesy on the fijllowing morning. 
I desired to see my poor friend Dr. Pearce. He positively refused me 'as a 
physician,' entrance, stating that he had control over all his patients. I have 
no words to express my indignation over such unprofessional conduct. Dr. 
Pearce died. Dr. Robert Burcliman was a graduate of Edinburgh, Scotland. 
I made his acquaintance in Cincinnati. Drs. Pearce, Bui'chman, and myself 
came to Memphis together. On the 17th of September, I was taken down, 
and while 0:1 niy sickdied I heard of his sickness, and in a few days of his 
subsequent death. Dr. Burcliman was a brave and good man. Fearlessly he 



168 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



Ment to his work and discharged it faithfully. After niidnight, Dr. Burchraan 
and Dr. Tuerk came to my bedside, on the first day of ray sickness, and ren- 
dered professional services. May his grave be kept green by some friendly 
hand in the Mississippi Valley. Dr. Tuerk was a graduate of Heidelberg, Ger- 
many. I do not know any thing of his previous histor}^ However, I will say 
that he was one of the hardest workers in the First Ward. I valued his 
fi iendshij^, and never will I forget his memory. Dr. JNIcFarland, Savannah, 
Ga., Hon. Milo Olin, Augusta, Ga., Dr. T. Grange Simmons, Charleston, 
Dr. Carswell, Americus, Ga., and Dr. De Grafienreid deserve special notice, 
and, in fact, a large number of the Southern Howard physicians will tell you 
what I do." Dr. Carswell indorsed the foregoing. 

]\Iajor Pollard Trezevant, died September 25th, of fever, after an illness of 
only a few days. Since the epidemic began he had been working as a Howard, 
never thinking of himself, and only intent upon the good he might do. JIajor 
Trezevant, before and during the war, held high official positions, but since 
has been engaged in the real estate business. A member of one of our most 
honored families, he owed nothing to that fact. He made himself all that he 
was by his own efforts, and died, as he lived, an honest man. 

" Mr. Charles G. Fisher, chairman of the Citizens Relief Committee, died 
and was buried yesterday (September 26, 1878)," says the Appeal of the 27th. 
"He had been sick of the fever only a few days, but having overtaxed him- 
self in his efforts to keep up with all the demands upon his time, he l:ad but 
little of his native vigor left with which to contend with so violent an enemy. 
His death was not any more the result of the yellow fever than of overwork. 
The position he occupied was one of more than ordinary care and responsibility, 
which, under brighter auspices, would task a very strong man to the utter- 
most. He might be said literally to be on duty every hour of the twenty-four, 
for though he had office hours, much of his business was transacted upon the 
streets, at his home, by the sick-bed, perhaps, of a friend, or wherever else 
the needy or the friends of the sick might find him. Kind and gentle, he was 
also firm and unswerving in the performance of his duty. He felt that to him 
and his associates the people of the whole country had given a sacred trust, 
the administration of which required more than ordinary care. He, therefore, 
scanned narrowly all claims for relief, and impressed on all about him the duty 
of so apportioning the money and food sent to us by the good people of all the 
States as to make their charity a beneficence and not a means of encouraging 
idleness. In this he succeeded only partially, but failure was due to circum- 
stances he could not overcome, and which the citizens, though they have re- 
solved time and again, have not yet been able to overcome. He was faithful 
to his trust, and zealous in the discharge of his duties. He was also energetic 
in behalf of the sick as well as suffering. His house was a home for many who 
Avere there nursed safely through the fever, and some who died, notwithstand- 
ing the greatest care. To them all he was full of consideration and kindness. 
He gave them what he could of his time, and nursed them to the neglect of 
himself. He was always equal to the occasion, equal to the demands made 
upon him, and jaroved himself throughout the epidemic a hero of heroic mold. 
^Ir. Fisher was a member of one of our j^rincijial cotton firms, and had, with 
his partner, Mr. William Gage, built up a business within the past ten years 
that ranked second to that of no other house in the city. He was popular 
with the people, and was elected to represent the sixth ward in the Board of 
Councilmen for several terms. He was a native of Tipton County, a son of 
Dr. Fisher, of Covington, and served throughout the war in the Confederate 
arm}', making for himself a name as a brave soldier only second to that which 
he made witliin tlie past few weeks for a moral heroism and courage that 
crowned his life Avith martyrdom." 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE. 



169 



Avalanche, September 24t]i. — " New cases in the city, one hundred and fifty- 
six. Deaths, sixty-four. The hopes that had been raised in tlie hearts of the 
peojile that the fever was abating were rudely dispelled yesterday, when the 
reports of new cases began pouring in. All during the forenoon there was 
one continuous call for nurses, and many who were on the eve of departing 
home, thinking their services were no longer required, were placed on duty, 
and the demand was in excess of tlie supply. As the jiliysicians extend their 
visits to the suburbs, many instances are discovered of whole families who are 
stricken, and have lain for days without any attention whatever." 

There was a sad case out on Rayburn Avenue, just beyond the city limits. 
A family by the name of McNamee were severely afHicted. Two of their cliil- 
dren died of the fever, the mother and the father were down some time, leaving 
the only remaining member of the family, a young girl, alone, well enough to 
administer to the wants of the others. September 25th slie was stricken down, 
and three were left. Nurses were sent to them, and they were carefully 
attended to. 

The most startling deatli since the epidemic was fii-st announced, and one 
that conveyed a warning to convalescents, was that of Francis W. Schley, of 
34 Winchester Avenue. It occurred September 27th, on Market Street, 
extended, between three and half past four o'clock — no one could tell exactly 
the moment, as he was alone, and no ])erson seems to have traveled the street 
until about the latter hour — when Dr. Nuttal found the unfortunate man lying 
upon his back, quite dead, a basket containing a couple of bushels of potatoes 
beside him. He left his wife at three o'clock for the grocery, where he ]nir- 
chased the potatoes, and was on his way home and within, perhaps, a hundred 
yards of it when his strength, which he had overtaxed as a convalescent, gave 
out, and he fell, perhaps lay down, and died. He had had a very severe attack 
of the fever, but for two weeks had been convalescing, and was supposed to l)e 
beyond any danger. But so slender and tender is the cord of life, as the fever 
leaves it, that even the slight exertion of a short walk and the weiglit of a 
basket a little child might carry without strain, broke it, and he passed away 
alone, so near and yet so far from the touch of a tender hand and the kiss of 
affectionate lips. 

Persons who were not in the city can never realize the sorrows and pressure 
of duties resting upon the few who remained during the epidemic. Let. this 
case illustrate many, and indicate something of the condition. On September 
26th the son of a pastor of one of the churches, numbering 400, was buried. 
The son himself had many friends. Who attended that funeral ? The parents, 
themselves just from a yellow-fever bed, and two nurses of the son — one an 
Italian, and the other a negro. These four and no others. Not a member 
of that pastor's church, not a citizen could be spared for an hour to go with 
him and his heart-broken wife to the grave of their son. This was not from 
any want of friendship, sympathy, or att'ection on the part of thousands who 
knew the family; it simply s^hows into what fearful necessities and sorrows this 
"noisome" jjestilence had brought them. 

The Rev. W. P. Barton, of Greenville, IMiss., assisted by one of our local 
physieiiuis, a layman — Dr. C. W. Malone — ministers, and has been ministering, 
to the wants of the people of the Methodist Church since the epidemic began. 
Mr. Barton was on his way home and was compelled to remain when ti avel by 
the rivei- was cut ofl". He at once volunteered his services, and was on duty for 
some weeks. 

Nothing was so significant of the effect of the epidemic upon iNIemphis as 
the attendance at the Jewish Synagogue, corner of Exchange and Main Streets, 
September 27tli. The occasion was one of the most interesting and sacred to 
tiie Hebrew race — the usheiing in of the new year. When the fever was 



170 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



first announced there was a Jew isli population of about tliree thousand. Of 
this number only eighteen were present at the solemn services, made more so 
by the surrounding sorrow and the evidence these few bore to the effect of the 
plague. Of the eighteen nine were fever convalescents, three were nurses 
from distant cities, the remaining six' being those who alone escaped of all who 
remained to brave the disease. Mr. A. S. jMeyers, acting jjresident of tlie 
Masonic Relief Board, read the service, the scene being very affecting. Tliere 
was not a dry eye among all those present, as they recalled the festival as it 
was observed in other and happier years, and remendiered the brave and noble 
Menken, and many others who had passed away, the heroes of these times 
that try men's souls. It was a sad and mournful ushering in of the new year — 
a ceremony that will live in the hearts of all present to their latest hour. 

One of the saddest cases that have come under our notice is that of the 
family of John Dawson, who died at Elmwood Cemetery. Mr. Dawson died 
September 17tli, after an illness of three days' duration. His brave wife arose 
from her bed to administer to the wants of her four little girls. She went on 
bravely, doing her duty nursing her little ones, till, on the morning of the 
23d, she succumbed to an attack of the fever. After four days of suffering 
she died peacefully, trusting in him who has promised to care for the firther- 
less. A friend was with her to receive her dying requests. As she has no 
relatives in America, her children were taken to the Chui'ch home, where, un- 
der the cave of kind Sister Frances, they are assui'ed a mother's tender, watch- 
ful guidance. Their ages are, respectively, eight, five, three, and one. Mr. 
Dawson came from England in 1872, and has been an emploj'e of the ceme- 
tery company for the last six years. During the epidemic of 1873, he worked 
like the brave man he was. He did his duty nobly and well then, as always, 
and with his wife has gone to his reward. Till their English friends can be 
heard from the children will remain at the "home." It is hardly necessary to 
say that the children of a man who laid down his life in this sacred cause will 
be tenderly cared for till their relatives in England say what better can be 
done for them. 

Dr. Paul Otey died of yellow fever at Mr. W. J. P. Doyle's residence, on 
Dunlap Street, at a late hour, September 28th. He had been sick for over a 
week, and it was hoped would rally from the effects of the disease he cured iu 
others so often, but his strength was not equal to the task. Dr. Otey was the 
oldest son of the late Rt. Rev. James H. Otey, first Episcopal bishop of 
Tennessee, and was educated at Kenyou College, Ohio, President Hayes being 
among his classmates. Intended for the ministry, he jireferred medicine, 
and studied for that profession with much of the ardor of a lover. As such, 
he followed it, attaining, both in the Confederate army, in which he served 
throughout the war, and here in Memphis, where he had lived since its close, 
an enviable distinction, although by his own preference his practice avos 
limited. He was a man of strong mind but good heart. To him the jieople 
of iMemphis were indebted for the camps which, while affording slielter and 
comfort to seven thousand refugees, insured them the health denied them at 
home. From the outbreak of the epidemic he was active in behalf of the 
nurses. His sympathies were fully aroused, and up to the hour when he lay 
down to die he never ceased to interest himself in behalf of the people.* 



* St. Lonis Republican : "This' gentleman, who, on Saturday afternoon, 28tli inst., in 
his fifty-fourth year, was added to the list of heroic ^Memphis martyi-s, deserves a trib- 
ute to his memory. He was the eldest son of the late Eight Rev. .James Hervey Otey, 
bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church for the diocese of Tennessee, and brother of 
Mrs. B. B. !Minor, of St. Louis. After academic preparations in his native State, and 
chiefly under the auspices of liis fatlier (wIki was one of the greatest friends and pro- 
moters of Christian education that the West has ever had), he entered the Kenyon Col- 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



171 



E. E. Furbish died September 27th at the Peabod)-. He ^vas formerly in 
the employ of B. Loweiisteiu & Co., but had recently officiated in a clerical 
capacity at the Howard Association headquarters. He had been ailing- for 
several days, but refused to acknowledge the presence of the prevailina- fever. 
On the 27th, while walking in the hall of the hotel, he fainted and fell jiros- 
trate to the Aoov. He was conveyed to his room, and measures taken to 
produce a reaction, without avail, however, for he steadily sank and finally 
died as stated. 

jNIr. Eugene W. Moore appeared on the street safely convalescent September 
27th. Mr. Moore was of invaluable service to the Appeal, acting business 
manager, city and commercial editor, mail clerk, office clerk, and wherever he 
could put in a hand for work. 

Avalanclie, October 28th. — " New cases in the city and suburbs, 117. Deaths, 
twenty-eight. The fever, although not abating in cases, is not as n)alignant as 
it was several days ago. It gradually, as the cool north wind greets us, 
Ijecomes milder, and one can judge from the death rate, if correctly rej^orted, 
tliat persons who take it from this time on, have at least two chances out of 
three of getting over it. . . . Our people have lost all appearance of j)anic, 
and are now coolly awaiting ' their turn,' as it were, like the soldier who goes 
out on ]iicket, knowing not whether he will ever meet his comrades again." 

Mr. R. B.' Clarke, who succeeded John G. Lonsdale, Jr., as treasurer of 
the Citizens' Relief Committee, died of yellow fever, Septendier 30th, after a 
week's sickness. Mr. Clarke, up to the time when he contracted the plague, 
was connected with the committee in a clerical capacity, and was so attentive 
to his duties as to commend himself to the officers of that organization as well 
fitted for the responsiljle position vacated by the death of Mr. Lonsdale. He 
accepted the trust, and proved, hy his subsequent management of the duties 
of the office, the wisdom of the committee's choice. His death was deeply 
mourned by his associates and l)y a wide circle of fi iends, who esteemed him 
a? a gentleman of the highest character, courteous and polite, and full of that 
moral courage of which heroes are made. 

JMr. John M. Peabody, Superintendent of the Leath Orphan Asylum, died 
Tuesday evening, October 1st, of yellow fever. He had been in charge of 
the asylum for five years, and during his term of office made a faithful and 



lege, Ohio. Thence he was drawn to Eielimond, Va., by tlie residence tliere of his 
brother-in-law, and attended one full course of lectures in the Richmond College in the 
]>almy days of Warner, Cnllen, Bohannan, and Maupin. But he obtained his medical 
diploma from the Jefterson school in Philadel])hia, where he continued his studies under 
the auspices and in the office of the distinguished Dr. Thos. II. Mutter. Though liis 
jireparation for his profession was so complete, he did not prosecute it long, but, having 
married quite early, he preferred the life of a planter, and opened a cotton plantation 
in a very fertile part of Phillips County, Arkansas. Plere the late Confederate war 
found him in the immediate neighborhood of another brother-in-law, General Daniel 
C. Govan. They both entered unhesitatingly into the Confederate service, and Dr. Otey, 
resuming his profession, became known as a surgeon of no mean repute, and was as 
such quite intimately associated with his friend, Dr. Charles ilichcl, now of St. Louis. 
At the close of the war Dr. Otey settled in Memphis, to devote himself to his profession, 
and lias done so ever since. He has remained faithful during two visitations from yel- 
low fever, and one from cholera.. A fearless sympathy witli su tiering, and a strong- 
feeling of humanity, have combined with professional esprit to keep him at his post; 
and, no doubt, his experience, gained on former fields of duty and of danger, made 
him the more efKcient until he was himself stricken down. Prepossessing in per- 
son, agreeable and easy in manners, and genial in dis])osition, he made many strong 
friends, who, while so deeply lamenting his death, will join with the whole community, 
whom he has so danntlessly and ably served, in doing honor to his memory and spread- 
ing chaplets over his grave. He was suddenly and sadly made a widower soon after his 
last settlement in Memphis, and leaves an adopted daughter to bemoan her now re- 
doubled orphanage.'" 



172 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



efficient officer, ever sympathizing with the little ones under his charge, and 
doing all things to render their home an agreeable one. jNIr. Peabody was an 
active member of the Masonic, Odd-Fellows, and Knights of Honor lodges of 
this city. 

A man and his wife were living in rather an isolated locality. The hiisljand 
was sick of the fever. The physician made his call about thi-ee o'clock in the 
afternoon, when he found him very low, but the wife, who had undertaken to 
nurse him, showed, up to that time, no symptoms of the fever. He called 
the next day, as usual, and found the man had been dead twelve hours, and 
his wife lay beside the corpse with a burning fever. She had been taken so 
suddenly and so severely that she was unable to summon assistance. 

Mrs. Hood, a widow of some property, died and left two children. The 
undertakers wei'e about to send her body to the potter's field, when Mr. Sim- 
mons, who had charge of the Howard nurses, interfered to prevent it. A 
telegram was sent to Mr. Barnum, of Werne & Barnum, Louisville, who tele- 
graphed funds for proper sepulture. Two efforts had been made to take the 
bodj'^ away during this interval, which had been frustrated ; yet while Mr. 
Simmons was making arrangements necessary to the final disposition of the 
]"emains, the poor woman was carted off to the potter's field, or the trenches, 
and it would be utterly impossible at this day to tell where she is resting. 
This was caused by demands of the citizens made upon the undertakers. 
The laws required that bodies should be removed as soon as death had 
taken place, and the undertakers were several times arrested for the sup- 
posed violation of this rule. 

A man named Douahoo was taken down with the fever. On the fourth 
day his reason was dethroned, and, invested with the strength born of 
insanity, he jumped from his bed, drove nurses out of doors, and, seizing a 
■weapon that had been left in the house, attempted to murder his sister. 
Assistance came before he had accomplished the deed ; he Avas overjjowered, 
and was sent to the county -jail a raving maniac. 

Avalanche, Oct. 2d. — "Louis Daltroof, the Howard undertaker, had the most 
terrible experience of any person who worked through the epidemic period. He 
has been alone, at midnight, with the rain falling, in the cemetery digging 
graves and burying the dead without assistance. One night, at twelve o'clock, 
Avhile the jiatients were dying so fast at one of the hospitals, that from 
twenty to thirty corpses would accumulate in the dead-house between the 
trips of the wagons, he was handed a telegram from some one connected 
with the house of Menkiu & Brother, requesting him to pi'ocure the body 
of a much-respected young Israelite, who had been in their employ, and died, 
also to bury the deceased in the Jewish cemetery. No time was to be lost 
if the wishes of the friends of the young man were to be respected. Daltroof 
repaired at once to the hospital charnel-house, where bodies were i)iled 
on top of each other, mattresses and all, just as they died. After working for 
an hour or more, and removing nine bodies in the last stages of putrefaction, 
he found the one he sought, and burled it according to instructions, digging 
the grave himself, and returned to headquarters for duty by four o'clock the 
same morning." 

Avalanche, October 2d. — "New cases in the city and suburbs, ninety-nine. 
Deaths, thirty-three. The fever has spread until it has embraced wiihin its 
death fold every residence within a radius of twelve miles, and the end is not 
yet. It has branched off" and followed the line of railroads ruiniing out of the 
city until it has extended for fully fifty miles, to the north, east and south. 
Only the west has escaped, and not altogether, for there are several cases of 
fever in Hopefield." 

Among the early victims of the epidemic was a man who, ten years ago, 



A KISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



173 



beoanie a wreck. Coming to IMeniphis, where lie Avas surrounded by kindly 
influences and encouraging friends, he I'eestablished Iiiinself, and deserved 
and received the respect of all citizens. His name is unnecessary to the de- 
tails of his fall, but he sleeps to-day amid the verdure of Elmwood, one of 
those men of heroic mold, who, like Anteus of old, I'enewed his strength with 
each defeat. At tiie time above stated he was a j'esidcnt of New Orleans, in 
which city he mingled with men who are measured by their failings rather 
than tlie absence of them, and was identified \\ ith the fastest phases of a rapid 
life. He was engaged as a wholesale grocer on Tchoupitoulas Street, but 
outside expenses precipitated their unfailing secpiel, and he suspended. For a 
time lie was lost sight of, but at an unexpected jieriod he came to the surface 
and involved himself in a conspiracy, in which the originator and director was 
a cotton factor and a former politician. The twain loaded a vessel with what 
was represented to be a cargo of cotton, but which was in fact moss, and 
cleared the venture for Liverpool. While in the Gulf the ship was mvsteri- 
ously burned, the cargo reported lost, and a demand n"iade on the compaides 
which iiad written policies of insurance foi- an adjustment. The matter was 
investigated, the losses paid, and deceased disappeared. Soon after the true 
condition of affairs became known, and efforts were at once instituted for the 
apprehension of the alleged crinunals. For a time the party referred to eluded 
arrest in the quiet of a side street in Chicago, but his letrcat was discovered 
in the following manner: He cherished an affiictiou for a beautiful Camelia, of 
New Orleans, who reciprocated, it is said, the feelings he manifested, and when 
he became a fugitive she was in the habit of posting him as to the situation 
of affairs in the Crescent City. This came to the knowledge of the Piidverton 
Agency, who were upon his track, and their detectives closed in upon him, 
procured his arrest at the post-office in Chicago as he was receiving a letter 
from his New Orleans friend, and advised the companies he had defrauded. 
But he was not jH'osecuted ; the companies recovered ^275, 000 of their loss, 
and ordei'ed his dischai'ge. As stated, he came to Memphis, where he built 
u]) for himself a redeemed reputation, and enjoyed the confidence of all who 
knew him. In the epidemic of 1873 he served as a humanitarian, and per- 
fbrmed noble work. When the epidemic of 1878 came on, he sought the 
most exposed position, labored with the courage of a Sjiartan, sickened and 
died, and was buried among the fiist on the long list of heroes the terrible 
experience just closed gave birth to. Almost at the hour when he was laid 
away in his grave, Lelia Burton, the New Orleans friend of former days, fell 
in a faint at tlie bedside of a fever patient in that city she was nursing, and 
before aid could minister to her resuscitation she had crossed over the bcau- 
tifid river, and was, it is to be hoped, in paradise. 

There was truly a sad sight at the residence of the late INIike Cannon, a 
memlier of the old police force, who died early in the epidemic, after a ten 
liours' sickness. Three of his children, a girl just blooming into womanhood, 
a lad eleven or twelve years of age, and a little boy about nine years, lay dead 
in the house at one time, the mother being nearly prostrated with grief 

Tiirough the kindness of Colonel M. Burke, Superintendent of the Memphis 
and Tennessee Railroad Company, a sjiecial train was, on October 7th, fur- 
nished Mr. J. H. Smith, Secretary of the Howard Association, to take nurses 
and supplies to ihe sick at Garner Station, twelve miles north of Grenada. 
Dr. T. L. Gelzer, of Mobile, was placed in charge as Howard physician. 
There were twelve cases, as fiillows : Dr. J, W. Payne, his wife, son, and grand- 
son ; three children of P. ]M. Robinson, Mrs. Dr. Combs, Mrs. H. L. Combs, iMrs. 
Broom, daughter of J. J. Slack, one colored woman and a colored boy. Di'. Payne 
and Mrs. H. L. Combs were very sick. The train was hailed and a physician 
inquired for at Courtland, to see Ca2)tain Knox, reported down with the fevci-. 



17-1 



A IIISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FFYER. 



The death of Dr. Nelson, the seven-footer, and of his entire foniil}', was 
mentioned a few days ago. In the same connection it was mentioned that he 
was miserly, and possessed a large estate. Whether that be so or not, there is 
a little story connected with one Hamburger, who gets his comforts tlirough 
the gratings of the Adams Street sation-hoiise, that may develop something as 
to the true condition of the man's estate. Hamburgi'r was one of the nurses, and 
ver}' officiously performed the last sad lites at the demise of the only remaining 
member of the family, October oth. A few days later Mr. Hamburger, in 
company with another of his kind, was seen taking unusual luxury in a hack 
in company with a couple of colored wenahes. His conduct attracted the atten- 
tion of the police to the extent that he and his party were pulled, during which 
there was a mysterious box, which was attempted to be concealed. This box 
contained a lot of valuable jewelry, wliich Hamburger claimed was given him 
by his uncle. He stuck to the " uncle" story until pressed to the last extremity, 
■when he confessed that a daughter of Dr. Nelson had placed it in his keeping, 
with written instructioiis what to do witii it. The instructions were in a book, 
somehow, that the jjolice authorities had taken from him, and would not let him 
get hold of. 

A sad sight might have been witnessed Sunday evening, October 6th, did 
not the laws which govern in this fearful epidemic forbid the keeping of late 
hours by those not engaged in caring for the sick. Mitchell Brown, son of the 
respected Dr. R. F. Bj-own, Secretary of the Board of Health, died just at 
sundown, under cii'cumstances that necessitated the earliest possible interment. 
His friend, the companion of his childhood, Louis Frierson, was present, nearly 
heart-broken at the loss of his bosom friend. A2:)preciating the circumstances, 
with a stout heart and determined will he summoned three other persons, Mr. 
Wm. Lytle, Dr. Chandler, and Captain Hari-ison, in charge of the Charleston 
nurses, the four going on foot (no vehicle could be hired for love nor money) 
to the undertaker's establishment of Messrs. Flaherty & Sullivan, and procur- 
ing a suitable cisket they carried it bj^ the silver handles to the residence of 
Dr. Brown, on Madison Street, and carefully and tenderly placed the remains 
in it, closing it re:idy for the hearse early on the morning of the 7th. It was 
a sad sight to witness those four friends silently performing the last offices for 
the departed friend. But this is only one of the many equally as heart-touch- 
ing events the present epidemic has produced. 

Appeal, October 5th. — " A warning to refugees, in another column, will, we 
hope, have the attention it deserves from those for whom it is intended. To 
return now, or at any time before the epidemic is officially declared over, is to 
court almost certaiir death. A few of our citizens who did so, in defiance of 
good advice to the contrary, have paid the penalty of their temei-ity and are 
now numbered with the dead. Their fate should be a warning and serve to 
enforce the timely and urgent appeal of the Howard Association, to which we 
refer all readers of the Appeal at home or abroad." 

Little Rock Democrat, October 5th. — " It is with a sad heart Ave announce 
the death of Dr. Easle3\ We have seen our friends dropping claily and dying 
rapidly. Of the nuiny brave physicians and nurses our How,ards have sent to 
Memphis, this day but a handful remains. Dr. Easlcy, one of tlie best surgeons 
in tlie United States, and an able physician, one of the first to risk his life in 
succoring the afflicted of our sister city, died this morning. We had hoped, 
as he held so tenaciously to life, that he would be spared, but relentless were 
the fates. He is dead. Mark his grave, ye Knights of Pythias, that in the 
future a monument may mark his last resting-place. Dr. Easley, we believe, 
was a native of ]\Iissis~ippi ; a graduate of the INIadison (INIississippi) College, a 
graduate in 1873 of the Louisville ]\Iedical College. He first jiracticed his pro- 
fession in Dallas, Texas. He came to this city in 1875, and at the time of his 



A HISTORY OF THE YKLLOAV FEVER. 



175 



departure for tlie fated city, he, witli Dr. E. H. Skipwitli, had joint office? in 
the Oasette buihling. The deceased was a star in his profession, about tiiirty 
years of age, and unmarried." 

Dr. Hunter, of Kansas City, who has been one of the most devoted of the 
Howard physicians, returned from Masons, October 4tli, where lie h.ad been 
sent to look after the sick of that place. The doctor says that he found a bad 
state of affairs thei-e. True, there were not many citizens, the iiiajority having 
fled into refuge on the first outbreak of the fever, but the few remaining,, not 
sick, were much alarmed lest every one would be stricken down and the little 
place be desolated, as have been Crrenada and many smaller places. The doctor 
tells a pleasing anecdote of his iirst adventure there. On arriving he met an 
aged darkey on the platform wlio was very communicative, and endeavored to 
tell of the suffering and privations ; hadn't a mouthful to eat in fbrly-eight 
liours, and every body in town was either dead or down with the fever. "That 
is very bad, indeed," replied the doctor, " but how is it that the country people 
do not furnish supplies when there is so much destitution?" "Oh, sir," said 
the antiquated specimen of African anatomj', " dat's easy 'nough 'splained. 
You see, sir, dey pontooned agin every body, and dey quit comin' here, sir; dat's 
how dat come about, sir." The doctor has now a new subject for discussion 
before the Memphis Howard Medical Society as a preventive of the spread of 
yellow fever. 

Appeal, October 5th. — "We took occasion, a few days ago, to speak of the 
fiiithful service and arduous laliors of that good man. Colonel W. S. Pickett, 
who has charge of the office of the Howard Medical Directory. He is still on 
duty, as faithful and diligent as ever, and manages the affiiirs of the office in 
such manner as to have won the esteem of the entire corps of ])hysicians. The 
old gentleman told a good joke on himself yesterday, winch we feel compelled 
to print, A couple were married recently, the bridegroom comparatively a 
stranger, Colonel Pickett being one of the few of his acquaintances. The 
colonel thought it would be in order to extend congratulations in per.S(>n, and, 
provi<ling himself with an elegant bouquet, about nine o'clock at night, the hour 
when in the good old days of yore festivities on such occasions were ' reddiot," 
he called at the residence. The doors were closed, but he knocked once, twice, 
even thrice, before he could get a response. Finally the door was opened by an 
elderly lady, to whom he made known his mission. He told her tliat he had 
called to congratulate the newly-married couple and salute the bride, ' Bless 
your dear heart,' .said the lady, ' they i-etired two hours ago.' ' H'/iai .'' exclaimed 
the colonel, with an emphasis that startled the old lady, but then, checking 
himself, he handed her the bouquet, asking her to please pi'eserve it till morn- 
ing and then present it to the bride with his compliments. Colonel Pickett 
says they don't do things now like they did when he was a boy." 

The Appeal, October .5th. — "Camp Joe William>:, by the Hernando Road, is 
between five and six miles from the city. Under tlie same command, and in 
tlie immediate vicinity of ' Camp Joe,' are Camp Sndth, Camp Griffin, Cam]) 
Wade, and the camps of the Blulf City Grays, and Captain Glass's colored 
company. The bids upon which these camps are situated are covered with fine 
forests, and Captain Cameron states that everyone is apparently well satisfied with 
camp life and rations. Eight hundred and nine persons are receiving rations, 
tliey being &o»a /!(fe residents of the camps ; no individual can receive rations 
that is not I'egistered at one of the camps. From Dr. Nail we learn that there 
are six ca.ses of yellow fever and nine cases of malarial fever in the hospital 
and camps. Three of the ' Bluffs' are down with the nndarial. Dr. Sample, 
from Austin, Mississippi, who acted as assistant physician, died yesterday 
(Monday) morning. Dr. Nail has had six assistants, all of whom have died 
• 'r left the camp, and the doctor is alone to attend not only the camps, but 



I 



17 G 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLO^V FEVER. 



also all the sick Avithina radius of four miles. The disease has heen of a very 
mild type, and in most cases easily handled. Jennie McClain, during the ill- 
ness or Wade Hampton, was in charge of the hospital ; but Wade haA-ing re- 
covered will soon return to duty. On the road to 'Camp Joe,' after passing 
the Poston place, there are small camps of two and three tents at every mile, 
the inliabitants of which appear to enjoy camp life to the utmost. The num- 
ber of women and children around these camps, their merry shouts of laughter, 
and their hurried rush to the roadside to bid us good-bye as we whirled along 
in our buggy, soon made it apparent that we had left ' Yellow Jack ' miles in 
the rear of us." 

Appeal, October 5th. — "On Sunday last, a number of heart-stricken citizens 
repaired to Elmwood Cemetery for the purpose of visiting the fcesh-made 
graves of their loved and lost, and spreading flowers on the earth-hillocks that 
marked those sacred spots. But to their horror and dismay, the graves of the 
dead could not be found, notwithstanding the long and patient search made by 
the mourners and by the employes of the cemetery. This is a horrible fact to 
have to disclose, because it is well calculated to awaken the deepest alarm in 
the minds of hundreds of citizens who had their loved ones interred at Elm- 
wood. It will be well to remember how the dead daily encumbered the grave- 
yard, and how a hundred coffins lay around Elmwood dailyawaiting interment, 
which had to be postponed for days, sometimes, owing to the scarcity of grave- 
diggers, the terrible death-rate, and the sickness of those in charge of the 
cemetery during the gloomy days of September, when the fever- pest gathered 
in two hundred victims a day. Those who died during those days, and whose 
relatives had not lots to bury their dead, purchased private graves in that part 
of the cemetery known as Cha{)el Hill. The dead were taken out, and the 
coffins, boxes, etc., were laid down on the rank grass, which locations, accord- 
ing to the then suiierintendent of the cemetery and those having charge of the 
interments, were the exact spots designated as lots number so-and-so. The 
graves could not be dug until the next day, and the relatives and friends of 
the dead could not, of course, wait to see their dead interred. It now turns 
out that in these days but little attention was paid to the manner of interments. 
Long trenches were dug and the coffins Avere placed .therein, side by side, re- 
gardless of the tact that, in many instances, private graves Avith regular num- 
bers were purchased and promised to be furnished. How can the living now 
find their dead? Can they feel certain (unless an exhumation takes place) 
that beneath the sod on Aviiich they kneel and pray and spread immortelles 
rests their OAvn beloved dead? Certainly not. On Sunday last, it Avould make 
one's heart ache to have seen a gentleman searching for the lost grave of his 
Avife at Elmwood Cemetery. He had purchased a private grave, but it can 
not be found, and the horrible belief that his Avife had been buried in the 
trench or ditch haunted the unfortunate man as he Avandered around, searching 
and Aveeping. He had flow'ers to strew on the graA'e, but he searched in vain. 
The employes of the gi-ave-yard searched in vain. The grai'-e Avas lost. A lady, 
at the same time, Avas searching for a jirivate graA'e on Chapel Hill, but that 
graA'e was also lost, and the treacherous ditches near by the place suggested 
the fate of the loved one Avho died. The jiresent employes at Elmwood are 
new people, Avho Avei'e not there during the dark death days of September, and 
they know nothing of tlie past. Many of the old employes have died, othere 
are absent. As one of the present employes said : " In September, every thing 
Avas in a horrible condition here; there Avas no order nor sj'stem folloAved as to 
burying the dead, and many of those entitled to private graves Avere put in 
the trenches." The negro grave-diggei-s tell tales as to how the dead were 
buried in these days, tales not well calculated to assure tlie living that their 
dead were bui-ied in accordance Avith directions, or in such grax^es as had been 



A IIISTOKY OF TJIE YELLO^V FEVER. 



177 



specially purchased for such purpose^. There is no one to blame, probaltiv, l)ut 
the horrible fact exists nevertheless." 

Avalanche, October 5th. — -"New cases in the clt_y and sidnirbs, 139. Deaths, 
thirty-five. The Citizens' Kelief Comniittce are establishinp: depots in the 
suburbs and country adjacent. A depot has already been estal^lished in the 
eighteenth civil district (eastward), that includes also the fifth and fourteenth. 
Depots are to bo opened on next Monday. Also, one in Nc»rth Meniphi,*, another 
in South Memphis, and one in the fifteenth civil district (north-cast of the eitv). 
In addition, there is Camp Joe Williams, ^vith GOO residents, and 200 others 
near by, who are receiving relief; also, Caniji Father Mathew, with 400 resi- 
dents, and 100 near by ; Camj) Benjes, with 200. When rations are issued to 
the ditierent camps, they are delivered to rcsponsil)le parties in charge, who 
take good, care that the rations go to the proper person.s." 

Appeal Octobsr 5t]i. — " We published yesterday, from the London Sffimlurd 
and tlie New York Tiine'^ extracts from editorials eulogistic of the courage and 
endurance of the people of the fSouth during this epitlemic. Both have at- 
tracted very general attention, and both have found a place, with more or less 
of commendation and indorsement, in the leading jmpcrs of the Union, north 
and south. To us who sliare in this geiierous measure of approbation of the 
performance of an unusually perilous duty, the words of our contemporaries — 
the one a leading northern Republican journal, and the other the steadfast ad- 
mirer and friend of the South — come laden with a strength to sustain and en- 
courage that only those can appreciate who have watched the weary, heavy- 
footed hours pass away, bearing with theni our bravest and our hest. The 
strain and tension of mind in the contemplation of the awful facts of sixty-five 
days, during which 4,800 men, women, and children have died of the fever, out of 
a population at no time within that limit more than 10,000, would have been 
more than the stoutest heart among us could have with.stood, were it not for 
such warm and heartfelt messages of symiiathy a.s those we refer to. These 
kindly words have opened hearts that were steeling themselves in despair, and 
tears of relief have flowed freely, attesting the consolation of sympathy and the 
poAver of speech even from across the sea. Duiing this awful harvest-time of 
death our churches have been closed and all business has been suspended, 
and the only relief or release from mental strain was found in fitful sleep, 
snatched in the intervals of calls that no one could disobey. It was death in the 
morning, at noon, and at night. But it was not to dwell upon the wearying acts 
of a dreary tragedy not yet closed, still less to plume ourselves as upon a vic- 
tory not yet won, that we commenced this article. Our purpose was the more 
pleasing one of suggesting to the Standard that, while all that it says is true of 
the pluck and endurance of the southern peojile under the provocations of war, 
pestilence, and famine, there is something to l)e said for our brethren of the 
North, whose constancy, steadiness, and devotion to their cause, bravery and 
persistence in battle, and enduranco in a prolonged contest that taxed all their 
energies and a skill and resources unequaled, have few parallels in history. To 
no other peoiile could we of the South have sui-rendered. IMagnanimous on the 
field so fiercely contested, despite the hazards of political disputes, they have 
many times since April, 1865, extended us the right hand of fellowship, full 
up and flowing over with good gifts, tendered with a manly spirit that roblied 
the generous tender of the humiliations of charity. The same men who led 
the armies of the North, the same journalists who inspired those armies, and 
the same religious teachers, and the same noble, heroic women who originated 
and sustained amid the heat of battle, and the excitement of sometimes peril- 
ous popular commotions, the grandest beneficence ever conceived of for the re- 
lief of soldiers in the field, have been foremost in the heaven-sent work of our 
relief in weeks, that are the dreariest in our calendar Unwearied in their 



178 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVm. 



tasks, as did Josejih Avith his brethren, they have filled our sacks to overflow- 
ing, many, many times, and yet they are not done. From far Oregon and 
Montana to Vermont, from villages, towns, and cities of all the busy northern 
►States, from the miners' camp, the newsboys' home, from the banker and the 
farmer, the professor and the mechanic, from all classes of that section of our 
country where American ingenuity has found its largest field of conquest, and 
whose industries challenge the world in vain for a comparison — from this seat 
of a great industrial population unmatched by any other on the earth, the gifts 
of an intelligent help and a toucliing sympathy have come, saving many thou- 
sands of our stricken ones from death, and lighting our dreary pathway with 
the light of an enduring brDtherly love. ' Blood Is thicker than water.' Of 
the same race, sjieaking the same tongue, the heirs of the same liberties, and 
citizens of the same glorious country, no memories of sectional divisions, of 
political animosities, or of civil war, have been allowed to stay the steady flow 
of the bounteous stream that has brought us, with all else, the assurance that 
ive are one people in fact as well as In name, and that beyond the froth and 
fuss of politics, and the deceits and dangers of demagogues, the popular heart 
is safe, yielding only of Its fidlness when challenged in the cause of humanity 
and brothers' lives are at stake." 

One of the most modest and best of our citizens engaged in the blessed task 
of nursing the sick and caring for the indigent was jNIr. JNI. S. Jobe, who died 
October 6th, of a second attack of the yellow fever. Though he had just con- 
valesced from what was deemed a light attack, and was hardly equal to the 
task, he promptly sent in his name when the Howard Association called for 
members, and was gladly accepted, and at once assigned to duty. Five weeks 
of mo.-t difficult labor in the eighth ward proved too much for him, and he at 
last gave way, notwithstanding he was sustained by the best medical skill and. 
the most fiithful nursing. 

The wife of Mr. Abadie, a French citizen, died at Fort Pickering. Mr. 
Abadle and his children were stricken Avith the fever. Dr. Luppo Avas called to 
attend them, and all became nearly convalescent. Mr. Abadie continually 
brooded on the loss of his Avife, but steadily grew better every day. On Satur- 
day, October 5th, the physician called, and found all so far recovered as to 
report them convalescent. The next day, hoAvever, he Avas called to see Mr. 
Abadie, but, on arriving at his house, found him dead. The children said 
when the doctor called last on Saturday, and went aAvay, theii' father dismissed 
the nurse, and made them bring him several bottles, Avhich, on examination, 
Avere found to have contained respectively, laudanum, ergot, and paregoric, but 
Avhich were nearly empty. The conclusion arrived at was, that Abadie, In deep 
grief at the loss of his wife, had taken the poisonous potions with the determi- 
nation of ending his distress by death. Four children were thus left fatherless 
and motherless. 

Sheriff J. W. Anderson died October 8th, after a brief illness, of yellow 
fever. He had been A'ery active during the epidemic as a member of several 
relief committees, and In attendance upon the duties of his office, and had, like 
many others, gone to his bed broken down. He Avas a good citizen, and enjoyed 
the esteem of a Avide circle of friends. 

Mr. J. M. Tomeny died of yellow fever October 8tli, after but three days' 
illness. The death of a lovely daughter and of his wife, Avhom he burled a few I 
days previously, preyed upon his mind to an extent undermining his strength, 
so that he fell an easy prey to the scourge that has taken so many. 

Avalanche, October 8th. — "It is Avith much regret Ave announce the death of 
that good man and useful citizen, Mr. John A. Holt, paying-teller of the Bank 
of Commerce of Memphis. Mr. Holt, when nearly all his associates fled the 
city, remained at his post, knowing full well the importance of liis trust and the 



A TIISTOr.Y OF THE YELLOW FEVE3. 



179 



gooJ work he could aceomi>lish through his bank in aid of suffering Inimanity. 
Early and late he could be found at his place, and many a want was relieved 
through his kind offices. ' Deatli loves a shining mark,' and no brighter 
(ibject could have attracted the attention of the grim visitor than John A. 
Holt. He was born on these bluffs in 1820, a son of that old respected citizen, 
Nc>al B. Holt. He leaves a wife and a helpless fanuly of children, the mother 
at present an invalid." 

Appeal, October 8th. — " The steamer JoJtii M. Cluimhers, loaded at St. Louis, 
at the suggestion of ex-Grovernor Alex. Sheplierd, of Washington, with medical 
and other supplies and clothing, for tlie people of the fever-stricken towns on 
the Mississippi River, tied up at tlie landing yestei'day for a couple of liours, 
daring whicli two of the doctors on board came up town and interviewed our 
authorities. She visited Hickmnn on Sunday, and will stop at every town and 
landing ijetween this city and Vickslnirg, distributing supplies where needed. 
As we said a few days ago, this is a practical benevolence of which the people 
of Washington and St. Louis, and all wlio contributed toward it, may well 
feel ju'oud. Governor Slieplierd has linked his name with it indissolubly, and 
will always be remembered by the people of the Mi.ssissippi valley." 

AppeM, October 8th.—" Major W. T. Walthall, of the Can't-Get-Away Club, 
of Mobile, left the city yesterday for his home, near ]Mississi])pi City, where 
his family is closely besieged by the plague. Since his arrival here the major 
has done good work among the sick, and has increased the list of friends he 
made when, in 1873, in the same heroic spirit, he came to our help. We 
part with him with a deep regret, as deep as tliat he felt in leaving the scene 
of his God-appoiiited labors, well knowing that nothing but the inipei-ative calls 
from his home, wdiich no man is at liberty to di.«obey, could take him from us 
until the epidemic had been declared over. He carries with him the !)est 
wishes of all classes of our people, coupled with earnest prayers for the satiety 
of his wife and children. His devotion to the cause of humanity ought to be 
their shield at such a time, and so, we trust, when he reaches home, lie will 
find it." 

Appeal, October 8th. — " From almost every town of Louisiana and Mississippi, 
and our own State, affected I)y the fever, we get news of its rapid spread in 
the surrounding country. Removed from the centers, where the benevolence 
of the L^^nion has collected medical assistance and supplies, the sufferings and 
deaths among the planters, in proportion to ca-ses, must be a great increase over 
what we have mourned over the past nine weeks. We hope, therefore, that 
the Howard Associations of New Orleans and Vicksburg, as ours has done, 
will organize railroad relief trains, and, as near as possible, bring their multi- 
plied blessings to every .suffering home. There is no time to lose. The planters 
and their hands .should he cared for to the utmost of the ability of New Or- 
leans, Vicksburg, and Memphis, which, if they have not funds and supplies 
enough, can make a fresh appeal to the country, whicli has never turned a deaf 
ear, but lias always holdout full and willing liands." 

Aralanche, Oetob?r 8th, — "Yesterday there was one continuous call for 
nurses, and the demand was, in excess of the supply. In addition to the re- 
«piest for nurses in the .suburbs, appeals for physicians, nurses, and supjilies 
were received from Brownsville (fifty-seven miles). Masons (thirty miles), Gal- 
loway's (forty miles), Paris (o::e hundred and fiCty miles), on Louisville Kail- 
road; Collierville (twenty-two miles), Moscow (forty miles), Tuscumijia (one 
hundred and thirty-seven miles), on Memphis and Charleston Railroad, and 
Garner (seventy-five miles), south, on Mississippi and Tenueseee Railroad. 
Reports from these and other points wdiere the fever has, made its appearance, 
IS truly startling. The cry of distress which we were forced to give utterance 
to six weeks ago, is now being echoed on every breeze that comes wafted to us 



182 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLO'V FEVER, 



breathed his last. Not one of all the volunteer physicians more endeared 
himself to the people of Memphis, and his untimely death oast a shadow over 
u community bowed down with the weight of woe. 

Avalandie, 17th. — "Tonight we write with hope filling our breast. The 
death record in the cit}^ is the smallest since the fever was declared epidemic on 
the 23d of August last. At last we can .see the begirming of the end. Every 
thing looks favorable. A heavy rain, which began falling at 9 o'clock, still 
continues, with indications of the weather turning cold, and bringing the frost 
that will end our present woes. The absentees can not watch with greater 
anxiety the progress of the fever, than do we -who are here in the very midst 
of death ; and every favorable turn of the epidemic is to us the knowledge 
that we will soon bs joined by loving friends. Their return Avill be hailed with 
joy and gladness, but in the happiness of the meeting many a familiar face will 
be missing. Elmwood, that ' silent city of the dead,' contains the loved forms 
of hundreds who, in their devotion to the cause of suffering hun)anity, paid 
with their lives the love they bore their fellow-man. Their noble sacrifice may 
j^erhaps be rewarded in the Great Beyond. They fell martyrs, and their mem- 
ories should ever be revered liy the living, for whom they died." 

In the death of Mr. John G. Lonsdale, Sr., Avhich sad event occurred on the 
2d of October, Memphis lost one of her oldest and most reputable ciLi2iens. 
For thirty years he iiad been engaged in the fire insurance business, and dur- 
ing that time had maintained a high character for capacity and integrity. He 
was a member of the Howard Association, and from the beginning of the epi- 
demic had labored with a devotion worthy a much younger and stronger man, 
in behalf of the sick and destitute. 

One of the terrible results of the epidemic "was the large number of de- 
mented people developing from the effects of the yellow fever. 

Of the entire police force of forty-eight men and officers, there Avere only 
thirty-one Avho remained on duty Avhen the feA^er broke out. Of this number, 
ten died, fifteen had the fever and convalesced, and five escaped altogether. 
Of those Avho resigned and left the city, two took the fever and died in their 
place of refuge. 

W J. B. Lonsdale, the last of the family of the late lamented John G. 
Lonsdale, Sr., died ou the night of November 3d, after a comparatively short 
attack of the fever. He returned to the city before it Avas officially announced 
that it was safe to do so, and paid the penalty of such imprudence Avith his 
life. 

" Let sweet-A^oiced Mercy plead for her, who calmly sleep? beneath the sod; 
nor erring man in pride usurp the 2:)romise of her judge, her God." This is a 
beautiful sentiment, the inspiration of one who fell with " his face to tiie en- 
emy" during the epidemic of 1S73. The tombstone on which it is engraved 
jnarks the burial place of a fallen woman, but one Avhose charities and good 
deeds flir outnumbered her sins. The author, whose charity for that Avomaii's 
sins Avas thus worded, died during the epidemic just past. Hundreds knew 
him and hundreds mourn his loss. 

Ira Trout, of 192 Poplar, a working Howard, while in the heat of fever, 
in the absence of the nurse, got out of his bed and crawled on his hands and 
knees to a Avashbowl of ice-water and drank over a quart and finished off with 
a half liottle of port Avine, and yet .he recovered. 

J. Kirchener, a shoemaker, Avell known in INIemphis, after nursing seA'eral 
of his family, Avho died, took the fever, but did not take off his clothes until 
he recovered. He nursed himself and refused the attendance of a doctor or 
nurses. He cooked his own foiMl, although suffering from a severe attack, and 
ate it when and in what (jnautities he chose, and yet recoA'ered. 

Dr. McGregor, of G)vington, Tenn., against the. remonstrances of liis 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 



nurses, and perfectly sane, went into tlie yard to a pnmp and drank heavily of 
water, but died very suddenly from the effects of his indiscretion. 

Mr. Fred. Brennan, local editor of the Appeal, was in bed ten weeks, pci- 
haps the worst case of yellow fever on record. He had black vomit tliree 
times and the hiccoughs twice — once for twenty-four hours and once for cinht 
hours— and yet recovered. A vigorous constitution and a will that nothing 
could break down brought him through. 

Miss Clay, residing on AVashington Street, who had the yellow ftver in 
1^73, attentled with black vomit, also had a severe attack of the fever in 1878, 
with black vomit and hiccoughs for thirty-six hours, yet she recovered. 

Maria Hayden, residing on Alabama Street, while her temperature was 104°, 
went to the pump and drank freely of water, ate ice, pound cake, and drank 
condensed milk out of the original package, also drank champagne and porter. 
It was impossible to keep tlie clothes on her, or prevent her from getting up 
wliilc the fever was at its heiglit, and yet she recovered. 

]Miss Mary Sandberg, of Winchester Avenue, had a severe attack of fever, 
and, as her nurse describes, small pimples resembling small-pox covered her 
entire person. Her father bled her, j^et she recovered. Her father, an old 
sailor, who had seen yellow fever in the West Indies, believed in blood-letting, 
and in operating on himself with a razor cut the jugular vein and died in fif- 
teen minutes. 

A little son of Mr. Goldsmith (l)rokcr) had black vomit and hemorrhage for 
three days and recovered. 

John Latsch, whose kidneys were in an abnormal condition — creating an en- 
tire suppression of urine — was treated with jwultice of onions on alxlomcn, 
and after three days of this treatment, and walking him up and down the room, 
the .secretions were started, but too late for his recovery. He died while on 
one of his pedestrian tours. 

James DufJey, 12 Alabama Street, aftei' having Ijlack vomit six hours, got 
up from his bed, washed himself, changed his underch)thing, dressed himself, 
and went down town. The next day he did the same thing, taking a body 
bath, and went on the Raleigh Road a half mile, vomiting black vomit all tlie 
■vvay. He died a few minutes after his return home from his last trip. 

In the middle of August, many people pawned watches, diamonds, and even 
silver spoons to raise money enough to get away from the city. ]Many small 
depositors drew their respective accounts from bank and de})arted. Persons 
went away with as little as ten or fifteen dollars, as their total worldly possessions. 

Lengthy, populous streets in Memjshis were left w'ithout a dozen families re- 
siding thereon. The occupants disappeared as if by magic. Some streets 
Avere wholly deserted by their white inhal)itants, only c(jlored servants — not 
deemed liable to the disease — remaining. 

A doctor called to attend an Irishman, residing in Fort Pickering, ab(nit a 
mile from Court square, fljund his patient far advanced in the convalescent 
stage and disposed to be humorous. He told the doctor, also an Irishman, that 
lie was very mad the day he vvas taken with the fever. He said that on that 
day the last of three of his friends had died, and he called in a negro man 
and gave him ten dollars to wash and dress the corpse. This he did satisfac- 
torily. Having been paid and disnussed, the narrator bethought him that his 
dead friend had expressed a desire to be laid out and buried in the I'egalia of 
the society he belonged to. He, therefore, ran after the negro, overhauled 
liim, told him what he wanted, promising him five dollars additional for its 
]iprformance. When they got back to the house, he told the negro to look in 
the wardrobe and he wouhl find the regalia, which, he said, must be put on 
immediately, as in a few minutes the hearse would be there. The colored man 
went to the, wardrobe, took out what he supposed was the regalia, put it on, 



134 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



and reported the performance of his task. When the undertaker arrived and 
was about to screw down the lid of the coffin, he looked and saw a very laugh- 
able sight. He called the friend of the dead man, who said to the doctor, 
" What d'ye suppose I saw ? The bloody ould stupid naggur had put a hai-le- 
quin costume on me friend, the one he wore last Mardi-Gras." "And did you 
bury him in it?" asked the doctor. " Begorra, we did. The undertaker 
did n't have time to wait for the change to be made, and I did n't want to make 
the change if he had, and so Dennis wint to glory all colors and spangles." 

Two little children, Sallie and Lulu Lester, were left by their father at the 
Citizens' Relief Committee's headquarters, and immediately the father disap- 
peared. The little girls were taken in charge and carried to Camp Joe -Wil- 
liams, where they were made wards of the Bluff City Grays — " Daughters of 
the Regiment." 

A visitor of the Howard Association encountered a horrible scene upon en- 
tering a house on Commerce Street, Sunday, August 25th. Upon a Ijed lay 
the living and the dead — a husband cold and stiff, a wife in the agony of disso- 
lution. 0;i the floor, tossing in delirium, were two children of this pair, and 
beside them their cousins, two little girls, themselves sick. To complete the 
repulsiveness of the scene, and give it a touch of disgusting horror, a drunken 
man and a drunken woman, parents of two of the little fever-baked girls, were 
reeling and cursing, and stumbling over the dying and the dead. 

A sick man's lady friend wi'ote : " Please let me come." When his fi'iends 
thought the die was cast, they consented to his summoning her. Boldly she 
laid aside her hat, pushed back her hair, and forcing a smile to her lips, 
entered the room. Some of his male friends stood outside on the door steps 
and inquired " how the dear old boy was getting along." 

" I remember," says Mr. H. I. Simmons, a Howard, "one sight we visited in 
the neighborhood of the Louisville dejjot. The air was horribly soaked with 
the sickening odor of dead bodies. We went into one house where six jiersons 
had already been reported down. A new case was reported here, and we 
called to remove it, as our rules were to take every body to the infirmary when 
sick less than twent^^-four hours, and, after that, to .the hospital, if their con- 
dition would permit. This poor devil had been lying on the floor thirty-six 
hours. We put him in an ambulance and drove away, but had not gone far 
when he called to us to 'Stop, for God's sake, stop!' I made the driver halt. 
The sick man gasped a little, and said, ' I am going, sir; stop the driver here, 
for I will soon die.' In seven minutes he was dead." 

One night in August, one of those beautiful nights when the harvest moon 
shone with a brilliancy peculiar to the tropics, a Howard visitor was making 
his way through the deserted and gloomy streets on an errand of mercy to 
receive the last messages of a dying colleague. Wiiile walking along in an 
aimless, mechanical sort of a way, his ears were saluted with the voice of a 
woman singing a melody which had lulled him to rest in his mother's arms durir.g 
infancy. He halted in his tracks, and was so impressed by the singular occur- 
rence that he determined to follow it up and ascertain from whom it pro- 
ceeded. Guided by the voice, he reached a neat cottage en route to his desti- 
iiation, and, peering through the open window, saw a middle-aged woman 
caressing a child, and pacing the floor as she sang. Prompted by some 
irresistible impulse, he turned tlie door-knob, and, entering the room, accosted 
the inmate. She paid no attention to his salutation, and then he observed by 
her peculiar manner, her wandering eye, and general appearance, that she was 
crazed. Hurrying out into the street, he procured the assistance of a negro 
woman and returned to the house of sorrow. After some delay she was 
quieted temporarily, and being relieved of that which she held in her arms, it 
was found to be an infant a few months old, dead, and in a condition of decom- 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



185 



position. The mother was coaxed out of the room after a prolonged effort, and 
her child prepared for burial. She is now said to be a confirmed lunatic, and 
iu the retreat to which she has been committed she paces the waixl with a 
bundle in her arms crooning a lullaby to what she imagines is her living l)abe. 
Her husband had died a few days previous to this occurrence, her family had 
one by one been curried out to the " ti-enches," and, her last hope dying with 
her last born, her mind, already shattered, became a hopeless wreck. 

Numerous instances are recited where the dying and sick were measured for 
grave-clothes and coffins from ten to twelve hours before dissolution, the 
jVitients being fully conscious of all that was taking place. 

The poor and many of the middle classes often died unattended. Some 
breathed their last iu the streets, and others in their own houses, where ihe 
stench arising from their dead bodies and the fermenting of medicines or otlur 
preventives they had taken made the first discovery of their deaths. A feeling of 
extreme terror existed in the breasts of every body, and it was always regarded 
that whom ^Esculapius, Hii)pocrates, or Galen, were they living, inight pronounce 
in good health at sunrise, might be dead at sunset. Instances were related where 
the Howard visitor, on following a street to discover a dead person, found that tlie 
moment a door leading to it was open the body would burst. A dead Chinaman, 
when discovered, was much eaten by rats. Revolting as these cases may be, 
they form their part in the horrible histoi-y of the plague at ]Memj)his. 

A scene behind a door at No. 32 St. Martin Street, illustrated the manner 
in which many negroes neglected the sick of their race. A dead negro boy lay 
upon the floor, and a tottering, fever-burned victim was handing a dipjier of 
water to a delirious man lying on an old ragged quilt. Negroes, well men, lived 
in scores of houses around, but not one could be prevailed upon to enter the 
place. A brave white lady, disgusted with so much inhumanity, herself 
entered the house, taking oil and nuistard. This, however, was no rare case. 

Those Avho were buried in the trenches were all coffined, and these were 
jiacked ns close to each other as possilile. It would not be possible to identify 
or disinter the remains of any particular person who sleeps in these pits. 
IMounds have been shaped over the trenches, which give all the external apjjear- 
ance of the regular mode of burial, but there will average about three subjects 
to every two mounds. 

A jM'inter was allowed to die by the nurse in attendance, also a ]iatient in 
Hopefield, Ark., who was obliged to leave a sick bed and compel the flight of a 
drunken nurse at the muzzle of a gun. Such instances were not numerous, 
but the Howards used every precaution to prevent their repetition, and finally 
succeeded in weeding out the unreliable and incompetent nurses the e})idemic 
brought forth. 

C. G. Fisher, President of the Relief Committee, labored incessantly night 
and day in the discharge of his official duties, as did Lonsdale, the Treasurei-, 
and Clark, the Secretary. The consequence was that, when stricken, their sys- 
tems were too exhausted to sustain the shock, and they died before a favorable 
reaction could be produced. 

" There was no factor in the sum of elements that contributed more nobly and 
effectually to sustain the fading ho])es of this people than the press," wrote the 
correspondent of the ('hicago Tribune, "and to the editors of the daily journals, 
more than to any other personal efforts, is the city under obligations for the 
absence of riot, rapine, bloodshed, and chaos. These brave men stood to their 
posts when death stalked amid their ranks and took their choicest spirits." 

My. Langstafi', Mr. Johnson, Louis Daltroof, Messrs. Simmons, Hargrove, 
and several other members of the Howard Association, accompanied the writer 
[a correspondent of the Louisville Courier- Journal'] on a visit to the beautiful 
Elmwood Cemetery. The drive from the Peabody Hotel to the graves is about 



186 



A HISTORY OF THE VEI.LOW FEVEPw 



fo:ir miles. Almost eveiy liouse alon"' the route had its inelancholy history, 
and many brief and sad incidents were related as we passed the desolated man- 
sions of the wealthy, the dwellings of the prosperous merchants, the homes of 
the mechanic and the cottages of the laboring men. Each had presented a 
different and peculiarly touching scene, which was vividly recalled by niein- 
l)3rs of the party as we rode along. The character of these scenes and incidents 
may be learned by a few which were jotted down by one of the party for me 
at random : 

"Ther3 lived INIr. -, who became delirious, jumped out of that seccnd- 

story window, and killed himself. His wife died the same night, and they 
were both buried the next day." 

"Three persons died in that little cott«ige." 

"Nine persons were taken to the potters' field, all in one load, from that 
dwelling across the way." 

"In that neat little dwelling, surrounded by flowers and shrubbery, lived a 
happy family, consisting of father, mother, and four chiLlren — they are now 
all in the cemetery." 

" That store is the one in which there died four clerks who had succeeded 
each other rapidly in that capacity. Alter the death of the fourth one, none 
cjuld be found to accept the place." 

" Five corpses were taken out of that old shanty one night after 12 o'clock." 

And so on in a similar strain to the end of the trip. 

Fmiv dead bodies were found, on the 2d of September, at A'arious places 
within the city, all doubtless of persons "who died without attendance of any 
kind. One was found in the rear of a residence, his face parti)' consumed by 
rats. Two others were lying in the old library building, on Jefferson Street, 
and another in a house on Union Street. 

A man by the name of Townsley deserted his wife and child, while sick at 
27 Main Street. President Langstaff, of tl.e Howards, took the child in his 
arm?, put the mother in an ambulance, and raw the pair comfortabljj located 
at the infirmary. 

A kind-hearted lady was going to see a sick friend when she heard her 
n.ime called. Turning, she saw a slender girl, dressed in mourning, advancing 
toward her. As tlie child came nearer, she recognized in her the daughter of 
a neighbor who had died the day before near the city. The little girl tlirew 
her arms about the lady, and, sobbing, cried: " You aren't afraid of me, are 
y.)u?" "No, my dear," w^as the soothing lesponse. "Every bod)^ tdte is," 
said the poor child. "They Avon't come near me because papa died of the 
fever, and we were with him, I and mamma." The little girl's heart was stung by 
the chilling repulsion which came to her in so deep a sorrow. 

Seven men employed in one store were stricken down in one day, and the 
establishment closed. 

Tne giant Death struck heavily when he took Mr. Ed. "Worsham, who de- 
parted this life on Sunday, September loth. None stood more manfully to 
their poits than he. He was a i)rominent Mason, and Avas active and untiring 
in behalf of the poor, the sick, the destitute, and the dying. 

A man by the name of Callahan — a widower — a carpenter, who had borne 
a good character here, left his children at the beginning of the epidemic, went 
to Louisville, married again, and sent bnck, like several others, "Take care 
of my children." Those children Avere all dead or dying, but the cautious 
pireat took good care not to put in a personal appearance. 

Oa the 17th of September, died J. W. Heath, an active member of the 
How.ird Association, who was conspicuous for his untiring labors in the cause 
of suffering humanity; also Vincent Baccigaluppo, one of our leading Italian 
citizens, and long a resident of this city. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



187 



" Last of all in this .'^ad d)'aina of death, of whom I have to speak," "wrote 
the correspondent of the Louisville Vourier-Jourual, "is the nndertaker, he 
wlio carried corpses to potter's liekl, and buried many in Einiwood. Jolm 
Walsh, at No. 341 Second Street, Mempiiis, next door to the post-office, had 
the contract for burying paupers in Memphis and Shelby County, and liad 
charge of all iutennents of that class during tlie fever. An interview with 
him disclosed the fact that very many persons of means and high social 
positions were handed to him for the potter's field, merely because there Avere 
no living friends of the deceased at hand to have them 'put away' in a 
different manner. Lnmediately after any death the whole Jieighboihood 
l)ecame clamorour-; for the instant removal of the corpse, and it Avas owing to 
this constant urging that many were hurried to an Innnble grave, who, under 
a dil&rent state of affairs, would have sleju in choice lots at Elmwood. As 
many cases of the above description exist, I give tlie particulars of a few of 
the most prominent, as related by Mr. Walsh : Dr. Nelson, a man of con- 
siderable wealth, Thos. F. JNIcUall, a merchant of some prominence, and Mr, 
Kinney, a cotton planter and speculator, who resided a part of the ymv at 
Memphis, and spent the other portion at some point in Arkansas, all died of 
fever, and now sleep in unknown potter's fields. A cotton broker, named 
FJack, and his whole family, consisting of seven persons, are dead and in the 
potter's field, except one child, which was buried in Elmwood Cemetery, In 
the family of Rev. Mr. Arnold, a JMethodist minister, were five persons, all 
of whom died, and four of whom were put in paupers' graves; the other, a 
child, was sent to some one of the graveyards and ])laced in a marked grave. 
Nine-tenths of those who are buried in the potter's field sleep in unknown 
graves. Those which are known were marked by friends who were present 
wiien the bodies were brought out, and simply wrote the name on a jnece of 
plank and placed it at the head of the grave for future identification. Theie 
were no trenches dug at the jiotter's field, but every body taken there was 
placed in a separate grave, which was dug five feet deep. The largest nnm- 
her of pauper fun'erals in one day was one hundred and nine. Mr. Walsh 
buried in all, as pauper undertaker, from August 1-5, 1878, to October 1, 1878, 
two thousand bodies. During this ]ieriod he also attended to five hundred 
calls on private contract. The establishment employed, during the period 
above given, about one hundi-ed and thirty hands. They paid their grave- 
diggers two dolhu'S per day, and twenty cents per hour extra for night-work. 
They lost by fever fourteen grave-diggers, one coftin-trinimer, one stable-man, 
and two coffin-makers." 

A physician in his daily rounds was called upon to visit a negro residing in 
a ])ortion of the city known as "Fort Pickering." LTpon interrogating the 
patient as to his symptoms, he rejilied that "there was great indignation of 
pain in his head." Pursuing his in(]uiries further, he was informed, with all 
the gravity of sincerity, that to pi-omote liis convalescence his colored nibs 
must be furnished witii a piano ! 

John Tliomas and Miss Beatrice Johnson met each other dui'ing the ejii- 
demic; while botb were engaged in the n(jl)le mission of tending the unfoj-tu- 
nute sick and distressed, fell in love at first sight, got married, and are living 
happily and contented. 

Li this great drama of deatb, those who played prominent parts were nurse, 
physician, and undertaker. Let us consider them separately. The nurse, I 
shall first speak of. The largest number on duty at any time by authority of 
the Howards was a trifle over four thousand. They came from all sections, 
included nearly all nationalities, and were good, bad, and indifferent. Between 
black and white, there was but little difference in efficiency, except the intelli- 
gence of the one over the other. Certainly, so far as the record goes, there 



188 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



was less rascality among the blacks than the whites. The colored nurses 
realized that any bad behavior would cause their death. Lamp-posts were 
their dread, and had any of them been guilty of outrage or tlieft their speedy 
doom would have been settled. The whites were bolder; and in their ranks 
Avere some of as vicious vultures as ever disgraced humanity or robbed the 
dead. The colored nurses made up in flxithful attention all tliey lacked in 
intelligence, and their record is one to be justly proud of. The best nurses are 
said to have come from Savannah, Ga., and Port Royal, S. C. A jMiss D. 
Murdock is said to have proven a most excellent nurse. She comes from a 
good family in Louisiana, and when the fever broke out was teaching school 
in Milwaukee. Gentle, good, and kind, a woman whose greatest happiness 
was ill soothing the dying or seeking to save the sick, Miss Murdock went 
through the entire epidemic, drawing nothing for her services — one in many 
thousands whose presence in the chamber of death was not caused by the ho]5e 
of pecuniary benefit. The Catholic and Episcopal sisters renewed their his- 
tory of the past, gloriously following in the footsteps of their noble predeces- 
sors. The mortality among the sisters, priests, and brothers, President 
LanstafF related to me, Avas terrible in the extreme. Everj^ volunteer to lend 
a helping hand was propelled by some motive to Memphis, either noble or 
vicious. The Catholic and Episcopal sisters were sincere in their professions, 
and so were some others. There were those persons who, by grief or adversity, 
sought ' ' surcease from sorrow." Women whose husbands had forsaken them, men 
whose wives were not what they seemed to be ; this class composed a large ele- 
ment of the nurses whose names did not find their way on the "black list." 
" If there were evidences of the fellow-feeling which makes the whole worki kin de- 
veloped," continues the heroic correspondent of the Chicago Tribune, "there were 
also cases of inhumanity equally pronounced and unprecedented! v brutal. Your 
readers are familiar with the cases of wealthy men who left the city, and in 
places of safety mocked at the calamities of their fellows; of the wealthy 
lawyer who left his help to be supplied by the Relief Committee ; of the land- 
owner who ordered his employes' salaries to be cut clown ;' of Donovan, and 
others. But I have heard of their counterparts. The owner of a eotton- 
giu, a bachelor and a man of wealth, sporting diamonds and fast horses, was 
among the first to flee. He left three sisters and an aged father, without 
means, and subject to the fever. When the epidemic was at its height, and 
one of the sisters had died, those remaining wrote to him for means to enable 
them to leave the city. He wrote them a cowardly letter, inclosing ?5 and 
an order on Flaherty & Sullivan, inidertakers, for a coffin. After some 
trouble, the father was sent out of tlie city on money borrowed from friends, 
and the sisters were left to take care of themselves." 

At 62 Madison Street, September 20th, the remains of a colored woman 
were found, who had evidently been dead for four or five days. The rats had 
nearly devoured the corp.se. Reports were numerous of coi'pses lying unburied 
for two or three days. 

Madam Vincent, the wife of Vincent Baccigaluppo, who had died a few days 
previously, was buried on Sunday, September 22d. She was highly esteemed 
in Memphis, where, by industry and economy, she had accumulated a large 
fortune. 

Sister Frances, of the Episcopal Church, who had charge of the Church 
PLjine, was buried on the 4tli of October. She was one of the noblest women 
who ever faced death. No truer heart ever beat. 

The remains of a white man were found, early on the morning of October 
Dth, at A. J. Vaughn's residence. He had been left in charge of the dwell- 
ing, and when found had been dead some hours. 

But one outrage of a most serious nature is related, and it remains for this 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLfJ'W FEVEU. 



189 



to be proven true. In this instance the patient -was a hdy, tlic nurse a man. 
Her fever was at its most critical point. The man drank until intoxicated. 
Tlie woman's delirium coming on, she kicked the covering anVl clothing from her 
l)erson. The drunken nurse, with champagne bottle in hand, was found, un- 
conscious from the cifects of drink, stretched across the body of the woman, 
wlio died l)efore others came in. The early decomposition which follows death 
bv yellow fever, and the fict that but a few days before the \\oman had given 
birth to a child, prevented ascertaining by outward signs satisfactory evidence 
that crime had been committed by the nurse, yet he Wi'.s ari'ested and was held 
upon the charge of rape. Investigation afterward proved that he was inno- 
cent. 

Said a nurse : "I c:ime from Shreveport on Sunday, got here Mondav, went 
to work Tuesday, Wednesday my patient was beautiful, Thursday he was 
tolerable, Thursday night he was restless, Friday he was dead, and Saturday 
he was in hell, for all tliat I know. Oli, I tell you, them was times when 
they went to heaven and the other place by telegra]>h, and not over the wires 
either — no, indeed." 

"The medical hero of the great epidemic was Dr. J. W. IMitchell, the 
Medical Director of the Howard Association. Although sorely pressed, Dr. 
Mitchell gave me," says the correspondent of the Louisville Ouirirr-Jofiriuil, 
" an hour of his time, and to his valuable fund of information is due much of 
the contents of this letter. Dr. Mitchell has not made uj") his mind as to the 
tirst case, and will say nothing yet as to the best treatment to puj'sue. ' Doc- 
tor, can you give me any idea of the mortality here in the ^^resent year from 
fever?' 'From the reports of my physicians, of whom at one time there were 
sixty on duty, who were required to keep accounts of all cases, deaths, and 
])ersons i-emaining, I judge and am convinced that the estimate is vei'v nearly 
correct that 16,000 persons remained in Memphis for the fever to feed upon.' 
'And the mortality among these?' 'Was simply terrible; the Howard phy- 
sicians, including many brave volunteers, took a census of all persons in the 
different wards, camps, and suburbs. Upon the report of one physician, who 
worked in a section where less cases occurred than in the other, the nundier 
taken with the fever is reckoned at 89.2 per cent. This is where the fever 
made its last invasion. In the section where it was first felt the per cent, of 
persons taken down is reckoned at ninety-nine per cent, of those remaining.' 
' How about negroes?' 'They were especially imprudent. If they had not 
been so imprudent, I think they wouldn't have had six deaths in a hundred 
cases.' 'Then it would be a good thing to be a negro in such epidemics?' 
' Yes,' laughed the physician, ' if you could get over a colored man's love for 
champagne. That is what killed this class. The moment they Avere con- 
valescent they began work on the champagne, and never knew when to quit. 
Indeed, there ai'e instances where they came from the country and ran the 
I'isk of taking the fever to get champagne. Even poor white people caused 
their own deaths by wanting it when convalescent, and I at one time prevented 
its distribution, except when orders were indorsed by myself and a few trusted 
])hysicians in my l(_)t.'" 

A trading-boat, the George 0. Baker, for some time lying u]) at Hen-and- 
Chickens' Island, came down, on the night of October 10th, to the foot 
of ^Market Street, with all sick on board. When the boat arrived at the 
levee, and word had passed to the Howards, instant succor "was rendei-ed. 
Tiiere wei-e six persons on the boat, all sick. One of them, a beautiful young 
lady, had the black vomit. 

"In regard to the large number of good deeds done in the flesh, I may say," 
writes the correspondent of the Chicago Tribune, "that they were not confined 
to those representmg the upper walks of life, and many of the heroes who 



190 



A HISTORY OF THE YETJ-OW FEVER, 



perished in their Samaritan work were gathered in from the shims of soclet}'. 
Giamblers, outcasts, and outlaws among the males, with those among the 
females who were marked with the scarlet letter, felt as keen sympathies, 
labored as heroically, nursed as tenderly, and died as bravely as those who, 
in the garb of purple and fine linen, forgot ciiste, station, and all the attractions 
of social superiority, to lend their efforts and presence to encourage the af- 
flicted, with a self-denial characteristic of the times. The Tribune readeis are 
familiar with the facts concerning Annie Cook, whose grave, strewn Avith 
flowers, is among the prominent features of the Howards' lot in Elm wood. 
She did the best she could, and, after a troubled life, the prayers of hundreds 
throughout this broad land go up this bright morning to the Throne, that she 
sleeps in peace : 

" Let sweet-voiced Mercy plead for her 
Who silent lies beneath the sod; 
Nor let proud, erring man assume 
The province of her Judge, her God. 

"Another case, similar in many respects, came nndermy observation, the de- 
tails of which may not be uninteresting. Lorena Mead is the name of a Louis- 
iana girl of rare personal attractions and accomplishments, whom the war left 
bankrupt and helpless. She went down the Jericho road, and when the epi- 
demic raised its hideous head, instead of consulting safety in flight, she re- 
mained to aid in its destruction. And a veritable ministering angel has she 
proven herself to be. There are bodies rotting in the potter's field she di-essed 
for their narrow home, and there are convalescents walking the streets to-day, 
who speak her name with gratitude and veneration. She has gone home to re- 
new her life of virtue, and, amid the scenes of her childhood, attempt to re- 
deem herself from a bondage unutterably wretched. ' The trials through 
which I've passed, and the suffering I've witnessed and participated in, have 
made a Christian of me,' she says, 'and my future life, so far as I can make 
it, will l)e devoted to redemption and reformation.' '" 

"How do you account for all this?" remarked the correspondent of the 
Louisville Qmrier-Jnurnal to a physician. " Champagne did it ; this Avine Avas 
the most demoralizing agent in the epidemic. Many a colored felloAV risked 
the plague to taste, and, Avhen convalescent, lost his life trying to get hold of 
it." "Had I had twenty-five acclimated nurses Avhen the fever came," said 
Dr. Mitchell, "I could have done more good than a Avhole State full of such 
nurses as invaded Memphis." 

Listances are related Avhere watches and all manner of valuables Avere stolen 
by nurses. The boldest of yarns Avere brazenlj^ told to cover up rascality. 
The general story Avas the valuables shown had been "given" % patients. 
Drunkenness and desertion Avere every-hour occurrences, and theft Avas ex- 
tremely common. 

There were many remarkable cases reported, Avhich not only defied the phy- 
sician's skill, but all precedent. One of these Avas that of H. E. Crandell, a 
printer, Avho suffered from the black vomit three times, and was given up for 
dead by his physician. But his nurse, a Mrs. Smith, from Ncav Orleans, re- 
fused to be governed by this opinion, and labored on him with such good re- 
sults that he is to-day well and at work. 

Jefferson Davis, Jr., died at five o'clock, on the CA'ening of October 16th, at 
Buntyn Station, near Memphis. He was a noble bo}', inheriting the talents 
and genius of his illustrious flither. His funeral took place the day folloAving, 
at Elniwood Cemetery, and Avas attended by fifteen persons, Avhich Avas the 
largest throng that had congregated at any one burial since the beginning of 
the epidemic. 

An almost inexplaiuable fact in regard to the great scourge Avas the abject 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEB. 



191 



fear of all the residents of the cities, villages, and country generall}-. Men stood 
ill Memphis, day by day, caring for the sick, shrouding and burying the dead 
victims of the plague, but the country and suburban mind was so stricken 
with fear that their victims, too, had, in most instances, to be cared for by 
Meniphian hands. Tiie Howard special relief trains passed out (hiily on all 
the railroads from Memphis, ati'urding frequent illustrations of the learful con- 
dition of mind in-evailing in the country. 

A heavy black frost was the pleasing s[)ectaclc that gladdened the sight of 
the many who were on the lookout for it, (in the morning of October lOtli. 
This harbinger of returning iiealth to Memphis caused unalloyed joy. 

Two little bootblacks lived in Memjihis before the fever, and when it was 
declared epidemic one of the two was numbered among the early cases. The 
other would not leave him, but insisted on nursing his companion, until he 
himself was stricken, and was removed to another street. One recovered, and 
was told that his friend was dead. He believed this until, at the close of the 
epidemic, the two met unexpectedly, near Court Square. A thrill of senti- 
ment, almost to the verge of weeping, went through the dozen spectators who 
had their attention drawn to the two little fellows, who, despite the crowd, 
despite the dust of the street, the jingle of the street-car bells, the hum and 
confusion incident to reviving Memj)his, embraced each other, their joy finding 
utterance in the shedding of copious tears. 

Of the Rev. Louis 8. Schuyler, rector of the Chui-ch of the Holy Innocents, 
who volunteered and came to Memphis to assist his iMethren of the Episcopal 
ministry during the plague, the New York World ^ay a : "Mr. Schuyler was 
the son of Rev. Dr. Montgomery Schuyler, the rector of* Christ Church, St, 
Louis. After graduating at Hobart College, Geneva, he entered the ministry. 
He was for some time an assistant to Bishop Doane, at St. Peter's Church, 
Albany. He went to England in 1867, and joined the E])iscopal Biotherhood 
of St. John the Evangelist, at C'owley, Oxford. Soon after his return to this 
country, last winter, he was called to assist in the Church of the Holy Inno- 
cents. On the first of July he took charge of the House of Prayer, in New- 
ark, in the absence of the rector. Dr. Goodwin, and had entered on his duties 
at the Church of the Holy Innocents only a few days when the call from 
Memphis came. It had been proposed to Mr. Sword by the members of his 
congregation, mostly people in moderate circumstances, to present Mr. Schuyler 
with a testimonial on his return. His brother, M. Roosevelt Schuyler, left for 
the South on hearing of his illness." 

This incident illustrates the romantic side of the epidemic: Dr. W. F. 
Besancny, a young physician, hailing from Jonestown, Mississij^pi , oflered his 
services to Medical Director Mitchell. His credentials were perfect, and 
coming at a time when physicians were most needed, were readily accepted. 
Just as all the preliminaries had l)een settled satisfactorily, a messenger entered 
the office in great haste, in search of a physician to attend ]\Iiss D. P. Rutter, 
a young lady who had been stricken w-ith tiie fever at her lesidence on Adams 
Street. Dr. Mitchell turned to the gallant young physician, and remarked 
that he could immediately be placed on duty, if he so felt disposed. Di-. 
Besancny unhesitatingly accepted the call, and at once acconqianied the mes- 
senger to the young lady's residence, where he found her prostrate with a bad 
ca.se of the fever. It is unnecessary to go through the details of the lingering 
illness, suffice it to say that the young doctor's attention was close and faithful, 
finally resulting in the }'Oung lady's recf)very. Soon afterward the doctor was 
stricken down. True to the instincts other womanly nature, doubly intensified 
by her self-acknowledged indebtedness to him for having saved her life, she 
went to his bedside, and there lemained, giving such attentions as only a 
woman can bestow upon the sick, until the glad tidings was announced that he 
13 



192 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



had passed the crisis, and bid fair to recover. He passed through tlie tedious 
hours of convalescence, until entirely recovered. Kothing moi-e uas known 
or thought of the matter by the few intimate friends of the young lady until 
yesterday afternoon, when the doctor, accompanied by Esquire Quigiey and a 
few friinds, drove up to the residence, and in less time than it takes us to 
write this paragraph, the two were joined together in the holy bonds of wed- 
lock. Such a union, consummated under such circumstances, can not fail to 
abound with happiness. 

Savannah News. — " We regret deeply to announce the death, from yellow 
fever, in Memphis, of Dr. Langdon A. Cheves, of this city, who was one of 
the first to respond to the call of distress from the afflicted city. The infor- 
mation of tills sad event was received througli a private telegram sent by Dr. 
McFarland, and is also given in our associated press dispatches. Dr. Cheves 
entered the Virginia jMilitary Institute, Lexington, Virginia, in the summer 
of 1869, and graduated W'ith distinction in July, 1873. His high moral char- 
acter, elevated sense of honor, and gentlemnnly courtesy commanded the re- 
spect and affection of the faculty and of his fellow -cadets. He was exceedingly 
modest and quiet in his demeancn-, of strong will and marked characteristics, 
which were strengthened and confirmed by his military education. On his re- 
turn to Savannah, he studied medicine in tlie ofhce of Dr. T. J. Charlton for- 
several years, and then left for Baltimore city, where he entered the medical 
college, and graduated with honor in March last, and subsequently took an 
extra course of lectures in that city. On returning again to Savannah, he at 
once entered upon his profession, witli the promise of a brilliant future, when 
the summons for assistance from the j^lague-stricken city of Memphis induced 
him to abandon his own interest and hasten to the relief of distressed humanity, 
iu which noble cause he has fallen a martyr. Dr. Cheves was about twenty- 
four years of age, Avas a grandson of Hon. Langdon Cheves, president of the 
United States Bank, and son of Colonel Langdon Cheves, Avho Avas killed at 
Battery Wagner, Morris Island, in 1863. His father was a large and suc- 
cessful rice planter and a civil engineer of considerable note. He leaves a 
mother and two sisters — Mrs. Charles N. West, now residing in Baltimore, and 
Mrs. Gilbert A. Wilkins. He was first cousin of Judge Haskell, of the Su- 
l^reme Court of South Carolina, and of Captain J. C. Haskell, of Savannah, 
and a relative by marriage of Governor Magrath, who married his aunt. He 
was in Savannah during the epidemic of 1876, and rendered efficient and 
zealous service during that terrible period, being himself stricken down in the 
midst of his good work. In the formation of his individual character he 
seemed to keep constantly in mind the supreme law of truth and probity, and 
was in every resjDcct a high-toned, honorable gentleman, useful citizen, a 
physician of rare promise, and a devoted son. His sad death will be deeply 
lamented by a large circle of friends and relatives." 

Jackson (Tenn.) Tr{hune and Sun. — " Young Howlett, aged ten years, a 
grandson of Mr. Pledge, the hotel man of Grand Junction, passed up to Milan, 
a few days ago, where his grandfatlier was staying. Being from an infected 
town, although having stayed in it only a few hours, he could not remain in 
Milan. His grandfather, therefore, rented an isolated cabin, some mile or more 
from town, and hired a negro woman to take the boy and stay with him until 
the days of his quarantine were completed. The fii-st night tiie poor boy at- 
tempted to stay in the cabin was a terrible one in his experience. A few per- 
sons, whom fear and cowardice had made brutes, went to the cabin at niglit, 
brickbatted it, shot into it, and ran the poor little bo}' out into the darkness, 
and fired shot after shot at him as he fled in wild terror. The little fellow, 
frightened almost out of his life, remained all night in the woods, wandering 
and hiding in terror, shivering in the pitiless cold, and almost crazed with a 



* 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE. 



193 



sense of loneliness and danger, and expecting every moment to be murdered. 
Next morning, ho crept into Milan, and his grandfather took the teiiifiod 
child to a jihrce of safety. Now, we respect quarantine, we respect the fears 
of the people in these terrible times, but such treatment as this little boy re- 
ceived is simply inhuman, and damns the authors, brutes and cowards. We 
know that the respectable people of IMilan condemn the acts denounced by us 
hlly as much as we do, and we further know tliat the ]\Iilan authorities'and 
quarantine officers are guiltless of any connection with the perpetrators, but 
they should hunt down the guilty and see that they are punished. Thev are 
evidently worthless and low-down cluiracters, and no community is safe tliat 
holds them. For the liicts upon which our remarks are based we have re- 
sponsible authors." 

Memplik Appeal. — " There was the case of the fever-stricken mnn in a rail- 
road car, which was uncoupled and left on a gide-track, near the National 
Cemetery, where, but for the ministrations of a brave friend and timely assist- 
ance from JMempliis, he would have died, as the poor fellow did who, left in a 
box-car, near Stevenson, was beset by a cowardly mob, possessed of only one 
idea, that of self-preservation. Then we had the cases of the negro men, poor 
fellows, driven forth by a few inhuman jiersons, some of whom have since died 
of the fever they thus inhumanly sought to fight off. The three victims of 
their cowardice died miserably by the wayside, giving evidence, by the con- 
tortions of their bodies, tliat they passed awaj' in nameless agonies. Horrible 
to think of, such an incident six weeks ago would have been scouted as im- 
possible by the very persons who partici2)ated in it. Then there is the case 
of a poor negro woman who, dying of the fever, was rolled in a l)lanket and 
unceremoniously dumped into a hog-hole, by her terror-stricken husband and 
kinsfolks. Bad enough that those who died w ithin the limits so well served by 
the Howard Association and Citizens' Relief Committee should some days ago, 
on account of the want of laborers and coffins, have had to lie for two and 
three days, poisoning the air with a nameless stench, and sending forth count- 
less billions of spores to feed on the vitals of the taithful few who have done 
such noble service in battling with the scourge ; bad enough that these horrors 
should exist, to appall the living, and help to increase the awful mortality, but 
when to them we add the wanton inhumanity of stoning and shooting at a de- 
fenseless boy of only ten j'^eai's, driving helpless fever-stricken patients from 
the only shelter they have, and shaming our common humanity by leaving 
bodies in hog-holes, food for the hogs, we are overcome with shame for a brave 
people, a generous and noble people, wdio, after enduring all the trials of a 
great war, and attesting both their moral and physical courage, should have 
their fair escutche,i)n soiled by a brutalism without parallel. We have already 
referi-ed to the cases — alas ! too many — where fathers have deserted their 
fiimilies, and have called attention to the callous neglect of each other by near 
relatives, who, before the epidemic came to test the strength and sincerity of 
their affections, would have scoi-ned the po.ssibility of conduct that has secured 
some few a longer lease of life, at the cost of a desertion that hastened the 
death of others. Only a few days ago we saw a little child of, perhaps, three 
years, that had been surrendered to the keeping of one of our noble volunteer 
doctors by a mother who now fills a nameless grave in potter's field. She was 
an outcast — had thrown herself away because aliandoned by her husband — 
and finding herself fast sinking from the combined effects of the most loath- 
some disease and the yellow fever, gave her child to her |)hysician, that it 
might find the home and care the cowardly father had denied to her and it. 
How shocking to every sense. Hearing such things, one wondeis if our civili- 
zation is really a failure, and we are going back to the days of the London 
jjlague, wdieu all the bonds of society were loosened, and besides the disease. 



194 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE. 



■\vhich carried away so many thousands, the people of the great capital Avere 
the prey of an epidemic of moral cowardice. Were it not tor the thousands 
of cases of heroism, almost divine in their self-sacrifice, which we witness 
every day, such a conclusion would be irresistible. Another case, and we 
close for the present. Mr. Ben K. Pullen, an old and honored citizen, who is 
held in the highest esteem as an upright, honorable man, on Monday last went 
out to Elmwood Cemetery— loveliest of the cities of the dead^ — to perform the 
sad duty of burying his wife, who had died of the fever. It was late, past 
five o'clock in the evening, when the carriage and the hearse arrived at the 
cemetery. There was still three-quarters of an hour to pass before the hour 
arrived when funeral parties are refused admittance and the laborers suspend 
work. The man in charge of the cemetery (named Flynn or Edwards — it is 
not known which) came to the spot where the grave was to be dug, Avith a 
party of negroes, whom he informed that they would not receive any extra 
pay for work done after six o'clock, thus trying to prevent them from the work 
they were there to perform. The negroes, more humane than he, and indig- 
nant at such an exhibition of brutality before the husband and children, stand- 
ing beside all that remained to them of a good wife and mother, replied that 
sometimes they worked for friendship. They dug the grave, lowered the 
casket, and had covered it out of sight, having almost completed their, work, 
when the same cold-blooded creature, in the hearing of the mourning family, 
and almost in their faces, said : ' You have worked after six o'clock, and you 
shall receive no pay for it. Hereafter no work shall be done after that hour, 
matter how many d — d carcasses are brought here.' Powerless to resent au 
outrage so gross, the father and children passed out and on to their homes, 
their grief intensified by an insult that all men must share until it is punished 
as it should be." Subsequently the facts were investigated by the cemetery 
authorities, and the man was discharged. He left the city immediately. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



195 



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196 A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



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1878. 


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1873. 


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Mean 
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1878. 


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1873. 


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Condition of 
Weather. 


1878. 


clear 
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fair 
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fair 

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clear 
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fair 
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clear 
clear 
clear 
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clear 
clear 


187.3. 


clear 
clear 
clear 
fair 
fair 
. fair 
clear 
clear 




Prevailing Direction 
of Wind. 


1878. 


westerly 
westerly 
north-west 
north-east 
north-west 
north-west 

north 
south-west 


south-west 

south-west 
south-west 
south-west 
north-west 
north-east 
north-east 
northerly 
south-east 
northerly 

north 

north 
north-west 
north-west 
easterly 
north-east 

south 
south-west 


1873. 


easterly 
south-west 
south-west 

westerly 
north-west 
north-west 

north 
south-west 


south-west 

south-west 
north-west 

south 
south-west 
south-west 
north-east 
northerly 
north-east 
north-east 
south-east 

west 
south-west 

north 

north . 
westerly 
north-west 
west 



a 

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1878. 


b- 'M lO O (M 

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1873. 


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1873. 


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A HISTOEY OF THE YELLOW FEVER 



197 



^1 O V\ 4^ 00 to ^ 



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1S78. 


nurtherly 

nortli-east 
north-east 
south-west 
nortli-west 
south-west 

nortli 

north 
north-west 
south-west 
south-west 
Avesterly 
north-west 


north-Avest 

north 
north-east 
north-east 
northerly 

north 
south-east 
northerly 

south 
southerly 
southerly 
north-Avest 

north 


1S73. 


ri 


north 

south 

north 

north 
north-west 
north-west 

north 
north-west 
south-west 
south-east 
east 

north 
north-east 


south-west 

south 
southerly 

north 
north-east 
easterly 
southerly 

south 
north-cast 
north-east 
south-east 
south-east 
south-cast 


x 
- t 

X 


fair 
fair 
fair 
fair 
fair 
fair 
clear 
clear l 
clear 
clear 
fair 
clear 


fliir 

fair 
cloud}' 
cloudy 

fair 

fair 

fair 

fair 

clear 
cloudy 
cloudy 
cloudy 

clear 


CO 

-I 

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^ c' 

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clear 

fair 
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clear 
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fair 

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cloudy 
cloudy 

fair 
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clear 
fair 
fair 
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clear 

cloudy 

fair 
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clear 


'X 

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Cl' 'Cl CO o CO Cl 00 o o Cl Cl CO Ci' 


1873. 


Mean 
Humidity. 


Ct CO CO -1 00 ^1 ^1 Cn ^1 O O 
_4^ to p p p CO p p 00 c:> 

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1878. 


to 

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1873. 


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1878. 



198 

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j 1878. 


A XT TOT^rf^^T>"V r\T^ TXT -^-TT T /"illr x:^T:^T*'T 

iv xiloKJKj. U± IrlJi. xJbljL«U\V x xj\ ] 
OOOO-fOOOOCOOOOOcoOOOO 

O 7-^ 


!M C 0 0 0 0 0 

00 

(M" 


1873. 


OOOOOCOOOOl^ t^OOO-fOOOO 

O 1— 1 C5 

. . . 

T-1 T-l 


lO 0 0 O' t~ 0 0 
CS 


Iluiuidity. 


1878. 


ooo<X!cocooocoocococoi:ofocoooo 
lo c^i CD ci lo* c^i o 10 CO oi GO 00 lO o6 


0 CO 0 0 CO 0 
CO C5 CO 0 t-^ oi 

CD IC CO JO 


1873. 


OOCOCOOCDCOOOOCDCDOOOCOOOCC 
a: O O OC (M O 1— 1 !M CO ' 00 -+ 'i" (M 
lOiOCCt^COOOCO'^LOtr^oOt^OSC^'OiOOiOO 


0 0 0 CO 0 CO 

0 0 CD t-- t- 

CD CO 0 00 00 


Condition of 
Weather. 


1878. 


clear 
clear 
fair 

cloudy 
fair 
clear 
clear 
clear 
fair 
fiiir 
clear 
clear 
clear 

cloudy 
fair 
fair 

cloudy 
fair 
clear 


clear 
clear 
clear 
fair 
fair 
clear 


CO 
1^ 

■CO 


clear 
clear 

fair 

fair 
cloudy 
cloudy 
clear 
clear 
clear 
cloudy 

fair 

fair 
cloudy 
rainy 

fair 
clear 
clear 

fair 
clear 


clear 
cloudy 

fair 
cloudy 
cloudy 

fair 


Prevailinfr Direction 
of Wind. 


1878. 


south 

south 

south 

south 
north-west 
north-west 

east 
south-east 

south 
north-west 

south 

south 
south-west 
south-west 

north 
north-east 
northerly 
north-west 
iiorth-west 


north-west 

south 
south-west 

1 1 or th 
south-east 
south-east 
south-west 


CO 
GO 


westerly . 

east 
south-east 

south 
south-west 

north 
north-west 
north-west 

west 

south 

north 
north-east 

east 

south 
north-west 
north-west 

south 
south-west 
north-west 


north-west 

south-east 
easterly 
north-east 
north-east 
north-east 
northerly 


Thermometer. 


1878. 


o-i ci -i^ c^i o CO ci -)H J ^ — ^ CD -T-i o ^ 00 CO ci o uri (>i o ci 

COCOl^t^iOCO-fiOO-^iOCOCOO-^-f-t'LOCC CO '^fLOOiOCOiO 


1873. 


COCOCOCOOOOOOCOOOOOOOICOO 

cocDcod'MiooGcc^t'+'oiLoasocicooaioi 

iOiOCOt^l>-LOiOTt<iOCD CO"^ Tti CO CO CO 


0 0 10 lO 0 

CO -+ 0 t— 0 l- 
lO 'rt< 10 ^ 10 lO 


Barometer. 


1878. 


CO ~ti O oo lO CO O ~f CO lO CO CI i-O '00 1— 1 O lO 1(0 

I- fH O 00 i-H OS tM CO T-H CO O C<l CO r-i O (M CO 

O^O <3i 00 T-l CM 1— 1 O CjS --^ "^I "^1 '"1 

o" o" 02" CI 0" 0" 0" 0' cT 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0' 0' cT 0" 0" 
coco<MC<icocococo(Mcocococococococ<icoco 


OD 00 0 0 !>• CO OO 

CO CO CO 0 CD' CO 
0 C<1 Cv| CO CO i-H 0 

0" o'o'c'cTo'ci" 
CO CO CO CO CO CO c<) 


1873. 


'-^T-HO-fci-^cocicooicoifocoLOct'Cococooo 

CO -+I 0 ':0 00 0 1-H T— 1 CO O-l 10 CO ITT' C5 -H 1— 1 CO 

T-^'M(^^o<^ooI-HOc^ClI^■lco(^^ooc^coco■T— ico 

0" 0" o~ o" 0' 0" 0" 0* ci" cT 0' 0' 0" cT cT o~ 0" 0' o~ 
cocococococococo(Mi^coccccc<icMcococ>oco 


0 00 00 10 0 00 
CO 0 1—1 00 1—1 CO 
1—1 CO (M OQ T-H 0 

0" 0' o~ 0' 0" 0" 0' 
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 


DATE. 


CO -ti i-O CO 00 Cl 0 1 (M CO ^ 10 CO 00 0 0 T- 1 
T-iTHT-iT-HT-HrtT-i(M(M<MCvlS^C<lC<l<M(M(MC0CO 

S-l 

'^-.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^■^ 
0 

0 


1-1 C^l CO IC CD 

a S 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



199 



Eain-Fall. 


1878. 


fMOOr-4OOOO<:CC'1C;'OO-f'MOOai(M'X>00OOO' 
O O O O O I— 1 (M CO 


2.41 


CO 

CO 
l-H 


OOOOOO'OOOOIOOOOOOOl-OOO'OO'O' 
C-1 CC' LO O 

1 


3.8G 


Mean 
Huiuidity. 


1878. 


OOCOOOOOCOOtOCOOiOCDCOCOCOCOCOOCOOO':^ 

00 CO o c^i :c oi GO cc o o CO lio oi lO 'iS' co co i-- -t> -c' i>i ^x' co a5 
CO -+I lO o -t' 'l^ 'I' CI cr; xi ':o CO o o -fi -t CO' lO ic 'O 


61.8 


CO 
CO 


o CO cc CO o o CO CO cc o 'iO' o o O' 'CO CO CO CO cc CO' CO o o 
00 o lo 0^1 c^i lO -co CO oi 00 lo CO ci lo o o i~ T-H o 
coiOiC'LCcc-f^-fcoco-ti-tioiocooocrsix-f-Lrc-tco-fiL-^ 


CO 


"o 

c 3 
o ^ 

.■^ d 


1878. 


fair 
clear 
clear 

fair 
cloudy 
clear 
clear 

fair 
cloudy 

fair 

fair 
clear 
clear 
cloudy 

fair 
clear 
clear 
cloudy 
cloudy 
rainy 

fair 
clear 
clear 
cloudy 




187.3. 


fair 
clear 
clear 
clear 
clear 
cloudy 
clear 
clear 

fair 

fair 

fair 

fair 
clear 
clear 
foggy 
rainy 
cloudy 

fair' 
clear 

fair 

fair 
clear 

fair 

fair 




PievailinjT Direction 
of Wind. 


1878. 


south-west 
north 
east 
south 

liyjl. LI 1 >V dTJL 

north-west 
south -west 
north-east 

east 
south-west 
north-west 
north-east 
westerly 
westerly 
west 
Avest 
south 
south 
north 
north 
Avest 
south-west 
south-east 
south-east 


soutli-Avest 


1873. 


south -west 

westei-ly 
south-west 
south-west 
south-west 
north-west 
west 

westerly 
south-Avest 
south-west 

westerly 
north-west 
north -west 

south 
south-Avest 

easterly 
south-east 
north -Avest 
north -Avest 
south 
north 
north-east 
north-east 
south-east 


south-west 


3 

V 

o 

o 
H 


LS78. 


c^i CI c^i o o o lo cvi '>^ o c^i o c^i oi c^i 

T-H C^l i-H -t 01 CO C-l O 'C3 ^ C^l CC' CI CO 01 T— 1 CO 'X' Ol 

coliClOcooolOlit'OLO-i^lOO-t'~^'^oolO-t'--^-t'-t''t'lO 


, 57.8 


rr 

1- 

CO 


OLOOOOO'OOOOOOOOO'OOOO'OOO'OC^l 

T-H cc CO c^i 'X c-i O' CO -c; c>i ci o CO oi CO 1^ 

lOi-0LCC0C0-*'1<-tiCCC0OC0C0C0'til0iCi-f^-+i-*C0-+l-0 


o 


Barometer. 


00 


cc ^ -t< LO C^l Ci 'M C^I ~ X 1^ 'M 'M X C^T O t— C C' ^ c; t~ 

X liC. O C^l lC CI -f lO 'X' 'Zj X' CI' CO C-.' 'O X '—' 'O O' i-O 
OC^)!— lC^C^OO^Cs 'CJ^T-H^O' X C^ 'CI C:_^t^ 

o" o' cT 'O o'o '0~ c' c:" 'o" o' o" CI 'cT cT ct 'cT cT o' c^' o' c~ 'cT 

CO CO CO C>) (M CO CO CO C<) CO CO CO 0^1 C^l CI C^l :M cc C^l 0^1 cc CO CO 


30,069 


CO 
CO 


lO C<1 Ol CO CO CI O CO OS -f CO 00 Cj CO 00 LO !M O 0-1 'O 
I^CrXtM'COCO-r'COCOi— 'CO'COX^-— ifM'MODt^CC-fOCO'M 

CI T-H l-H o X ^ T-H r-1 o i~ -f x -r^ c^i o_ x_^ cs O' cc o -t<__ o co__ 
cio o" 'o'ci'o'o'o'o" ci^'cT cT'cT'O'o 'O 'C; c: o 'CT' ""o o o 
CO CO cc CO cc CO CO c-i 1-4 cc cc cc CO CM i» cc c-1 C'O CO cc CO 


30,087 


DATE. 


t>^ 00 C5 o T--! (>i cc 'i^' "O co' b-^ cc ci o" T-^ c-i CO lo CO o6 CC' 

T-i rH i-H i-H i-H T-H ^ — 1 1-^ T-H <M <M 0-1 C-1 (M (M CM C^l C-l CO 

> 

o 


i 





200 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



It will be seen from the preceding tables that the thermometer ranged very 
much higher during the ej)idemic months of 1878 than those of 1873, and that 
the humidity for August and September was two degrees less, w'hile in October 
and November it was about the same as during the same months in 1873. The 
barometrical range is about an average for the same months of both years, as is 
the prevailing direction of the wind. The rain-fall for August of 1878 was 1.72 
inches compared with 4.53 for the same month of 1873; 2.59 for September, 
1878, as compared with 2.53 for the same month of 1873; 2.82 for October, 
1878, as compared with 5.95 for the corresponding month of 1873; and 2.41 
for November of 1878 as compared with 3.86 for the corresponding month of 
1873. In August, 1878, there were 16 clear days, 7 fair, and 8 cloudy ; and 
in August, 1873, there were 12 clear days, 16 fair, and 3 cloudy. In Sep- 
tember, 1878, there were 18 clear days, 8 fair, and 4 cloudy ; and in Septem- 
ber, 1873, there were 7 clear days, 18 fair days, and 5 cloudy. In October, 
1878, there were 14 clear days, 11 fair, and 6 cloudy ; in October, 1873, 
there were 13 clear days, 13 fair, 4 cloudy, and 1 rainy. In November, 1878, 
there were 14 clear days, 9 fair, 6 cloudy, and 1 rainy; and in November, 
1873, there were 11 clear, 12 fair, 5 cloudy, 1 foggy, and 1 rainy. The 
absence, in 1878, of the rain and humidity upon which many writers declare 
the propagation of yellow fever to depend is remarkal^le. In the tropics the 
rainy season is generally the most sickly, and some of the best authorities 
agree in assigning to heat there preventive and healthful properties. From 
this has grown the belief that heavy and continuous rains precede epidemics 
of yellow fever. Tliis has not generally been the case in the United States. 
The summer of 1878 was for some weeks intensely hot. In St. Louis the 
numl)er of cases of sun-stroke were so many as to amount to an epidemic, 
alarming the people to such an extent that many, if not most of them, sus- 
pended work, dreading the least exertion as they did death itself. In one 
week the mortality fi'om this cause- alone amounted to nearl}^ 300. In 1837 the 
same intense heat prevailed and preceded an epidemic of unusual violence. In 
1853, the year of greatest mortality from yellow fever, and the year of its greatest 
spread throughout the South, in June, July, and August, reports from ninety 
jneteorological stations, fi'om Canada to Florida and Texas, show that in the 
fourth week of June the maximum heat from New York to Savannah gave an 
average of 95°; and in New Orleans during August, September, and October of 
that year the thermometer ranged from 82° to 91°. A wave of heat moved 
across the country in that as in the year 1878; indeed there were two such waves, 
one in June and another in August. Blodgett says the first wave made itself 
manifest on the 29th and 30th of June. The extreme was central in tlie 
latitude of Washington and was limited at Savannah on the south and Bur- 
lington, Vermont, on the north, attaining 96° to 98° in Tennessee, Kentucky, 
and Southern Ohio, and 99.5° to 102° at Washington and in Eastern Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina. In August the second wave made itself felt, 
beginning earlier at the west. The ma.ximum in Illinois and the adjacent 
States was 90° to 94° from the 8th to the 13th, in Ohio and Kentucky 
nearly the same, and passing eastward the district of greatest excess was cen- 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



201 



tral New York. The mortality from this great heat was frightful. lu June the 
yellow fever showed itself in New Orleans, the week ending on the 30th of the 
month, giving as the average of maxima 92° in that city. On comjjaring July 
and August, the two great epidemic mouths in New Orleans in 1853, Dowler 
says there was nothing peculiar — nothing that can account for the epidemic in 
regard to the quantity of rain, which was in some places greater or less than 
in regions free from the fever, and sometimes similar. The summer of 1699, 
when the fever prevailed severely in Philadelphia, was so intensely hot that 
men died while harvesting in the fields, and all business was suspended in the 
city. In 1762 it prevailed after a very hot and dry summer. In 1793 there 
was no rain from the 25th of August to the 15th of October — the crops 
failed and the springs dried. In 1794 the disease again prevailed, modified. Rush 
says, by occasional showers of rain. In 1797 the summer was hot and dry, and 
in 1798, when yellow fever made fearful havoc, the summer was characterized 
by extreme dryness, 'in consequence of which whole fields were burnt up by 
the sun, and the crops were seriously injured. In 1801 the fever broke out in 
Philadelphia after a drought of some duration. In 1805 the summer set in in 
June with great severity. The heat was unusually intense from thence to the 
end of August. This was accompanied by a severe drought, which com- 
menced on the 28th of June and continued, without any intermission, except 
a very few sprinklings of rain, that barely moistened the surface of the earth, till 
the close of August. During this period, not oidy the i-ains fiiiled, but even 
the dews ceased to descend, and the earth became parched. La Roche declares 
that neither heat nor moisture, when acting separately, can be productive of 
yellow and kindred fevers, and that equally objectionable is the belief that 
the disease arises from the combined influence of those two agencies, either 
unassisted by another cause of a more efficient kind and peculiar character, or 
with the aid of some agent, calculated only to render the system more prone 
to the impress of the other. Neither can we admit the propriety of referring 
the efficient cause of yellow and kindred fevers to the difierence of tempei-a- 
ture between day and night, or to mere atmospheric vicissitudes — the succes- 
sion of cool or cold nights to hot days; nor to the sudden exposure of the 
body, at any period of the twenty-four hours, to a low degree of temperature 
after it has been placed for a greater or less extent of time under the influ- 
ence of a high degree. Vicissitudes, if really the efficient cause of yellow 
fever, appear to be whimsical in their operations. The meteorological tables, 
published in the account of the voyage of D' Urville to the Soutii Pole and 
Oceanica, show conclusively that the minimum degrees of uychthemeron oscil- 
lations occur in hot latitudes, the difference between the maxima and minima 
amounting only to a very few degrees. In temperate and cold climates, these 
oscillations are much more marked ; and yet the yellow fever is a disease of 
hot climates. There it occurs frequently — in some parts almost annually ; 
while in temperate climates, where the vicissitudes in question are constant, 
the fever only occasionally, and in many places never, shows itself. In hot 
climates themselves, places subject to considerable oscillations are free from 
the disease, while others, where the changes are unimportant, are not unfre- 



202 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



quently visited by it. At Caraccas, where yellow fever has seldom, if ever, 
prevailed, the temperature is continually changing, while at Martinique, where 
yellow fever is of frequent occurrence, the oscillations are very trifling." As 
to the effect of wind, the same authority declares that the yellow fever occurs 
in different countries under the influence of different winds. In the greater 
portion of the West Indies, it would seem to be brought on through the 
agency of, or to be attended with, the prevalence of south winds, while in 
Havana this wind is comparatively inocuous, and the east and west winds 
exercise injurious eflects. In some parts of this country it has apjieared after 
and during the prevalence of south winds, sometimes during the occurrence of 
west winds. In other localities it has required an east or a north wind. Nor 
is the same difference less strikingly noticed elsewhere. In Leghorn it 
occurred under the influence of south winds; in Barcelona, of north-east and 
south-west winds; Avhile in Andalusia and Gibraltar it has been almost in- 
variably in some way connected with the prevalence of the east, or Levant 
wind, and was never produced by or associated with a south wind. From the 
diversity of results arising from the same wind, and the sameness of effect 
resulting from currents of different character, v;e derive the proof that no 
particular wind can be said, with any show of reason, to constitute by itself 
the necessary and efficient cause of the disease, and that whenever any of them 
exercise an agency, as regards the origin or diffusion of the fever, it derives 
that power, not from the fact of its coming from any particular quarter, but 
from the temperature and hygrometrical conditions of the moving column of 
air, and more especially, perhaps, from the injurious effluvia it raises from the 
localities over which it passes, and which are carried along with it. Treating 
of atmospheric pressure, La Roche says, that "all that can be said on the sub- 
ject is, that a comparison of the state of the atmospheric pressure here and 
elsewhere during sickly seasons, with the results of observations made at 
periods when the disease does not show itself, does not lend much assistance to 
the belief in the reality of any such connection, so far, at least, as relates to 
the production of the efficient cause." He does not deny the influence which 
a difference of pressure of the atmosphei'e exercises on the system in health 
and disease, nor does he deny the fact that an undue increase of it produces 
unpleasant effects and leads even to diseased manifestations, and that other 
results of an equally deleterious effect attend an extreme in the oj^posite con- 
dition of the air ; but there is nothing in all this calculated to induce the 
belief that it can do more than jilace the system in such a condition as will 
predispose it to the deleterious impression of some more efficient cause, 
especially when we find that the same condition of the barometer exists, as 
well when the yellow fever prevails as when it does not. The same may be 
said of the deficiency or excess of electricity. In Memphis in 1873, as well as 
in 1878, but especially the latter year, the absence of thunder-storms was 
so remarkable as to give rise to the belief that to this cause, above all others, 
was due the almost spontaneity and the malignancy of the fever. It was held 
by some that the atmosphere was deficient in ozone, and many expedients 
were resorted to to supply it in the belief that since it destroys the miasm 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



203 



from decaying animal matter it Avoiild be found efficient in the sick-rooms, in 
hospitals, and infirmaries in destroying the poison or germs of yellow fever. 
Some trials were made with an apparatus sent out by a leading physician of 
Buiialo, and by the more simple medical formula so well known, but the fever 
made such havoc with those who attempted these tests that satisfactory results 
were not reached. This is to be regretted, as a definite result would have cone 
far to settle anotlier of the disputes of the faculty. Some doctois deeUire that 
an excess of electricity is a considerable agency in the promotion, if not the 
production, of yellow fever, while others hold that the deficiency is. Writers 
on the fever in the West Indies ascribe to electricity great power as an exciting 
and predisposing cause in epidemics of yellow fever. Dr. Clarke, of 
Dominica, attributed the fever, on the contrary, to a deficiencv of thunder, 
as did Dr. Lallemant, of Eio Janeiro. Such was tlie case. La Rdclie says, in 
New York in the fever of 1795 and 1822, in New Haven and New Lon- 
don in 1798, in S avannah in 1820, iu Charleston in 1817, and in Philadelpliia 
in the fatal year of 1798. During the forty-four years of exemption from the 
disease enjoyed hy Charleston from 1748, there was a frequent recurrence of 
showers and thunder gusts. After 1792 these "were less frequent, and the fever 
was more common. Li 1815 a hurricane which swept over Jamaica is said, by Dr. 
Arnold, to have had a wonderful efi'ect in purifying the atmosphere and mitigat- 
ing the effects of the fever. Dr. Caldwell, of Philadel])hia, remarks that "during 
several of the yellow fever calamities in Philadelphia and the other Atlantic 
cities, electrical phenomena were unusually irregular. Shooting stars were at 
times abundant and brilliant iu a degree far beyond what is common. 
Throughout some seasons, especially the summer of 1793, scarcely a gleam of 
lightning was to be seen, while in others, thunder-storms were inordinately 
frequent and severe. In 1799 the shooting stars were most abundant." 
Other authorities ascribe to astral influences a direct and exciting agency for this 
as well as other diseases. In the Middle Ages this was the conviction of 
physicians and learned men, and there are not wanting some who, in our own 
time, boldly declare their belief that to planetary movements are we indebted 
for the decimating disea.ses which, under the name of the black plague, 
cholera, and yellow fever, sweep so many thousands from the earth, stop 
the M'heels of cf>mmerce, and paralyze the energies of whole nations. 
Professor Jenkins, of England, in a recent article in the Pall Mall Gazette, 
not only avows his belief in the potency of the planets in controlling epi- 
demics, but gives the calculations which he lias made through a series of 
years, and which are the reasons assigned for a belief which the prejudice 
against astrology does not prevent iiim from giving to the world. He writes: 
"About eight years ago I spent many months nccunudating information on 
cholera throughout the world, from 181G to 1871. I tabulated my results, 
threw them into the form of a curve, and was surprised to find that there had 
occurred a great outbreak about every seventeen years, and that these outbreaks 
took place alternately at maxima and minima of sun-spots. Certainly the 
sun-spots coidd not have produced the cholera, for there was a great outbreak 
when the spots were very plentiful, and the next when they were very few. 



204 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



But that there was a connection I felt convhieed, and also, that they were 
both in the nature of effects. I suggested it, in a paper on the subject which 
I read before the Royal Historical Society, that the cause would probably be 
found in the influence of the planets, and in their aj^proach to the sun. There 
were minor outbreaks which I could not explain; but I felt sufficient confi- 
dence in my results to state (see Nature, May, 1872,) that, as there had been 
great outbreaks in 1816-17, 1832-4, 1848-50, 1865-7, we might confidently 
expect the next in 1883-4. I left the subject for seven years. Meanwhile I 
worked at the subject of sun-spots, and was rewarded by finding that the 
average period for these phenomena, for magnetic storms and for aurorse 
period was 11.9 years, the period of Jupiter's anomalistic year, and that these 
phenomena were always least when Jupiter was nearest to the sun. I then 
turned to terrestrial magnetism, and found that the needle of the compass, 
which at London was moving east up to 1580, and west till 1816, and east 
ever since, follows the movements of a strong magnetic pole, which Sir James 
Ross found in 1830 in Boothia, but which has now, I hold, traveled west to 
Prince Albert Land, and has moved at such a rate that it will comj^lete its revo- 
lution round the pole of the earth in about 500 years. On examining the accu- 
mulated evidence in regard to the dip of the needle, I found that the magnetic pole 
must be in the atmosphere over the place ■where it appears to be in the earth. 
In the midst of this work a little incident occurred which induced me to write 
to the registrar-general for the number of deaths in England for the last forty 
j'ears, which he kindly sent me. I immediately found that what I suspected 
was true — that the number of deaths in England was greatest, on an average 
over the whole period, every six years. I threw the numbers into the form of 
a cui-ve, and under it jjlaced the curve represented by Jupiter's orbit during 
the same period, and found that whenever Jupiter was at two points equally 
distant from his nearest point to the sun (corresponding to our September and 
March) the deaths in England were greatest. (A short paper on the subject 
will appear in the next number of the proceedings of the Statistical Society.) 
If this is true for England, it shoiUd be true for the death-rate of the Avorld. 
On examining the curve iov cholera over the w'orld, from 1816 to 1871, Avhich 
I drew out seven years ago, I found that this held good. I am at present 
engnged in examining the death-rate of the world for the last forty years, as 
far as possible. The outbreak of plague directed my attention to that subject. 
I examined a magnetic chart of the world, and found that the lines of no 
declination (i. e., the lines which indicate where the needle points to true 
North, and therefore the lines in which the greatest magnetic power is mani- 
fested) are advancing west, at the average rate of about one-seventh of a 
degree annually over the regions which are the present epidemic-stricken 
quarters of the globe — Russia, Persia, United States, Brazil, and Western 
Cliina. As the magnetic poles advance these lines advance, and epidemics on 
man ami beast accompany them. On calculating back, I find that the line 
which is now passing across Russia must have passed over that region 500 
years ago. This will take us back to the middle of the fourteenth century; 
and with similar magnetic conditions we have the same ei^idemic — the Black 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



205 



Death. We know tliat })lague devastated Europe more or less for the next 
two centuries, euhninatuig in the great plague of London in 1GG5, and 
curiously enough just at the time when a line of no declination was advancing 
over England. It occurred to me tliat Neptune might be the cause of the 
movement of the magnetic pole. On examining the movements of the planet 
in its orbit, I found that those of the needle varied in acconlance with those 
of that planet while it makes three revolutions. The magnetic poles make 
an eccentric circle round the pole of the earth; this eccentricity 1 found Mas 
due to some intluence at a maximum of about eighty years. On examining the 
movements and position of Uranus, I found that they were such as to account 
for the anonr.dy. I have fully detailed the subject in a jmper I sent to the 
Eoyal Astronomical (Society; they have announced it; whether they will have 
the courage to have it read is another matter. In conclusion, I would sav 
that within the next seven years there will hai)pcn that wliich has not 
happened for hundreds of years: all the planets at or near their near- 
est point to the sun about the same time. It is true of the earth that 
its magnetic intensity is greatest about the time when it is near the 
sun; the same is pi'obably true of all the jilanets; therefore. Me may 
exjject extraordinary magnetic phenomena during the next seven years, 
and great plagues, Mhich Mill manifest tiieinselves in all their intensity 
when Jupiter is about three years from his iierihclion — that is, in 1S83." 

La Roche admits that " electricity may, and no doubt does, act as an exciting 
cause by its excess, and as a predisjwjsing one sometimes, l>y this excess, and 
more frequently by its deticiency and modifications. In a M'ord, electricity 
may, by its excess or deficiency, operate on the system in a twof dd manner — 
as an exciting and as a predisposing agent; and may, besides, under jiarticnlar 
circumstances, promote the development of the efHcient cause of the disease 
Avhich an excess tends to neutralize. To all this no one can olject. But 
■\vhen we find medical Mritcrs, Mhile rejecting the idea of recognizing the 
existence of a separate and distinct poison for the several exanthemata, for 
influenza, for cholera, for each of the diflt'rent kinds of fever, for whooi^ing- 
cough, mumps, etc., and M'hile maintaining that an etiology so manifold can 
not be true, refer all these different and dissimilar diseases to various modi- 
fications of a single principle — electricity; when we find that fluid accused 
of -producing, in some occasions, scarlet fever, or small-pox, or measles, or 
typhoid, typhus, remittent, bilious, or yellow fever, or influenza, and at other 
times ordinary jihlegmasia; — the only reason of the difference being diversity 
of predispositions 'arising from a variety of circumstances existing in count- 
less condjinations and involving Mhole communities, or afiecting individuals 
only' — we must pause. The idea of referring scarlet fever, small-pox, and 
yellow fever to a little more or less electricity, can scarcely be acceptable to 
sound pathologists. Whatever may be the case Mith respect to other zymotic 
diseases, the idea of looking to electricity for the remote or ett'ective cause of 
the yellow fever is not tenaljle. . . . The disease is always the same, and 
must be produced every-M-here by the same cause. It is different from other 
diseases and must be produced by causes different from those v/hich give rise 



206 



A HISTORY OF THE TELLOW FEVER. 



to these. It can not, therefoi'e, be the product of a morbific agent, which can 
by no possibility produce it artificially, and which, supposing the assertion of 
the advocates of its agency to be correct, produces diseases of a dissimilar 
kind. Add to this, that this agent is always associated with modifications of 
heat, humidity, etc., each of which is entitled to the regard in estimating the 
degree of influence of febriferous causes." 



THE DEAD OF 1878. 



14 



(207) 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE. 



209 



THE DEAD OF 1878.* 



I. 

Tennessee — IMemphis. f 



Aug. IG. Ashe, Rnsa, w, Si'cond St. 

16. Allen, Eliza, w, Safl'araiis St. 

21. Anderson, child of Fiauk, w, 97 Com- 

meree St. 
21. Adonis, Morris, w. 
2:j. Anderson, August, w, 14"!^ Poplar St. 
24. Alexaniler, A , c. City Hospital. 
2ii. Anderson, .John, c, 2:i7 Dnnlap St. 

27. Able, R. H., w, Citv Hospital. 

28. Anderson, Willie, w, 148 I'oplar St, 
2«. Alexander, Maigiiret. e, ISS ( 'ovu t St. 

28. Alexander, Mrs. M., c. Court St. 

29. Aaron, William. 147 Washington St. 

30. Atkinson, Matilda, e. 

31. Allison, M. A., w. Orleans S'. 
31. Allen, James, c. Central Hotel. 

31. Atkinson, Ceo., \v, rear Cochran Hall. 
Sept. 2. Anderson, Lynus. 

2. Ames, Lewis 1)., w, Walker Ave. 

2. Anderson, Butler P , w, Grenada, Miss. 

2. Allen, Mary, w, lO'.l Madison St. 

2. Anderson, H., \v, Poplar St. 

2. Able, Gabrijl, Louisville, Kv. 

3. Ames, Willie J., w. Walker Ave. 

3. Allen, Mary, c, cor. Fifth it Looney Sts. 

4. Austin, Mrs. Ann, w, 5Sj^ Jetl'cr.soii St. 

5. Arsilli, E. 

.•i. Amandus, Brother, w. Market St. 
5. Archie, Andrew, c, cor Second & Keel Sts. 
Aiken, Mrs., \v, 4r>G Miiin St. 

5. Anderson, Ed., c, 209 Hernando St. 

r-i. A Iphonsa, Moilier,w, LuSalett.' Academy. 
(). Araeiga, Louis. 

C. Artluir, Fred , 29 Old Madison St. 

6. Austin. Wm. M., .VS'.-^ Jefferson St. 
0. Annum, .Martin, c, 380 Linden St. 

7. Atcliinson, Jose|ih H., w. 

7. Anderson, John, w, Pontotoc St. 
7. Anderson, MarthM, c, 270 Third St 
7. Atkinson, John, w, cor. Shelby & .South 
Sts. 

7. Armstrong, John, w, 317 Fnion St. 

8. Anderson, J. A., w, cor. Poplar ik Hupert 

St.s. 

8. Armstrong, Mrs. E. J. 
8. Armstin, J. A. G., w. 

8. A nstiu. Gracie, w. 

9. Atkins, Hnrrv, c, Clav St. 

9. Ashe, lilizi, c, 0.5 Elliott St. 

9. Arnold, Mr., w, ,")03 Main St. 

9. Anderson, Ilachel, c, Georgia St. 

y. Avery, Allen G , \v. Market St. Infirmary 
10. Adams, Hon. C. W., w. Union St. 
10. Anderson, Sarah N., w, Wiilker Ave. 
10. Anderson, Richard, Ravburn Ave. 
10. Allegins, P., cor. Third E.xchangeSts 
10. Alexander, E. G. 
10. Aaron, M. 

10. AUie, son of Mrs., 28', South St. 

11. Aminiett, J. J., w, Ad:ims St. 
11. Amom tt, Katie, w, Adams St. 
11. App, Katie, w, Jefferson St. 
11. Adare, Avery, Poplar St. 

11. Acklin, Samuel. 



Sept. 12. Avant, Dr. B. W., w, V.mcc St. 

12. Anderson, L. B.. c, Shelby County. 

12. Arnott, Katie, \v, Adams'St. 

13. Anderson, Mrs. BullerP., w, Hernando St. 
13. Austin, Jack, c, 191 Linuen St. 

13. Aner, A., w. 

13. Averv, c. Fourth St, 

14. Adams, Mr., Vance St. 

14. Arnold, Mrs,, w, .'■>03 Main St. 
14. Arnold, Bessie, w, .'iC3 Main St. 

14. Aaron, Mrs. C. J. 

1."). Anderson. Henrietta, \v. 

l,'i. App, Matilda, w. Second St. 

l.'i. Auguste, (,'ily Hospital. 

l.">. Antlii>ny. Laura, 317 Union St. 

15. Armstrong, Luna, w. Union St. 
15. Adams, Mr., w, Vance St. 

10. Allen, D. A., w, Madison St. 
10, Adams, R. R., w, Hernando St. 
10. Allcnsworth (child). 
10. Avers, 'I'honuis, w, 431 Slielbv St. 
10. Ailcn. Fred., w. City Hosiiital. 
iO. Arnold. Lcc, \v, .503 Main St. 
lii. Arnol.l, Willie, w, .503 Main Pt. 
10. Arnold. JIand, \v, .503 Main St. 
10. Arnold, Lidilie, w, 503 i'lain St. 
10. Atkins, Jerry, w. 
10, .Vniold, Bessie, w, 503 Main St. 
17. .\nder.son. Callie, c, cor. Keel & FrontSts. 
17. Ai hni.inn, Emma,w, cor. Fourth & Green- 
law Sts. 

17. Armstrong, Sarah, \v. Fort Pickering. 

IS. Ames, Mrs. Daniel, w. Walker Ave. 

l.s. Aaron, C. J. 

IK. Archie, c. 113 Pontotoc St. 

I'.i. Ames, Miss Mollic, w. Walker Ave. 

19. Acklin, Mrs., w, Raybnrn Ave. 

20. Anionctt, J. I , w, Adams St. 
20. Abberdie. Ma.ggie, w. 

20. Adams, Franklin, w, Jlarkcl St. Intirm'ry. 

20. Armstrong, Alfred, c, 379 Beale St. 

21. Armstrong, Dr. W. J., \v, AlalianuiSt. 
21. Allen, Laura, w, Chnich Home. 

21. Arft, Louis, \v. cor. Main & Carolina Sts. 

21. Adams, Geo H., c, Adams St. 

22. Allen. J. H. 

22. Anderson, Virgil, c. Lnue Ave. 

2.1. Auilerson. Daniel, c, R;iyburn Ave. 

23. Anderson, 0-car, w, 102 Linden SI. 
2:'.. Armstrong, W., w. City Hospital. 
25. Anderson, William. 

'.0. Amns. Mrs. A A., w, Jackson St. 
20. Allingham, J. S., w. Market St. Infirmary. 
20. Andeison, Charles. 
20. Atkinson. Martha, c. Union St. 
29. Arnold, ^rollle, w. Main St. 
Oct. 1. Atkins(]n,W. J., w, L( ath Orphan Asylum. 

1. Allen, Henry, c, Beaie St. 

1. Anderson, Xiartiu, w. County Jail. 

3, .'Vshc, Wm., w. near Church Home. 

5 Adams, Mrs. Lu,'V, w, Hernando Road. 

0. Allen, L M , w, Trigg Ave. 

.s. Anderson, J. W. Jsherilt ), w, Wright .\ve. 
10. Alkinsiin,Wni.,w, Leath Orphan Asylum. 



* Under this head there will be fnund authenticated lists of all who died of yelkw fever during the epi- 
demic of lS7t*. 

t w. stAuds for white and c. for colored. 



210 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEYEE. 



Oct. 12 Adams, Amiio, u-, McLean Ave. 

13. Armstrong, Bertlia, c, cor. Main & Gcnr- 

Kia Sis. 

14. Avciy. .Maji>r, w, Cane Creek, Shelby Co. 

14. Allen, \V. H., w, Bimlevard, Shelby Co. 
lb. Allen, Ellen, w, Poplar St. 

17. Alien, Mr., w, Poplar St. 

18. .\raia, Mrs. l^anra, w, Leo Ave. 

21. Adams, Geo., w, conntry." 

'24. Alston, F. I. F., c, Foi t PicUering. 
2.'). Alien, Mrs., w. Poplar St. 
2i>. Austin, Ran., w, B i\ilevard. 
2G. .^dams, Ben., \v, Clay St. 
Nov. 5. Anderson, Hannah. 

8. Adams, Aaron, e, K.Kchango St. 

15. Arzeno, Mrs Eliza, w, Mulberry St. 

19. Arzeno, Alexander, w, MnlOerry St. 
26. Arzeno, Nellie, w, Alulberry St. 

Aug. 1:-!. Bionda, Kate, w, Front .St '■■ 
15. Bjrgman, .Geo., w, Poplar St. 
17. Blum, M. 

17. Bailey, 242 Monroe St. 

17- BerusliicUer, .L, w. Main St. 

18. Bernhardt, Mrs., w, l.j8 Poplar St. 

ly. Banksmith, Minor, w, 3 Howard's Row. 
I'J. Burke, Thomas, \v. 

I'J. Burks, Homan, cor. Beale St. & (,'harle.s- 
ton R. R. 

19. Brown, Ada, w, 158 Wa.shington St. 

20. B'.oomlield, Morris, w, cor. Poplar i High 

Sts. 

20. B;illow, Julia N. 

20. Bullock, Ellen, Watson PI., Shelby Co. 

22. Ballon, Johnnie, Woods Ave. 
22. Ba.xter, Mollie, w, Madison St. 
22. Berger, Doc, e, 11 Alabama St. 

22. Burton, Philip, c. 

23. Breman, John, w, 132}-^ Main St. 
23. Byrne, J. W , w, Georgia St. 

23. Biirges, Maggie, w, Alabama St. 

24. Brown. Dixie J., w, Fifth St., Fort Pick- 

ering. 

24. Bannon, John, w, 132 Main St. 
2-'). Berry, Mr^. S. E., w. City Ho.spital. 
20. Beale, August, w, ISO Poplar Si. 
26. Barton, Ada, w, Raleigh Road. 

26. Bell, Mary Bettie, w, 3« Johnson Ave. 

27. Bell, Mrs. Annie, w, Adams St. 
27. Brew, Mike, w, Overton St. 

27. Bitterman, Mrs., w, 123 E.\changeSt. 
27. Bji-gman, Miss Mary, w, 29 Beale St. 

27. Bronson, James, Orleans .St. 

2H. Bitterman, Mrs. H., w, 123 E.\change St. 

28. Barnett, C. M. 

28. Bui chert, J., w, JFain .St. 
28. Borg, James J., w, High St. 
28. Bell, Maria, Adams St. 

28. Biirchett, Jlrs., \v, Manassas St. 

29. Badinella, Antoine, w, 21 GosleeSt. 
29. Bitterman, Is;iac, w, 123 Exchange St. 
29. B.iiiey, Mary, w. Third St. 

29. Brennan, Mrs. Katie, w. Auction St. 

29. Bokel, Rev. John A., Jr., w, St. Peter's. 

20. Barbee, MoUie, w, 89 Main St. 

29. Baker, Charles, w, Vance St. 

29. Banks, David, City Hospital. 

29. Bowles, Maggie, c, Humphrey St. 

29. Bantley, George, County Poor House. 

29. Baker, Wjlliam, 133 South St. 

30. Borg, Katie, w. 

30. R'uker, J. B., w, 69 Jeff rson St. 
30. Bostwick, J. L., w, Brinkley Ave. 
.30. Bedford, George J., w, Carroll Ave. 
30. Berry, James, City Hospiial. 
30. Brown, Tom, Citv Hospital. 
30. Bohen, William, 13.j South St. 
30. Bradley, P. O., \v, cor. Auction St. and 
Raleigh Road. 

30. Brady, Mrs. Martha, w, cor. Auction and 

Seventh Sts. 

31. Burks, Bill, e, al'.ev, bet. Winchester & 

Third Sts 
31. Brantner, John, w, 2S Third St. 
Sept. 1. Bussea, Peter, (iayoso House. 
1. B'lyee, Josephiu '. 

1. Birding, GooJmnn, c. Commerce St. 

2. Buehl, John, \v, Bass Ave. 



Sept. 2. Brinkley, Jlary, c, 102 Front St 
2. Burns Oscar. 

2. Bassev, Mollie, 3 North Jackson St. 

2. Butler, W.T., w, City Hospital. 

2. Breunaii, John, City Hospital. 

"2. Bernard, E. II, \v, 22 A' l-rySt. 

2. Bornadin. Sister, w. La Salette Academy. 

2. Bisman, Heiir.v, Poplar St. Boulevard. 

2. Barnes, Win. C, \v. Fifth St. 

,3. Barron, Ellen, w, Winchester St. 

3. Barnes, Sarah, w, Monroe St. 

3. Bock, Isadore, w, Cily Hospital. 
3. Brown, Wash , 64 Johnson Ave. 

3. Bruns, Robert, w, 14 Adams St. 

4. Brown, G. W., 64 Johnson Ave. 

4. Bonier, Carrie, w, 161 Pontotoc St. 

4. Burnes, Thomas, w. Main St. 

4. Bruns, Mrs. Rebecca, \v, Adams St. 

4. Barton, Joseph, c, 166 Moseby St. 

4. Barron, Maggie, Winchester St. 

4. Brol;er, Mrs., 39 Jones Ave. 

4. Bailey, Robert, w, 35 Third St. 

4. B liley, Gl Concord St. 

4. Bowks, Jennie, c, 40 Causey St. 

4 Brown, Lucy, c City Hospital. 

4. Birber, I., w. Market St. Infirmary. 

4. Bruns, Mrs. Rebei ea, w, 14 Adama St. 

5. Beardon, VVm., City Hospital. 
'i. Bruns, Mike, \v, Citv Hospital. 
5. Bund, Planter, Mill St. 

5. Beauiord, Miss, c, De Soto St. 
5. Boyd, Jack, City Hospital. 

5 Beilin, Addie, cor. Beale & Hernando Sts. 
5. Byrd, Mike, w. Market St. Infirmary. 

5. Brown, E. A., c, 112 Jetl'erson St. 
5. Biggers, W. L., w, City Hospital. 
5. Beaehmont, Pierre, \v, Madison St. 
5. Borner, John, w, Pontotoc St. 
5. Bronson. Charles, c. Madison St. 
5. Barnes, Corinne. 
5. Bowman. B. F., Ft. Pickering. 
5. Briggs, W. L., City Hospital. 

5. Baum, Elenora, w. Poplar St. 

G. Burke, Thomas, w, 61 Exchange St., ex- 
tended. 

6. Briguidello, Angelo, w. Navy Yard. 
6. Bennett, Charles, \v, Robeson St. 

6. Burns, J. A., e. Short Third St. 
6. Bender. Fred., w, 77 Jack.son St. 
6. Black, Katie, 15 St. Martin St. 
6. Burke, Mr. Wm., \v, 61 Exchange St., ex- 
tended. 

6. Burke, Margaret, w, 61 Exchange St., ex- 
tended. 

G. Beardon, William. Citv Hospital. 
6, Boyd, Jack, City Hospital. 
6. Burke, Mike, w. Causey St. 

6. Brady, Thos., w. Poplar St. 

7. Boweu, Nannie, Horn Lake Road. 
7. Burns. Melinda, Short Third St. 

7. Bowden, Karvey, w, flat-boat (Wolf 
River). 

7. Brocher, Ernest, w. Market St. Infirmary. 

7. Brame, J. R., Citv Hospital. 

7. Bell, Mr., 17 Hernando St. 

7. Beavers, M. J., w, Mosebv Ave. 

7. Burns, Julia, Short Tliird St. 

8. Brown, Emma, w. 

8. Bear, Angus, 129 Dniilap St. 

8. Boyd, Joe, w, 1 Beale St. 

8. Bell, Mrs. M. E., w, 178X. Front St. 

8. Bows, Caroline, 99 Third" St. 

8. Balonieney, Mike, w, cor. Orleans and 

Lauderdale Sts. 
8. Balfour, John, w. City Hospital. 
8. Bvman, William, c, 2-59 Union St. 
8. Bay, Mitchell, Front St. 
8 Brooks, iNIrs. Maria L., \v. 

8. ]5iggs, Mrs. E. ('., cor. Beale A- Second Sts. 

9. Blauz. (.narenee, w. Linden St. 
9. Boss, Peter G., w, Beale St. 

9. Bosehnan, E., w, Adams St. 

9. Blaekbnrne, Rob't, c, 4 Winchester St. 

9. Balger, James, w,cor. Market it Main Sts. 

9. Brown, Andrew, e, 1-14 D.- Soto St. 

9. Bradford, Mrs., w, 703 Main St. 

9. Boyd, Gus. B., w. 



Tliis was the first case reported to or by the Board of Healtli. 



A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



211 



Bept. 9. Birncs, Caroline, c, Tliird St. 

!). liiacic. Jaint'S, w. 

1). Burrows, Dr., \v, 133 Main St. 
10. Hnrlcf, Mrs. L L. 
10. H my. .\ti.stin, Thinl Sf. 
10. liini, Jiiliu. w. Market St. Infirmarv. 
10. liovd, .M., 'j:;i Vaiicp Si. 
10. I'.raillord, li. B., w, 703 ^raiu St. 
10. liosji, I'eter, \v, 22 Bas.s Ave. 
10. Bry.^dii, Tlios.. w. 170 Main St. 
10 Hovlaii, Marv, Wailcer Ave. 
10. Bovd, Fred.,'c, llll Elliott St. 
10. Blair, Hattie. e, rear H Main St. 
10. Brawuer. .1. H., w, Seeoiul St. 
10. liurnes, Adolpli. 

10 BostwicI;, Willie. 

10. Brandon. 2.'iO Second St 

10. Boltdu, Thos. C, w, Camp Burke. 

11. liurk, Kmnia, 190 Alaljama St. 
11. ]5rit. Mary, e, Hnpert Ave. 

11. Bennett, Mrs. De Gray, w, cor. Second A 

Mill Sts. 
11. Burk. Matilda. Bradford St. 
11. Br.idlord. Blanche, 703 Main St. 
11. Bi-vin.s, Fannie M., Moseby St. 
11. Burk, .letf., w. 

11 Boia, Daisv, c, Monroe St. 

11. Busliev, H. L., w. Market St. Infirmarv. 

12. Boss, L., c, 44 Causey St. 

12. Broiilnax, Bishop, cor. Auction and 

Fourth Sts. 
12. Bush, Wni , c. 344 Second St. 
12. B.iei-iualuiipo, Joseph, w, BealeSt. 
12. Bradford, (feo., w, 703 Main St. 
12. Bravvner, Koh't, \v, Second St. 
12. Brown, Mrs. J., w, Dunlap St. 
12. Banniici;, C. E. 
12. Barlier.'Matilda, c, Broadway St. 
12. Brcjwn. Phil. 

12. Best, Thos., w, O'ynipic Park. 
12. Bader, Wm.. c, Citv Hospital. 

12. liurkins, Arthur, c, Third St. 

13. Burk, Ja<'k.son. 

13. Barnes, A., w, Monroe St. 
13. Burne.s, Pat 

13. Brown, Margaret D. L., w, Chelsea. 

13. Bosji, MaR-ie, w. 22 Bass Ave. 

13. Burns. Daw, c, S lort 'I'hird St. 

13. liailev (chihl), c, 70 North Jackson St. 

13. Baker. Wm., City llosp tal. 

13. Bell, Jacob, Kandolpii Road. 

13 Buckner, Alice. 

13. Buckner, Hannah. 

14. Bjnnins, Francis, cor. Tennessee and 

Vance Sts. 
14. Burr, Henry, c, 17.') Madison St. 
14. Boystic, Isaac, w, IMarket St. Infirmary. 
14. liurtinner, Chas.,w, Market St. Infirmary. 

14 Brown, Henry, w, MarkelSt. Infirmary." 
14. Brithucv, II. S., w. Market St. Infirmarv. 
14. Black, Chas., City Hospital. 

14 Barker, Mrs L., w. Hernando Road. 

14. Burton, Silas, c, cor. Main & Linden Sts. 

14. Boyle, A. W.,w, 22 B.iss Ave. 

14. Brinklev, Maria. 

14. Badeneila, Celesta, w, 1.S2 Beale St. 

14. Bailev. Charles. 

14. Belte, Jacob. 

14- Burgner. Fred., w. 39 Madison St. 
14. Buckei, H. W., w, 30 Madison St. 
14. Ballinger. C, w. Walnut St. 
14. Bailev, Valentine. 
14. Bostwiek. J. M. 

14. Brown, Mrs. P. P., w, GO)-^ Bcale St. 
14. Beck, Ct. H., w. 
14. Bowen, W. G., w. 

14. Brown, Bob, c, Ruth St. 
lr>. Becker, (i. H., Jr.. w. 

l."i. Brooks, Wm., w. factorv lot, Chelsea. 

1.^. Butler. Ed., w, Gholson St 

1.1. Brown, Sam., w, City Hos))ital. 

1.5. Berrgin, Annie, w, 410 BealeSt. 

1-"). Burnes, Albert, w, Monroe St, 

1."). Butler, Ed. 

V}. Blew, R W., w, cor. Wellington & Vance 
SLs. 

1.1. .Blackmore, L. W., w. 
In. Belford. Hatniali, w. 

15. Burgess, Annie, w, 410 B;'alc St. 



Sept. IC. Bricss, IT. H., w, Kerr Ave. 
10. Bnllock, Mrs. C. 
10 Barlow, J. W. 

111. Bond, Dr. T. W., w, Court St. Infirmarv. 
10. Ballena, Henry, Ft. Pickerin;,'. 
10. Bell, Cow Island Road, Shelbv Countv. 
Hi. Bond, Henry, w, Randuii>ii Road. 
10. Barnes, Charles, w. 
10. Ballard (child of JimV 
1(1 B.icher, w. La Saletie .'icndemv. 
10. Biirke, Andrew, w. City HfKpital. 
li;. Bolen Andrew, w, fo(it'of Jackson St. 
]('). Buckner. Wm. w. faciorv lot, Second St. 
10. Brennen, Ellis, 2( 0 Ell iol't St. 
10. B'.rgen, Frank, w, 410 Beale St. 
10. Blew, Robert, w. cor. Wellington and 
A'ance Sis. 

10. Blew, Mrs. R. W., w, cor. Wellington and 
Vance Sts. 

10. Blew, Willie, w, cor. Wellington and 
Vance Sis. 

10. Blew, Z:ila. w, cor. Wellington and Vance 
Sts. 

10. Beniandine, Sister, w. 
10. Brown, Elli.s, w. 
17. Brautz, Henry, w. City Hospital. 
17. Barnes, A., w. City Hospital. 
17. Brown, Katie, <j, near brick church 
(Chelsea). 

17. Berkin, Caroline, c, Hernand(j ami Beale 
Sts. 

17. Brown. Hatlie.c.cor.Beale & Divorce Ave. 

17. Bli.s.s, Mrs. Mary K., lol Broadway. 

17. Brown. I^cwis, w, Wellingtiai St. 

17. Baker. Martha. 

]7. Pairnes, Lewis, w. Henry Ave. 

17. Bridgeford, Nancy, w, cor. Ecliols and 

Vance Sts. 
17. Baccigaluppo, Vincent. 
17. Banksniith. Dr. R. H.. w. Court St. 

17. Barton, J. W., w. Front St. 

is. Brooks, Mrs. R. E., w, Puiyburn Ave. 
l.l. Barsman, .Sillie. 

'ix. Bankson. Dr. J. S.,w. Crurt St. Infirmarv. 

1 1 !ro( iks, E| .p. ,C( a-. I ubois .\.ve. & Middle .'-it. 

IS. Balew, w, Citv Hospital. 

IS. Brcles, Robert, c, 13 Mulberry St. 

IS. Barnes, Anna, Citv Hospital. 

],s. Buddinella, O. A.! 102 BealeSt. 

IS. Blew, Janies.cor.Wcllin'.;ton i Vance Sts. 

IS. Burke, Thomas, w, Charleston Railroad. 

IS. Badiknelli, David, w, 12 Goslee St. 

IS. Brown, l'"aunie. 

18. Bailie, Jlrs. Frederikn, w, Adams St. 
IS. Brown. Henry, c, Causey St. 

IS. Brown, Daniel, c, Ciuiscy St. 
IS Brown, E., c. Central Point. 

19. Brown, Hiiliard, w, Cam'.ina St. 
19. Banks, Matilda, S<jiitli St. 

19. Brown, Col. A. S., w, Dunlap St. 
19. Brooks, Mat., c. Linden St. Infirmary. 
19. Brooks, Susan, c, cor. Jlulberry and Hnl- 
ingSt. 

19. Brown, Henry, c, Carolina St. 

19. Breckenridge,' W., w, cor. Hernando and 

Elliott Sts. 
19. Bant, Tild.a, c, South St. 
19. Barker, Hattie, w, 200 Second St. 

19. Belford (child of Maggie), c. Court St. 

20. Bush, John, e, cor. Poplar & Waldron Sts. 
20. Beavers. Nora, w, Moseby Ave. 

20. Byrd, William, c. City Hospital. 
20. B irnes, Tliomas, w. City Hospital. 
20. Bowht, Rcscord, JIarket St. Infirmary. 
20. Black, R. E., w. Poplar St. 
20. Brown, John, 73 De Soto St. 
20. Bernard, Henry, w, Beale St. 
20. Barnes, son of R.W., w, New Raleigh R'd. 
20. Bohu", Rishora, w, cor. Houston and 
Tennessee Sts. 

20. Brown, Mrs. Annie, c, Gnyoso St. 

21. Brown, Lucien, w. 

21. Bidi-'cr, Jfrs. Caroline, w. 
21. Beattie. John, w. Union Ave. 

21. Bacon. Thomas,w,rnion Ave. 

22. Burke, Mrs., w, .South St. 

22. B ic ig iluppo.Mrs.Vincent.w, Union Ave. 
22. Blinso. J. H., w. Market St. Infirmary. 
22. B.iss, T. C, w, Market St. Infirmary. 



212 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



Sept. 22. BIanche,c,Brinkley's Woods, Raleigh E'd. 

22. Iiorden, Annie Lon., w. 

23. Brooks, Charles C, w. 

2 !. Burrell, c, 141 Vance St. 

24. Boisseau, J. C. 

24. Booth, Mrs. Sarah. 

21. BL'rnard, Henry, Jr., w, Beale St. 

24. Hacoigaluppo, Mary A., w. Union Ave. 

24. Burke, A. A., w, Jackson St. 

21. Burcham, Dr. R., \v, Main St. 

24. Brown, Lewis, c, 51» Elliott St. 

24 Bernard, H. H , w, 187 Beale St. 

24. Boisseau. D. R, w, Shelby St. 

24. Borden, Luthe,', w. 

2.5. Beard, J. H., Cleveland, Ohio. 

25. Bans, LL'ttie, 231 South St. 

2o. Brown, Mary, Randolph Road. 

2b. Britton, Robert, Jr., w, Waldron Ave. 

2'i. Britton, Robert, Sr., w, Waldron Ave. 

2.5. Borden, Willie Webb, w. 

2(1. Bowers, Nancv, w, Bealc St. 

26. Brigas, James T. 

26. Barfinger (child of I). 
26. Bluhni, Julius. 

26. BalUnu'er, Mrs. C, w. Walker Ave. 
26. Bowers, Nancv, 447 Bealc St. 
26. Bradford, Ellen, w, Citv Hospital. 
26. Hlackvvell, Frank, w. Spring St. 
26. Baker, Augu.ste,w, j mile toll-gatc,Sholby 
Countv. 

26. Blakcmore, W. J., w, Elliott St. 

27. Burton, John. 

27. Biggs, G. L., Court St. Infirmary. 
27. Btnevi^:l, A. 

27. Brass, Frank.w, cor. Walker & Second Sts. 
27. Brown, D. 

27. Brass, ,\nnie,w, cor. AValker <S: Second Sts. 

27. Brass, Fannie, w, cor. Fourth and Georgia 

Sts. 

2S. Barton, G. W. 

28. Bennett, M., w, cor. Broadway and Sec- 

ond Sts. 

28. Boyd, Charles, w. City Hospital. 

29. Burke, A. A., Jr , w, Jackson St. 
29. Botts, Mrs. Teddic, w, Union Ave. 
29. Birdie, c, Henry Ave. 

29. Blew, Maggie, w, cor. Wellington and 

Vance Sts. 
29. Bernstein, A. 

29. Butler, George, w, cor. Gayoso and De- 
Soto Sts. 

29. Burke, H. M., Court St. Infirmary. 

30. Butler, William. 
30. Biilev, Alice. 
30. Ballcin, John C. 

30. Burke. Kate, w, cor. Fifth <t Gholson Sts. 
30. BossicUe, Mrs. Sallie. 
30 Brady, Miry, w. Shelby County. 
30. Biilev, Al'riea, c, Carolina St. 
Oct. 1. Bair, B illette. 

1. Brass, George, w. Second St. 

1. Brown, Mrs. Jacob, w. 

1. Brown, Emma, c. Union .Vve. 

1. Browii, .\.ggie, c, 394 Dc Soto St. 

1. Brown, Jacob, w, 107 Wellington St. 

2. Brinkmau, Minnie, w, Jackson St. 

2. Byrne, John C, w, Market St. Infirmary. 

2. Burns, Edward, w, Hernando Road. 

3. Brown, Charles M., w, Valentine Ave. 
o. Blake, N., c, 217 Hernando St. 

3. Blautz, John, Market St. Infirmary. 

4. Boolh, James, w. Walker Ave. 
4. Ballick, B., c, Pop'.ar St. 

4. Briggs, Robert, w. Second St. 

4. Borden, Elm i Wood, w. 

5. Briggs, Mr., w, Carolina St. 

6. Brown, E., c, cor. Fourth it Jackson Sts. 
6. Burne, Annie, w, Georgia St. 

6. Bucliignani. T., w, Raleigh Road. 

7. Brown, P. M., w, Madison SI. 

7. Burleson, Mrs. M. J., w. State Female Col- 

lege. 

.s. Boyle, son of Henry, w, Vance St. 

8. Burke, Michael, w, Manassas St. 

8. Barton, Geo., c. Fourth St. 

S. Bartholomew, Dr.O.D..w, HcmandoRoad. 

9. Brock, Mrs. A., w. Poplar St. 

9. Brown, Nettie, c, City Hospital. 

9. Barker, Mrs. S. L., w,' :0.5 Robinson St. 



Oct. 9. Barnard, A., w. 

10. Bennett, Mary, w, Vance St. 

10. Britton, Mrs.'Robert, w, Waldron Ave. 

10. Brearton, James, w,. Junes Ave. 

10. Brearton, Katie, w, Jones Ave. 
111. Billar, Jasper, w. Country. 

11. Brooks, Bvron, v, Chelsea. 
11. Belcher. La Rose .St. 

11. Bacon, Liddie, w. Quinby St. 
11. Brock, A., w. Poplar St. 

11. Brochvogel, Wm , w. Fifth St. 

12. Bandy, J. F., w, Horn Lake Road. 
12. Barnetl, Betsey, c, Carr Ave. 

12. Blankenbnrg, Wm., w. Central Ave. 

12. B(jwen, Alexander, w, Mostby St. 

13. Krennan, Thomas, w. No. 1 Engine. 

13. Brown, Millie, c, Broadway St. 

14. Baker, Cluirles, c. Old Raleigh Road. 
14. Buck, Jlrs. Caroline, w. Poplar St. 

14. Burke, Mary E., w, Sonlh Jiiek.son St. 
13. Brochvogel, Wm., w, GcoigiaSt. 

15. Body, Van, w, Union Ave. 

15. Ball. Mary Lee, w, Fort Pickering. 

15. Burke. Mrs. C., \v, Manassas St. 

16. Eehuns, George, w-, Breedlove Ave. 

16. Brown, Jelf., c, Erbs' PI., Hernando Road. 

16. Brown, child ot Francis, c, 115 Butler St. 
16 Bcthney. Jim, w, Connly Jail. 

17. Bovd, Willie, c. State Female College. 

18. Bailev, Mrs. Kate, w, Horn Lake Road. 

19. Brown, A. W., c, Georgia St. 

20. Brock, Arthur, w. City Hospital.. 

21. Brown, Henry, w, Cenlral Ave. 
21. Burns, Willie, w, Overton Point. 

21. Bisman, Cliarles, w, Hujipers Ave. 

22. Brooks, C. B., w, cor. Keel it Fifth Sts. 

23. Black, Henrv, w. Slate Female College. 

23. Ball, Willie, c. Front St. 

24. Biickhaller, Julia, w, Chelsea. 
24. Bcrrv, Mrs. C. J . w. Boulevard. 

24. Bodell, Mr., w, Elmwood. 

25. Burke, B., w. City Hospital. 
23. Barr. C. H., \v, Hernando St. 
2.1. Beehn, Kate L., w. Country. 

26. Btihn, Katie Leonora. 

26. Brock, Bessie £., w, St. Peter's Orphan 
Asylum. 

28. Bender, L., w, Braden Station. 

,30. Belle, child of Annie, c, tor. Georgia & 

Shelbv Sts. 
00. Botto, John V., w, Vance St. 
Nov. 2. Brizzolara, James, w, Beale St. 

2. Brown, Irwin, c. Front St 

3. Biisch, Mary F., w, Mosebv St. 

3. Bofiza, Adoiph, w. City Hospital. 

3. Bnrk, Michael, w. Front St. 

4. Breen, Maggie, w. Union Ave. 
4. Bolton, BeVnie. w. Main St. 

9. Buchigiiani, Mrs M., w. Beale St. 
9. Bingham, Mary D., w, Dnnlap St. 
10. Biimmcl, Geo., w, Marley Ave. 
It. lirunner. Alice, w, Leath Orphan Asylum. 
17. Burnes, .lane, c. 
Aug. 12. tUarke, son of G. B., 210 Front St. 
13. Coleman, Giistave A., w. 
13. Crohn, Hattie, w. 
1.5. Cairns, J. G. 

16. Cook, Mrs. C. II., w, Pontotoc St. 
19. Caruthers, Cheney, c. 

19. Cohn, Jacob, City Hospital. 

20. Clarke, Mrs. Margaret, Poplar St. 
20. Craig, Sam., c. 

20. Cheek, Philip M.. w. 

21. Clavton, .loe, 167 Fourth St. 

22. Craig, Sam., w, 102 Front St. 
22. Cioyd, Thomas S., w. 

22. Cannon, Mike, w. Front St. 

22. Cole, Mrs. Rachel, w, 113 Market St. 

22. Clemmons, H. S., w, 23 Alabama St. 

23. Cunningham, M. J., w, Alabama St. 
23, Cornier, Ben., c, Looncy Swit<4i. 

23. Conlin, John, w, Citv Hospital. 

23. Child, 101 Second St. 

25. Cook, Eddie, c, Stewart Ave. 

25. Cunepo, Mrs. Mary. 

23. Clarke, Harry, w, Charleston Ave. 

2.3. Cole, Gertrude, w, 115 Market St. 

25. Cleary, Lucy, 34 St. Martin St. 

25. Cleary, Mrs. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



213 



Aug. 27. Clnircli, C. H., w, Rolnnson St. 
■2S. Campbell, Willie. 
28. Cummings, Maggie, w, Causey St. 
28. Conliii, Maggie, w, City Hospital. 
2.S. Carey, James, w, 3(i Bradford St. 
28. Cumniiiigs, Mrs. Mary, 39>^ Causey St. 
28. Campbell, William, c, l.'>6Beak' St. 
28. Cooper, Amelia, e, 121 Washington St. 
28. Cole, Stella, w, IW Market St 
28. Crane, Charles, w, Min-ket .Square. 

28. Crisbon, Eliza, c. Linden St. 

29. Crocker, Fritz, 35 Jones Ave. 
29. Clarke, Eliza. 

29. Cunev, James, w, Dunlap St. 
29. Cobb; Eli, c, 77 Hill St. 
29. Cole, R., w, IIM Market St. 
29. Connelly, Tim., 137 Duulap St. 
29. Cook, Peyton, 130 Madison St. 
29. Calhoun, N. A., 133 Exchange St. 
29. Clemens, Henry. 
29. Chandler, J. F., w, Monroe St. 
■ 31. Coyle, Mrs. Mary, w, Madison St. 
31. Connelly, Jane, 137 Dunlap St. 
31. Calhoun, Mrs. 

31. Chambers, Sallie, c, IG}^ Causey St. 
Sept. 1. Congrcla, Bowman, Poplar St. 
1. Cook, Adam, c, Marshal Ave. 
1. Cliirke, Annie, BealeSt. 
1. Chapman, Mrs. B. N., w. Poplar St. 
1. Cicella, Paul, w, cor. Main A: Washington 
Sts. 

1. Curat, Celia. 

1. Cain, J. E., w, Memphis& Charleston R.R. 
1. Caulfeld, Roman, vv, Poplar St. 
1. Curr, J. E., City Hospital. 

1. Comba, F., w. Camp Father Mathew. 

2. Consadine, Jolin, w, Valentine Ave. 
2. Cleveland, P. \V., w , Poplar St. 

2. Cairns, Julia R., w. 
2. Chalmers, Verona. 
2. Clarke, Anna. 

2. Connelly, Kate, 137 Dunlap St. 

2. Carr. Ann. 

2. Cummings, J. J. 

2. Cook, Ellen, c, 14 Adams St. 

2. Collar, Miss, 172 Poplar St. 

2. Conehela, T. J., Ciiv Hospital. 

2. Conrad, 1.30 Madison St. 

■2. Cook, Ellen, 14 Adams St. 

2. Cleaverton, VV. T., 92 Poplar St. 

2. Cane, F., w. City Hospital. 

3. Ciunetla, Cerolia, w, 233 Washington St. 
3. Cooler, Harriet, 5.5 Winchester St. 

3. Crocker, ^frs. w, 43 Jones Ave. 

S. Chinaman, oor. Main & Poplar Sts. 

S. Cole, Harriet, Winchester St. 

S. Cook, Michael, w, 4 High St. 

3. Coleman, CiiUen, .3(19 Pontotoc St. 

3. Cenles, Dennis, Dunlap St. 

3 Cicalla, Mrs. N., w, Shelliy St. 

3. Cairns, Mary D., w, 125 .\labamaSt. 

3. Cainevern, Alice, w, Vance St. 

3. Callahan, .Tohn, \v. Second St. 

3. Collins, Miss, w. Poplar St. 

4. Carlisle. Eliz ibcth, w, 217 Alabama St. 
4. Connelly, Dennix, w, 137 Dunlap St. 

4. Clarke. Barney, w. City Hospital. 
4. Crossette, C. C., w. City Hospital. 
4. Corrigan, Mike, w. City Hospital. 
4. Crogan, D . w. Second St- 

4. Callahan, Sister Rose,.w, La Salette Acad- 

emy. 

.'). Cau.sey, Laura, Alabama St. 
.'). Coyle, P. J , w. City Hospital. 

5. Carleston, Chas., City Hospital. 
5. Cook, David, Jackson St. 

5. Cunesse, John. 

5. Crook, U. W. L., w, Adams St. 

6. Cummins, Ale-x., w. Market St. 
C. <-'ronin. John, w, Georgia .St. 

C. Cummins, Capt. Jolin, w, 178 Robinson St. 
C. Conners, Mike, 61 Exchange St. 
6. Crittenden, Mrs.J. A., Whitehaven, Shelby 
Coil n ty . 

6. Clogston, \., Second St., Ft. Pickering. 
6. Causey, Laura, cor. Second and Alabama 
Sts. 

6. Childress, John, c, 70 Vance St. 
C. Crawford, .Sallie, c, 208 Dunlap St. 



Sept. 0. Comba, John, w. Camp Father Mathew. 
7. Chalmers, Charity, c, 33 Avery St. 
7. Clarke, Charley, c, Chelsea St. 
7. Cruikshank, James, w. 
7. Carter, Grade. 
7. Cronin, John, w, Georgia St. 

7. Cummins, Alex., w. Market St. 

8. Cathcy, Bettic, c, 37>i Commerce St. 
8. Connelly, Mary, w. Poplar St. 

8. Cleary, .Mike, cor.Thirdtt Van Buren Sts. 
8. Clearv (child of Mike). 

8. Calloway, Elsie, c. 

9. Cook, A. F. C, w, Orleans St. 
9. Castillo, Mike C, w, Court St. 
9. Constance, Sister, w. 

9. Cleary, Conn, Ft. Pickering. 
9. Cook, Mrs. W., w, 170 South St. 
9. Camp, William, c, l.SO Commerce St. 
9. Cole, Alice, Hatchie River Bridge, Second 
St. 

9. Coleman, S., w. 

9. Crefiril, J., w. 
9. ('ernes, H., c. 

10. Conners, Pat , w. Front St. 

10. Crowin, Tom, w, 448 Poplar St. 

10. Carrie, Mrs., 18 Avery St. 

10. Crutchen, Rubina, c, 89 Gayoso St. 

10. Countcs.s, Beckie, c, cor. Mill & Main Sts. 

10. Cobb, Henry. 

10. Coleman, Benj. 

10. Cancpo, Jennie, w, 41 Causey St. 

10. Cook, S. D., w, Shelby St. 

10. Cole, Frederick, w, 09 Adams St. 

10. Chandler, William, w. Main St. 

10. Connelly, John J., w, Madison St. 

11. Comstock, C'. M. 

11. Cleary, Mike. 

11. Cunningham, Lavina, e, cor. Jack.son & 

Jliiin Sts. 
11. Crosby, Mahala, c, 372 Union St. 
11. CarlLs'le, 2:> Ravburn Ave. 
11. Criclcs, Kitly, c. Poplar St. 
11. C;issonella, Miss, cor. Seventh & Alabama 

Sis., Ft. Pickering. 
11. Cox. Williiim, Ba^s Ave. 
11. Cru.se, S. P., 242 Old Raleigh Road. 
11. Carr, James, 375 Linden St. 
11. Conner, Jivmes. 
11. <-ardell, John, Taylor St. 
11. Cook, Annie, Man.siou House. 
11. C(ainer, Mrs. C, w, BealeSt. 
11. ciirry, Dan., c. City Hospital. 

11. <'roto, A. 

12. Cobb, George, 249 Union St. 
12. C'rissie, 44 Allen Ave. 

12. Carson, Peter, w, 9 Memphis & Charles- 
ton U. R. 
12. Crowder, Miss, Navy Yard. 
12. Carr, T. J., w, Market St. Infirmary. 
12. Cahope, Ed. 
12. Cutting, B. N., w. Main St. 
12. Clements, T. F. O., w, Hernando St. 
12. Crowder (child of Mrs.), \v. Navy Yard. 
12. Coleman, E..C, Union St. 

12. Coleman. Cally, c, Pontotoc St. 

13. Coe. L. H., w. Linden St. 
13 Clarv. Joe. w, Gavoso St. 

13 ("larv, Mike, w, factory lot. South Mill,; St. 
13. Charles, c. Mill St. 

13. Cummin.s, Yansey, c. 

13. Crawford Stephen, c. 

1-1. Cheek, G. A., w, ieVi North Court St. 

14. Carmichael, Mrs., \v, 200 Second St. 

14 Codv, Alex., c, cor. Hernando &. Vance 

Sts. 

14. Cole, George, City Hospital. 
14. Castillo, Belinda, near Elmwood. 
14. Conntee, Ike, c, cor. Mill & Main Sts. 
14. Cooper, Tlios-, c, 20 Orleans St. 

14. Celite, Johoe, w, Randolph Road. 
1.5. Cleary, M., w, Carolina St. 

15. Cleaves, E. L., w. 
15. Clarke, H , w. 

15. Ca.sterilli, Joseph, w, cor. Seventh and 

Alabama Sts. 
15. Cutter, John, w, Peabody Hotel. 
15. Corev, W. H., w. Market St. Infirmary. 
15. Coates, Almon, \v. Woolen Mills, Fort 

Pickering. 



214 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Sept. 15. Carter, Jackson, -w, 1.3] Beale St. 
1.5. Colton, Pat., 17 Jackson St. 
15. Callahan, Lizzie, cor. Second <fe Bickforcl 
Sts. 

15. Crawford, Cyntliia. 
15. Conner, Lonny, w. 
15. Conner, Maggie, w. 

15. Colter, Mary, w. 

16. Clialmette, George. 

16. Campbell, Frank, \v. Pigeon Roost Road. 
16. Conners, Frank, w. 
16. Callahan, Miiggie, w, Hernando Road. 
16. Conner, J. \V. 

16. Courts, Angie, w, 205 Tennessee St. 
16. Clarke, Mrs. E. W., w, 2S9 Beale St. 
16. Callahan, Mrs. M., w, Hernando Road. 
16. Chabrust. George, w. 
16. Chensey, John W., \v. 
16. Clancev, Maggie, w. 

16. Clarke, Mrs. MoUie, ^v, 273 Main St. 

17. Cunningham, Mr., w. 
17. Clapham, George E. 

17. Cox, A., e. Short Third St. 

17. Catleman, B. D., w. City Hospital. 

17. Chandler, James, c, Rayburn Ave. 

17. Calhoun, Mrs., w, 406 Slain St. 

18. Collins, Thomas, Cynthia St. 
18. Clarke, Walter. 

18. Clarke, G. W., Market St. 

18. Crouch, Mary. 

18. Conrad, Mrs. J P., w. 

18. Crisman, Randolph, w. Brewery. 

18. Callahan, Frank, w, Hernando Koad. 

18. Cook, Richard, w, 170 South St. 

18. Cain, Matthew. 

18. Cuftey, D. E., w, City Hospital. 

19. Coe, Mrs. M. Jt, w, McGee Station. 
19. Capehut, Mr., w, Orleans St. 

19. Castello, Mr., w, nearElmwood. 
19. Cleaves, Charles, 358 Beale St. 
19. Chappie, Simon, c. 

19. Comba, Richard, w. Camp Father Mat- 

hew. 

20. Clarke, S. R.,259 Beale St. 

20. Calhoun, R. F., w. City Hospital. 
20. Cole, Hayden, c, cor. Dunlap Sc. & Bass 
Ave. 

20. Cox, Mrs. E. A. 

20. Cook, John, w, Hernando Road. 

20. Clearv, John D., w, De Soto St. 

20. Cold, Waller, c, Stewart Ave. 

21. Carson, John, w, Monroe St. 

21. Connell, Eliza, w, cor. Walnut & TateSts. 
21. Cole, Emily, c, Broadway St. 
21. (^rutchen, Stephen, c, Pontotoc St. 
21. Cobb, Rhoda,, c, 217 South St. 

21. Conners, Frank, w, 78 Wellington St. 

22. Champlain, George, w, Henrv Ave. 
22. Chinn, Walter, w, Pontotoc St. 

22. Cordano, Antonio. 

22. Cronlus, c. Linden St. 

23. Cox. William, c, Shelby St. 
23. Cox, Sarah, w, 160 Gayoso St. 

23. Cook, Mrs. George, w, cor. Jackson it 
Third Sts. 

23. Carroll, Sidney, w, cor. Coffee & Second 
Sts. 

23. Cook, John, w, cor. Jackson & Third Sts. 
23. Coleman, Jessie, c, cor. Second & Bigelow 
Sts. 

23. Carter, Mary, c, Beale St. 

23. Cornellia, Eliza, e, 232 Linden St. 

23. Countee, D., c. Dean Ave. 

24. Catron, R. R., w, Penhody Hotel. 
24. Connell, Annie, w. Walnut St. 

24. Cox, Mrs., w. 

2.5. Collins, James, w, Trigg Ave. 
. 25. Caskall, Ellen, w, Georgia St. 

25. Conrad, Monroe, c. Poplar St. 

25. Carroll, Mrs. Ellen, w, cor. Georgia & 

Seventh Sts. 
25. Cartney, Lncinda, w, 149 Vanee St. 
25. Coleman, Adam, w, cor. Broadway & Fifth 

Sts. 

25. Cox, Thornton, Hernando Road. 

26. Cunningham, Richard. 
26. Cass, Abe. 

26. Corson, Edward E. 
26. Cromwell, Mrs. 



Sept. 26. Canapole, Antonio. 

2ii. Connell, Pat , w. Court St. 

20. Campbell, Dollv, w. Second St. 

26. Cheves, Dr C. L., w, Peabody Hotel. 

26. Carroll, Edward, w, Madison St. 

27. Cartman, Henry, foot f)f Jackson St. 

27. Cooper, George, c, lOS I'Vmrtli .St., Chelsea. 
27. Cronpra, Xorman, w. Market St. Intirm'ry. 

27. Cowtwill, Henry, foot of Jackson St. 

28. Castmill. Henry, c, loot of Jackson St. 
28. Clay, Mrs. Ann", w. Market St. Infirmary. 
28. Caneon, J. E., w, City Hospital. 

28. Cleary, Mary, w. Fort Pickering. 

28. Cavanangh. Martin, w, Memphis it Little 

Rock R. R. 
28. Cables, Elder, c. 

28. Cleary, John D., w, 138 De Soto St. 

29. Courts, Lucy, Tennessee St. 

29. Clapham, Thomas. 

30. Clarke, Willie W. 

30. Coe, Walter, c, 25 Stewart Ave. 
.30. Coe, Mrs. Alice E., w, Linden St. 
30. Czapsky, Louis, w. State Female College. 
30. Cooley, Mr., Memphis & Little Rock R. R. 
30. Clarke, R. B , w, Shelby St. 
Oct. 1. Cooper, Katie B., w. Ross Ave. 
1. Carr, Joseph, c. Third St. 
1. Carter, Miss Dora, e, cor. Beale & Turley 
Sts. 

1. Coleman, clnld of J. M., Raleigh Road. 
1. Carr, Luella, w. Main St. 

1. Culle.v, R., w. Market St. Infirmary. 

2. Connell. Miss Emma, w. Walnut St. 
2. Clarke, R., c. Wolf River Ferry. 

2. Christonson, Peter, w, Randolph Road. 

2. Collins, George, c, Pnrtle St. 

3. Cotton, Austin, c. Causey St. 

3. Calson, John, w, Gayoso" Ho\ise. 

3. Chambers, Vernon, c, Lauderdale St. 

4. Clece, Jackson St. 

4. Cannon, Francis, w. Front St. 
4. Cannon, Bridget, Front St. 
4. Carline, Katie, w. Poplar St. 

4. Curtis, Lucy, w. City Hospital. 

5. Carline, Mrs. A., w, Poplar St. 
5. Cornelius, George, c. 

5. Carter, Henry, c, cor. Carolina it Fifth Sts. 
.5. Cannon, James £., w. Front St. 
.5, Caldwell, Alex., w, Chapin Ave. 
5. Crabb, John G., w, Lauderdale St. 

5. Cannon, James, c. Walker Ave. 

6. Cline, Miss, w, Raleigh. 
6. Cook, Katie, w, Country. 

6. Caldwell, Tennie, c, cor. Rayburn it 

Walker Aves. 
0. Cazaretta, Christine, w, eor. Seventh it 

Alabama Sts. 
6. Clarke, Annie, w, near Oil Works. 
6. Clayton, Belle, e. Shelby County. 
6. Clara. Mrs., w. Kerr Ave. 
0. Coe, J. L., w, Vance St. 
6. Cicalla, Paul, Sr.. w, Shelby St. 
6. Couch, Mrs. H. H., w, Kerr Ave. 

6. Clere, W. P., w, Raleigh. 

7. Carver, Mrs., w. Cooper Ave. 
7. Clarke, Francis. 

7. Clere, W. P., lialeigh. 

7. Capeheart W. N., w, Orleans. 

7. Cannon, Pies., c, Overton Point. 

7. Clarke, Jane, c, Wolf River Ferry. 

8. Crowder, Nancy, w. Navy Yard. 

8. Cazaretta. Peter, w, cor. Seventh it Ala- 
bama Sts. 

8. Cook, George, w, Jones Ave. 
18. Crowell, dairghtcrof Henry H., w. Coun- 
try. 

10. Caldwell, Fannie, o, cor. Rayburn it 

Walker Aves. 
10. Carey, Albert, w, Pontotoc St. 

10. Cohn, Harris, w, Trigg Ave. 

11. Caroline, Frank, w. Poplar St. 

11. Clark, Wm. Gwyn, w, Raleigh. 

12. Cruse, John, w, Coiuitry. 

12. Carr, Richmond, c, 20 0"rleans St. 

12. Cook, M. A., w, Georgia St. 

12. Canapo, child of John, w. 41 Causey St. 

12. Cook, A., w, Lauderdale St. 

13. Connell, Thomas, w. Walnut Ht. 

13. Chandler, Willie, c. Calvary Cemetery. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



215 



Oct. 13. Cleburne, Adeline, e, cor. Third & Ala- 
bama Sts. 

14. Carter, James, County Poor House. 

14. Cappedonic.o, L., w, Beale St. 

15. Carraway, Mr.^., w, Randolph Road. 
1.5. Carraway, \Vm., w, Randolph Road. 
1(). Ciinali, P. D., w, Kerr Ave. 

16. Cockrell, Richard, w. Boulevard. 
Id. (Joekrell, B. F., w. Boulevard. 

10. Clockton, child of Josepliine, c, cor. Wal- 
nut & Spring sts. 
16. Cain, Mary, w, Second St. 

16. Cohn, infant of iMr., w, Tritrg Ave. 
IH. Clarke, Edrlie, w. Calvary Cemetery. 
18. Cliristonson, N. P., \v, Randolph Road. 

18. Carpenter, Chas., c, Linden St. 

19. Clere, Mrs. W. P., w, Raleigh. 
1',). Clarke Smith, c. 

19. Cohn, Mrs H., w, Trigg Ave. 

20. Clarke, child of Lucv. c, cor. St. Martin & 

Elliott Sts. 

20. Campbell, James, w, City Hospital. 

21. Crumpeci, Miss E., w, Horn Lake Road. 
21. Clarke, Tiiaddeus, w, Country. 

24. Carver, Thomas, w, Cooper Ave. 
24. Coleman, Edward, w, Ruleigh. 
24. (.Iross, Jacob, w. 

2.5. Carglll, John F., \v, Washington St. 

28. Condon, Mary, w. Gayoso St. 

29. Cullen, Thomas, w, Jackson St. 

Nov. 1. Crowder, George, \v, U. S. Survey Boat. 
3. Cobb, Mrs. E. D., w, Madison St. 

3. Costillo, Jlichael, w, DunlapSt. 

4. Cockrell, Mrs. J., w, Boulevard. 
4. C:onnelly, Pete., \v. Union Ave. 

10. Cameron, Mrs. J., w, Posteii Ave. 
13. Cocke, Mrs. S., w, Union St. 
13. Creighton, Samuel tlook, w. 

13. Cooper, W. L., w. Linden St. 
1(1. Chase, Ruth W., w, Third St. 

17. Costen, Mrs. 

28. Campbell, Mary, c. Pigeon Roost Road. 
2.8. Coliupe, Leon, w, Kerr Ave. 
Aug. 14. Davenport, Darby. 

14. Decker, Theodore, w, Alabama St. 

16. Davis. Josephine. 

17. Decker, Henry, 34 Alabama St. 

18. Decker, Mrs., 34 Alabama St. 

19. Drury Mattie, w. Poplar St. Boulevard. 

20. Dessauer, Fannie, w. 

20. Donnelly, George L., w. 

21. Duffey. .'lames V., w, Alabama St. 

21. Davis, child of Mrs. Marv, 144 Poplar St. 

22. Davis, Sam., w, 131 Poplar St. 
22. Dolan, Andy, w, 199 Main St. 

24. Dr.vev, Frank, C tv Hospital. 

21. Davis, Florence, w, 144 Poplar St. 

25. Dugan, Daniel, w. Linden St. 

2.5. Donnovan, Mrs. John, w, Washington St. 

26. Donnovan, John, Jr., vv, Washington St. 

26. Donnelly, Tliomas H., w. Hospital. 

27. Dnffey, Dan., w, 12 Alabama St. 

28. Dalston, Charles, w, City Hospital. 
28. Dalston, Frank, w, ("itv Hospital. 
28. Dewey, Ellen, \v, 63 Commerce St. 

28. Douglass. Rosa,c,cor.Jackson & Front Sts. 
28. Dolan, Thos. Francis. 

28. Driscr, Reinhardt. 

29. Donnelly, Mina, w, 18 St. Martin St. 
29. Duulap, Amelia, c. 

29. Davis, George, cor. Court and Front Sts. 

29. Dow, Robert, 214 Washington St. 

30. Davis, George. 

30. Dennison, W. L., w, Caswell Ave. 

30. Dalton, Elizabeth, w, Madison St. 

31. Dowell, Mrs. M. C , 141 Poplar St. 
31. Davev, T. J., w. Fifth St. 

31. Dreyfus, Samuel. 
Se;';. 1. Davis (infant of Griffin), c, cor. Tennessee 
and Vance Sts. 
2. Dommons, Thomas, \v, Mill St. 
2. Davis (child of Lou.), c. 
2. Dawson, John. 

2. Davis, Wm., c, Jefferson St. 

3. Davis, E. O., 3.".0 Beale St. 

3. Daley, Mary, w, cor. Payton Ave. and 

Sycamore SI. 
.3. Dnnlnp, Howard, 14 Front St. 

4. Darby, Mrs. Jenny, w, 177 Second St. 



.Sept. 4. Dalton, MissJf., w, Jackson St. 

4. Donohue, Ellen, w. Mulberry St. 

4. Dau, Chas., w, Main St. 

4. Daley, P., w, cor. Pevtou Ave. & Dunlap St, 

4. Dunlap, H , 14 Front St. 

4. Dorsey, I'aunie, w, 86 Market St. 

4. Davis, John, w, City Hospital. 

4. Davis, Dolly, c. 

4. Dulton, Mrs. Maggie, J.acksou St. 

5. Dowell, Frank T., w. Front St. 
5. Dugan, Louisa, City Ho.^pital. 
5. Dawson, Chas., w, 36 Market St. 
5. Daw.son, Annie, w. .'iO JlarketSt. 
5. Dunn, Ed,, 102^2 Linden St. 

5. Dalton, H G,, w, Tliird St. 

5. Doinielly, Dennis, w, 137 Dunlap St. 

6. Dolara, Sister, w, LaSalette .\cademv. 
6. Dicker.son, Dr. P M., w, Pevion Ave. 
0. Duty, Mai y, c, 378 .Second .St. 

6. Davis, Mary L , cor Fifth A SafTcrans Sts. 
6. Outran, O. J., 449 Hernando St. 

6. Davy, Mary L.,w,cor.Filth & Sallerans Sts. 

7. Douglass, John, c. Vaui e St. 

7. Dolan, Mike, w, cor. Fourth and Wash- 
ington Sts. 

7. Dalton, York, c. Exchange St. 

8. Douglass, MoUie. 

8. Davis, C. C, w, .Market St. Infirmary. 
8. Delaney, Wm., w. 

8. Delaney, Mrs., w. 

9. Duvall, Joseph. 

9. Dewar. Nornutn, w. Main St. 

9. Duncan, C. E., w. 

9. Dallman, John, w, Gavoso House. 

9. Davis, H., w, 201V, Liu'deu St. 

P. Dell, Catlierine B^ vv. 
10. D.ivis, Carric.'w, Market St. Infirmary. 
10. Donehitf, F. A., \v. Market St. Infirmary. 
10. Downs, Mrs., w. Old Raleigh Road. 

10. Dukes, Robert, c. Seventh St., Chelsea. 

11. Dunaki, Lewis. 

II. Devoto, D., w, 7 Causey St. 

11. Devoto, A., w, 7 Causey St. 

11. Dai.sey, c, rear of i;!3 ^fain St. 

11. Davis, ( hariiy, c, Short Tliird St. 

11. Donaldson (child of Sarah). Stewart Ave. 

11. Dwyer, Martin. cor..Alabama & Front Sts. 

11. Doliertey, Mary C, cor. De Solo and 

Gayoso Sts. 
11. Duncan, Robt., Pigeon Roost Road. 

11. Dea, Micliael, w. South St. 

12. Daniels, Elvira, c, Broadway St. 
12. Dunlap, Sam. 

12. Davis, Byron, 240 Monroe St. 
12. Dolan, Mike, w, river bank. 
12. Davis, B., 42 Jackson St. 

12. Downs, Mrs., w, P>aleigh Road. 

13. Donahue, Maggie, Beale St. 
13. Davis, Miiniie, c, Carolina St. 

13. Dooley, Mine, \v. City Ho.spital. 

14. Dawson, Mrs. Amelia, w, 74 Greenlaw St. 
14. Dawson, J. G. 

14. Davis, Robert, c, 249 Union St. 

14. Donaldson Caroline, w, 10 Beale St. 

14. Dillard, Mike, 40 Mulbeny St. 

14. Dillard, Jim, c, 61 E.Nclnmge St., extended 

14. Downs, James, w, Shelby County. 

14. Davis, Marv, w, 391 Main St. 

1 1. Davis, John, c, 99 Wellington St. 
It. Duncan, Annie B.,w, Hernando St. 

15. Drevfus, M., w, Raleigh Road. 

15. Dodson, James, c, cor. Carolina and 

Eighth Sts. 
15. Davis, James, c, 440 Shelby St. 
15. Dunncwav. Harriet, c, cor. Talbot and St. 

Martin .Sts. 

15. Dicker.son, Dennis, c, 375 Beale St. 

16. Davis, Ella B., w. 

16. Dorgs, Fred.,w,cor.Clay & Tennessee Sts. 

16. Derges, May. 

16. Dolan, Ellen. 

16. Doereicht, A., w, Ruth St. 

16. Dickerson, J. W. 

17. Dawsou, John, w. 

17. Dver, Margaret B., w, Wellington St. 

17. Dickens (child). 

17. Dick, Albert. Court St. Infirmary. 

17. Devoto, Davy, w, 24 Causey St. 

18. Dickerson, Isaac. 



216 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Sept. 18. Dodson (infant of Lciu.), c, Gayoso House. 
18. Dreyfus, Lee. 

18. Dodson, Lou., c, Gavoso House. 

39. Dukes, \V. C, 129 Causey St. 

20. Dickerson, W. P., \v, Puyton Ave. 

20. Dargis, Joe, w, cor. Tennessee & Clay Sts. 

20. Dorms, Sim., c, Poplar St. 

20. Demiius, F., c. Second St. 

21. Davis. W. J., w. 

21. Dickerson, H. N., \v, Rayburn Ave. 

22. Dargis. 

23. Diw, Owen, w, Vance St. 

2o. Doulan, Peter, 231 Georgia St. 

23. Dyke, Mrs., cor. Jackson and Third Sts., 

Ft Pickering. 

24. Daw.son, Dr. 

24. Donnelly, Mrs, T. H. 

24. Dawson, Annie, c. Linden St. Infirmary. 

24. Dasliiell.Mrs.Tate E.,w, Pigeon Roost R'd. 

25. Duft'ey, P. J., w, McLemore Ave 
2-5. Davis, Jo.sepliine, w, Henrv Ave. 

26. Dashiell, Frank P.,w,Pigeon Roost Road. 
26. Dawson, Mr., w, Elnuvood. 

26 Duncan, Mrs. A. L., 449 Hernando St. 
26. Dunn, Marian. 

26. Dickson, Mrs., 14 Front St. 

27. Doherty, ('., c, City Hospital. 

27. Dance (child of Belle), c, cor. Webster & 

Ih' Siiito Sis. 
27. Donalme, .Icihn, w. Union St. 
27. Decker, Mary, w, Shelby St. 

27. Dupuv, P., w. Horn Lake Road. 

28. Driver, Mrs. V., c, Beale St. 

29. Dawson (cliild of P.), c, cor. Dunlap and 

Union Sis. 

29. Dempsey, Charles, Market St. Infirmary. 
29. Dink, Reverdv, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
29. Davis, Mrs. Mary F., Valentine Ave. 
29. Dolan, Maggie, w, Fifth St. 
29. Drevfiis, Samuel. 
Oct. 1. Davis, E. A., w. Walnut Ave. 

3. Doulan, John, cor. Georgia & Wright Ave. 

1. Devlin, B. F., Shelby County. 

1. Doravoid, Charley, w, cor. Third and 

Jackson Sts. 

2. Dawson, Mary, w, Raleigh Road. 

2. D.imstadter, Mrs. J., w, Randolph Road. 
S. Davis, Thad., c, Jack.son St. 
5. Dant, Giles, w, Memphis and Charleston 
Railroad. 

5. Dink, George, c, factory lot, Chelsea. 

5. Dyches, Mrs. Bettie, w, McLemore Ave. 

6. Davis, Emma B , w, Suzette St. 

7. Dunn, W. S , w, Broadway St. 
7. Doyle, James, w, Marley Ave. 

7. Daniel, George, c, Madison St. 

8. Damstadter, J., w. Randolph Road. 
8. Dotson, Mary, c, 217 .Soutli St. 

8. DutTev, Simon B., w, Hernando Road. 

9. Davis, Charles J., w, Suzette St. 
9. De Donoto, Ruf., w. county jail. 

9. Dunn, Anderson, w. Gill's Station. 
10. DufFey, Alice, w, Alabama St. 
10. i:>odd. A. F., w, Poplar St. 
10. Davis, George, c, Lauderdale St. 

10. Donnelly, Thomas, w, Leath Orphan 

Asylum. 

11. Dupree, Annie, c, 220 South St. 

11. Doherty, Thomas L., w. Walker Ave. 
11. Debrula, Mrs. E., w, Jackson St 

11. Dreyfus, B^'U., w, Raleigh Road. 

12. Daucey, Thomas C, e, 13 Stewart Ave. 

12. Daucey, Thomas, c, 13 Stewart Ave. 

13. Dominic, Mr., w. Union St. 

14. Durke, Oscar, w, Memphis and Charleston 

R dlroad. 
35. Dzmiski, Charles, w. Shelbv St. 
1.5. Delaney, W. J., w. Boulevard. 

15. Dalton, Ambrose G., w. Clay St. 

16. Davis, Jefi;'., Jr., w, Buntyn's Station. 

17. Deano, George, w. City lio.spital. 

18. Dwyer, Lizzie, w, Loohey St. 

18. Dunn, Mrs. Mary, w, Georgia St. 

38. Diggins, Gcoi-ge, c. Clay St. 

18. D.iuglass, Mattie, c, Elliott St. 

20. Dume, Piuil, w. State Female College. 

20. Duke, Eddie, w. 

20. Dcilan, James, w. Wolf River. 

22. Downey, Joseph, w. Union St. 



Oct. 22. Dowdv, F. H., w, Raleigh Road. 

24. Davis, S. B. 

25. Dies, Mrs. Lizzie, vr. Central Ave. 
28. Dries, Elizabeth, w, Union St. 

28. Dagire, Mr., Pigeon Roost Ro.ad. 

28. Davcnpoi t, Pattie, w, Madison St. 
Nov. 8. Dickey, (ieorge, e. Clay St. 

10. Donnelly, Mary E., wi Concord St. 

12. Davis, Maria. 

14. Davis, Jtary F., w, Vance St. 

21. Davis, S. W. 
Aug. 21. Early, John, w. 

23. Ewins, Lizzie, c, Selden Building. 

25. Elliott. Capt. John D., w, Adams St. 

26. Ewinsr. Frank, c. City Hospital. 

29. Ellis, Richard, Winchester St. 
31. Edmondson, J. H., c. 

31. Egan, Thomas, w, 98>^ Front St. 
31. Erasmus, Brother, w. Market St. 
Sept. 1. Early, W. F., w, 138 Washington St. 

1. Eilert, Lizzie, w, Henry Ave. 

2. Epplelt, Thomas, w, La.Salette Academy. 

3. Ebberhardt, Ellen, w. Union St. 

4. Eldridge, Amos, c, City Hospital. 

5. Eyke, Mrs. M., w, Maaisou St. 

5. Egan, Nancv. 

6. Egan, Mrs., w, 466 Main St. 

6. Ellen, c. cor. Hawlev iS: .Manassas Sts. 
6. Evans, Allen. 106 N." Winchester St. 
6. Elliott, Jo.seph IL, w. Secimd St. 

6. Edwards, C. W., w, Georgia St. 

G. Edmondson (nou of H. B.), w. Gill's Sta- 
tion. 

7. Evans, Cora, c. Carr Ave. 

9. Edmondson, Henry B., w, Gill's Station. 
10. Engels, Peter, w, Market St. Infirmary. 

10. Edingion, Charley. 40 Causey St. 

11. Eyke. Martin, w, Madison St. 

11. Eilidtt, Mrs., c, Richmond Ave, 
IJ. Egberts, David. 

12. Erb, Jolm, w, Hernando St. 

12. Elliott, Capt. Wm., w, Jefferson St. 

12. Edmondson, Mrs. H. 15., w. Gill's Station. 

13. Eislcr, B. A., \v. 

13. Erskine. Alice, c. 140 Union St. 
13. Elicrt, Louis. 

33. Eliert, Fannie, Henry Ave. 

13. Elliott, George B., w, Jackson St. 
13. Eler, Elizabeth. 

13. Earley, Rev. J. T., c, 280 Hernando St. 

13. Erb, Philip, w, cor. Hernando & Orleans 

Sts. 

14. Edmonds, Joe, c, 294 Poplar St. 

14. Edington, Gus., vv, 40 Causey St. 

35. Erck. Cliris. 

15. Euchkins. Eliza, cor. Henry Second Sts. 

15. Everheart, Henrv, w. Union St. 

36. Edwards, Wm., cor. Elliott & South Sts. 

16. Ebler, E., w. Gates' Place. 

16. Evans, Melon, w, 9 Winchester St. 
10. Eberle, V., w. City Hospital. 

16. Earley, Angeline, c, 77 Adams St. 

37. Ennis, John, w, Bagley Place. 

17. Erskine, Dr. J. H., w, Wellington St. 
IS. EeeiTev, D., Citv Hospital. 

IS. Epps, Wyatt, Walker St. 
IS. Ellis, Jennie, c, Beale St. 

18. Edwards, John, w. 

20. Edwards, Wm., c, '246 Elliott St. 

22. Exom, JelT., c, cor. Safl'erans Fifth Sts. 
22. Endsley, Eddie, c. Front St. 

25. Erlieh, A., w. 

26. Ebler, Virginia, w. 

26. Edwards, Mrs. E., Deans Ave. 
26. Ellis, J., c, Snnth Alabama St. 

29. Edwards, Robert, w, 354 Deans Ave. 

30. Ea.slev, Dr. E. S., w, Union St. Hospital. 
Oct. 2. Elliott, Annie E., c. South Jackson St. 

8. Everett, W. E., w, Rozelle Station. 

9. Enwright, Patrick, w, Hernando Road. 
9. Edwards, Mrs., w. Main St. 

10. Erskine, George, w, Randolph Road. 
12. Erick. Albert, w. Market St. Infirmary. 

34. Etchevarne, G , w, Horn Lake Road. 
14. Enlev, John, w. Country. 

36. EganVM. J., w, Elliott St. 

24. Erby, W. E., 32 Promenade St. 

24. Eddy, w, State Line Road. 

25. Escli, Mrs. Emma, \v, Country. 



A HISTORY OF THE YPJLLOW FEVKR. 



217 



Oct. 25. Edmonrlsoii, Jliss Joanna H. w, Pigeon 

Itoost Road. 
NoVi 4. Ewell, Dr , w, Postcn Ave. 

5. Engle, Mrs Mary, w. Fifth St. 
Aug. 15. Fuclis, Victor D. Jr. w. 
15. Farrar, Willie. 

18. Fuchs, Mr.s. S., w, Johnson Ave. 
21. Farrow, Mollie, Kocco'.s Alley 
21. Farrell, Mary, w. Third St. 

23. Forbes, John C, w. City Hospital. 

24. Fealey, Mrs. Sirah, \v, .57 Exchange St. 

25. Forrester, Tom, w, City Hospital. 

25. Froese, R. 

26. Farris, E., c, Adams St. 

28. Foley, Thomas, w, Memphis & Charleston 
K. R. 

28. Fifer, William S., w, Riilei-h Road. 

28. Foster, T. J., \v, Madison St. 

29. Fischer, Mrs. C, w. Main St. 

29. Fritz, Lucy E., w, Moseby St. 

30. Frank, Sol., w. Poplar St. 
30. Fritz, Henry, c, 1.56 Main St. 
30. Foley, Annie, 155 Linden St. 

30. Fnllerton, Mullie, w, Whitemoro House. 
30. Felkins, Eliz i, cor. Fifth & Looney Sts. 

30. FuUerton, Ed. 

31. Froese, Mrs. Mary, 50 Second St. 

31. Friedman, child of, w, lU Commerce St. 
.>!. Farrell, Pat., w. City Hospital. 
31. Fulierton, Mrs. Catlierine, w, Whitemore 
House. 

31. Flynii, D. P., vv, 107 Vance St. 
Sept. 1. Friedman, Mrs., w. Commerce St. 

1. Fieldm in, Mary, 76 North Jackson St. 

1. Fritz, John, w, Moseby St. 

2. Flaherty, Miss O.. w, Vance St. 
2. Fink, Gustave, 147 Main St. 

2. Flannngan, M., w, 17 Causey St. 

3. Fnllerton, E idle, Whitemore House. 
3. Fahs, Lizzie, c, 251 Wasliingtoii St. 

3. Franklin, JIary, 13 Commerce St. 
3. Friedman, Louis, w, 10 Commerce St. 
3. Friedman, Josephine, w, 10 Commerce St. 
H. Featlierstone, W. S., w, Springdale Ave. 

3. Fowler. Mrs. J. J., w, 137 Moseby St. 

4. Flowers, JelT., c, 47 Commerce St. 

4. Friedman, Henry, w, 10 Commerce St. 
4. Friedman, Lulu," w, 10 Commerce St. 
4. Foley, Mary, 13 Commerce St. 
4. Field. Cora, c, 173 Madison St. 
4. France, Henry L., .39 Poplar St. 

4. Fricke, George, Front St. 

5. Fricke, Philip G. 

5. Fields. Dora, c. 255 Madison St. 
5. Fields, lleniy, c, C.tv Hospital. 
5. Frank, 104 Linden St. 
5. Foley, Bate., Shelby County. 

5. Frank. Frank, City Hospital. 

6. Flannagan, Katie, w, 17 Causey St. 
6. Flack, Jennie, w, 111 Elliott St. 

6. Funck, Miss R., w, 83 Front St. 

7. Fenwick, Effie L., w. Filth St. 
7. Fuller, B. F. 

7. Foley, Edward, w. Second St. 
7. Franck, Miss, w, 83 Fourth St., Chelsea. 
7. Flyiui, Ben., c, cor. Hawley it Dunlap Sts. 
7. Finney, Mike, w. City Hospital. 
7. Fields (infant of Harry), o, cor. Madison 
St. & Marshall Ave. 

7. Fahey, Edivard, w, Chelsea St. 

8. Frazier, Ruth, c, 82 Pontotoc St. 
8. Fisher, Baville, w, 33 Monroe St. 
8. Fitch, w. 

8. Ford, Willie Lee, w, Yates Lake. 

9. Fraviga, Lizzie, w. 
9. Ferrin, A., c. 

9 Fairchild, w, Tennessee St. 

9. Flannagan, Ed., vv, Market St. Infirmary. 

9. Fuller, B. F., w. 

9. Folk, Amanda, e. 
10. Frazier, Rudolph. 
10 Franklin. Hattie, Hernando St. 
10. Fannie, Hernando St. curve. 
10. Flack, Clara, w, HI Elliott St. 
10. Flack, Mrs. B , w. 111 Elliott St. 
10. Farris, J. B., w. Cooper Place. 
10. Fisher, Patrick, w, Linden St. 
10. Ferguson, Harry W., \v, Camp Joe Wil- 
liams. 



Sept. 11. Firth. Robert F., iv, Echols St. 
11. Falls, Uachel.c, Vance St. 
11. Forem;in, William, w, 271 Rfain St. 
11. Flack, W. J., w, 111 Elliott St. 
II. Flack, L. B., w, ill Elliott St. 
11. Flack, T. J., w, in Elliott St. 
11. Ford, Harriet. 

11. Fensley, Susie, w, Echols St. 

12. Fransiola, Frank, c, Elliott St. 
12. Fithian, H. E., w, Alabama St. 

12. Fabin, John W., Mark t St. Intirmary. 
12. Farrels, Hugh, 436 Main St. 
12. Freeman, Henry. 127 Beale St. 
12. Francis, E. S., \V, Moseby Ave. 

12. Flainiery, Mike, w, City Hospital. 

13. Farrell, Nellie, Market' St. Infirmary. 
13. Fulsom, Charles, 252 Hernando St. 
13. Fliggin, Harvey, c, Brinkley Ave. 
13. Feuster, Simon, w. 

13. Finlev, Ennis, w, 08 Front St. 

13. Fackler, John. 

13. Fenwick, Z. M., w. Filth St. 

13. Fenwick-. Mrs. L. D., w. Fifth St. 

14. Friiister, Ciroline, w. 

14. Flael;, Jliss Laura, w. 111 Elliott St. 
14. Frazce, Kate, 18 Winchester St. 

14. Fanse, V., w. Market St Intirmary. 

15. F anklin, Ben. 

15. Franklin, FriUik, c, cor. Center Alley & 

Commerce St. 
15. Foster, E. B., w, Orleans St. 

15. Firth, W. S., w. 

16. Finster, Jacob, w. 

16. Fenwick, Alice A , v. Fifth St. 
16. Fisher, J. F., w. Orleans St.. 
16. Folger, Joe, c. City Hospital. 
16. Flynn, Fred. W., w, Louisville & Nash- 
ville R. R. 

16. For.l, Elizabeth, c, cor. North St. & Ross 

Ave. 

17. Frarv, Peter, c, cor. Si.xth St. & Broadway. 

18. Firth, R. N., w, Echols St. 
IS. I'^rederick, E., Union St. 
I'.l. FiggerJ, Josepli. 

I'.l. Fox, Alf., c, 286 Third St. 
P.). Frm.c, c, cor. Main & Georgia Sts. 
10. Felton, Fort, c, cor. Broadway & Her- 
naniio ,Sts. 

20. Fo.ster, Annie, w, cor. Third & Walker Sts. 
20. i'^ield, Mrs. Marv, w, Springdale. 

20. Fields, Dick, cof. Elliott & South Sts. 

21. Fannin, Francis, e, factory lot, Chelsea. 

22. Frank, James. 

22. Fowler, Jerry, Post-and-Rail Ave. 
22. Fav, John. 

22. Fields, Ida. 

23. Foster, Ida., w, cor. Third St. & Walker 

Ave. 

23. Firth, Ella, c, Echols St. 

24. Forbes. Dr. James A , w. Chambers House. 

24. Fenwick, Mrs. S. F., w. 

25. Franklin, Ben. 

25. Francis (child), w. Church Home. 
25. Flynn, w, Elmwood. 

25. Forrest, Mrs. C. G., w, Rayburn Ave. 

26. Fisher, Charles G , w, Liii<len St. 

26. Foster, Clara, w, cor. Walker Ave. and 

Third St. 

25. Foster, Charles, w, cor. Vt'alker Ave. and 
Third St. 

27. Ferrett, M. E.. w, 2:1 Echols St. 

28. Fleming, Will., c, 37 Allen Ave. 

28. Fisher, Weslev, c, Jlouroe St. 

29. Foster. William, 280 De Soto St. 
29. Farris, Ed , w, ( 'helsca. 

29. Fields, Robert, Shelby County. 
29. Flvnn, Robert Emmet, w, 10/ Vance St. 
29. Fowler, Mrs. D. F. 
29. Forney (infant), Citv Hospital. 
29. Flynn, Robert Emniet, 107 Vance St. 
29. Furbish, E. E. 
Oct. 1. Frencli, Martha, c, Greenlaw St. 

1. Finnan. Kate, w, Washington St. 

2. Franklin, Miles, w, 484 Pontotoc St. 
2. Folks, Julia. 

2. F.iy, Mrs. 

3. Fletcher, Miss Mary, w. Orphan Home. 

3. Flynn, Eliza, w, Eimwood. 

4. Frances, Sister, w, Church Home. 



218 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



Oct. 5. Frotl.y, Jlichatl, Raybnni Ave. 

5. Julia, i\ Stfw'art .\vr. 

6. Kielvliii, Ltmni Vdinr.;, \v. Cooper Ave. 

8. Finacy, M., w. cor. Fuui Ui & Divi.sionSts. 
10. Fox (eliiici ol Toiiii. 
10. Fison, Nu-k. c, E.\chaii;;e St. 
12. Farrell, Ellon, w, Union St. 
12. Force, i >r. F. H., w, 

12. Fisher, R., w, Cl\elsea. 

13. Fazzi, L,, w, Second .St. 

14. Feesser, Charles, w, (.'ounty Jail. 
16. Farrell, Mike, w, 1()2 De Soto St. 

18. Fort, Mary E.. w, Slate Female College. 
1!S. Finney, Miss \V., \v, Wellington St. 
21. Fisher, Dave, c, New Raleigh Road. 

21. Fitzoatrick, Marv Eliza, w, Market St. 
23. Foy," E. A., w. City llo^llital. 

25. Fitzgii:)boii, John, \v. Main St. 

27. Falz, Theodore, w, Loui.sville, Ky. 

28. Faltz, F. 

28. Froman, Wm., w, Spring St. 
Nov. 4. Fleming, Miss J., w, Layton Ave. 

22. Finn, Lucy, w, Winchester St. 
Aug. 14. Goldsmith, Cora, w. 

1.5. Goodman, A. H., w, Miiin St. 
2-5. Glautzer, Mrs. Mary, w, Third St. 
25. Grav, Robert, c. 

27. Glan:zer. Wui., w. Third St. 

28. Gillen, A. K., w, Shelbv St. 
28. Gribe. Ann, c, Allen Ave. 

28. Gooding, John, w, City Hospital. 
28. Gribe, Anna, c, Allen Ave. 
28. Gibbs. George, 3lt Third St. 
28. Gusmanny, Jennie, \v, Poplar St. 

28. Gummer, Mattie, w. Poplar St. 

29. Gray, Eli, c. 

29. Grimes, Larry, w, JefTerson St. 
29. Gauze, Frank, w. 
29. Gilmore. John, w. City Hospital. 
29. Glesse, Mary A., w. City Hospital. 
29. Gribe, Fred., Allen Ave. 
29. Grant, Jennie, 106 Market St. 
29. Goss. Frank, 86 Third St. 
29. Goslin, Mrs., Poplar St. 
29. Grouse, Frank. 
29. Goslin, Mary Ann, Poplar St. 
29. Gummer, Mr., w. Poplar St. 
31. Griffin, William, w, Winchester St. 
31. Green, James, c, Uunlap St. 
31. Grant, Mrs. L. S , w. 
31. Gane, Frank, w 
Sept. 1. Garney, Henry, 2.'i0 Poplar St. 

1. Grant, George M., v, Poplar. 

1. Gummer, Frederick, w, Poplar St. 

1. Guriey. Henry, w, 2.50 Poplar St. 

1. Gold.smith, Mrs, M., w, Alabama St. 

2. Gleason, Archie, w. Main St. 

2. Gotchlich, Amelia, w, Winchester St. 

2. Gvvvnn, Indiana, c, .36 Winchester St. 

2. Gable, Bo., 152 Poplar St. 

2. Goodman, L., c, City Hosp'tal. 

2. Giirney, Henry, w. Poplar St. 

2. Grant, Inez, c, lialeigh Road. 

3. Gunderson, Mrs. Andrew. 

3. Grant, Lewis, Raleigh Road. 

3. Gabers, B., w, 48 Poplar St. 

3. Gotchlich, Mrs. M.,w, 161 WinchesterSt. 

3. Grant, L. S., cor. Seventh & Auction Sts. 

3. Gorman, Simon, 14 Alabama St. 

3. Galley, Robert, 152 Poplar St. 

3. Galle.v, Auguste, 142 Main St. 

3. Green, Ellen, c, Auction St. 

3. Grigsby, Mary, c, 1.54 Monroe St. 

4. GrifHn, John, w, WinchesterSt. 
4. (irant, Robert, w. Auction St. 
4. Groves, 88 Hernando St. 

4. Gruber, Fred., w, 90 Hernando St. 

4. CJrant, Mariraret, w, Seventh St. 

4. Greenpnr, Fred,, w, 92 Hernando St. 

4. Graham, Mattie, w, Washington St. 

5. Guinea, J. L., w. C*ity Hospital. 
5. Green. Mrs., w. loot Vance St. 
5. Gray, Mrs. w. Poplar St. 

5. Grehen, William, w, Berlin Ave. 
5. Green. Mrs. Margaret, w, Third St. 

5. Gross, J. A., w, 111 Market St. 

6. Gradv, Tliomas. 
6. Gates", Frank. 

6. Gaines, Mrs., w, Manassas St. 



r 

Sept. 6. Gross, James. 

6 Grady, Thomas, w, 309 Poplar St. 

6. Givin, R. Ci., w, Randolph Road. 

7. Gorman, Joseph, 12 DunlapSt. 

7. Goodrich, William, c, 3.i4 Madison St. 

7. Garland, Joseph, c. DnnlapSt. 

7. Goetz, Leno, w. Main St. 

7. Griffin (infant of Tillie), c, Tennessee St. 

7. Gray, Anna, c. Lauderdale. 

8. Gray, Walker, w. Main St. 

8. Garvey, Mary E., \v, JIadison St. 

8. Gorman, Patiick, w, City Hospital. 

8. Gordon, Missouri, <■, 358 Beale St. 

8. Giint, Joseph, Fifth St. 

8. Gwinn, Wm.. c, 83 Front St. 

8. Griswold, Mrs. C. A., w. 

Getchell, .Miss, w, Brinkley Ave. 

8. Gay, Lucius, c. 

9. Green, Jennie, w, 80 De Soto St. 

9. Getchell, Mr., w, cor. Brinkley Ave. and 
Rjileigh Road. 

9. Getchell, Mrs., w, cor. Brinkley Ave. and 
Raleigh Road. 

9. Gates. Mrs. Sam., Raleigh Road. 

9. Garvey, Bridget, w, Madison St. 

9. Gibson, Nathan, w, Wellington St. 

9. Gray, W. W.. w. Sycamore St. 

9. Gates, Victoria, c. 

9. Griswold, C. A., w. Mill St. 
10. Green, W. H., c. Auction St. 
10. Gleason, Mrs. M. J., w. Main St. 
10. Gates, Mrs.S. M., w, Raleigh Road. 
10. Granning, Mrs. William, w. Linden St. 
10. Gatlin, G. W., Hernando Road. 
10. Gummer, John, 448 Poplar St. 
10. Gatlin, Johnson, w. Shelby Countv. 
10. Gardner, H. E., 260 Hernando St. 
10. Ciills, child of Gilbert, Richmond Ave. 
10. Going, Col. S. B., w. Main .St. 
10. Garagnon, Henry, Greenlaw St. 
10. Goodman, Robert, 28 Causey St. 
10. Gist, R. C. w, -Market St. Iniirmary. 

10. Goodrich, Carrie, c, Avery St. 

11. Garv, John W. 

11. Gilbert, G., c, Gavoso St. 

11. Gardner, H. C. Hernando St. 

12. Garrison, Frank, w. Mulberry St. 
12. Goenner, Mrs. Clara. 

12. Grogan, Edward, w, St. Peter's Cemetery. 

12. (iarland, Charles, Dunlap St. 

12. Giese, A. D., 10 Beale St. 

12. Grant, G. H., Jr. , w. Sixth St. 

12. Getta, Asa, 02 Poplar St. 

13. Green, Pink. 

13. Ciill, Annie, w, 135 Beale St. 

13. Gates, Moses, c, cor. Raleigh Road and 

Brinkley .\ve. 
13. Gates, Aaron, cor. Coffee St. and Horn 

Lake Road. 
13. Gates, Ripdev, w. 
13. Gawray, H. M., w, Madison St. 

13. Gertrude, Sister, w, cor.'Thirdand Market 

Sts. 

14. Griffin. Atistin, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
14. Gee, Joseph C. 

14. C{riffin, Antonio, w, 78 First St. 

15. Graham, Virgil. 

15. Grav, Mrs.. \v. Poplar St. 
15. Gillen, Friday, c, 66 St. Martin St. 
1.5. Gibson, E. W., w, 90 Main St. 
1.5. Glancey, Maggie, w. Boulevard. 
1.5. CJarrett, Jolm, w, Chelsea. 
15. Grove, Ada, c, 18 Butler St. 
15. Garner, Fred., c, cor. Fourth and Madison 
Sts. 

15. Gray, Nervv, c, Georgia St. 
17. Gilman, M." 

17. Green, Lizzie, w, 79 Front St. 

17. Goodrich, David, w, cor. Fourth and Saf- 

ferans Sts. 

18. Garev, John, w. 

18. Green, C, c, Dunlap St. 

18. Grant, Claiborne, c, cor. Keel & Sixth Sts. 

18. Garden, Robert, 50 Causey St. 

IS. Gatlin, Johnson. 

18. Gurdici, A. 

18. Gatlin, Mrs. 

18. Cironev, William, 104 Linden St. 
18. Gnegg," J. C, 64 Peyton Ave. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



219 



Sept. 18. Gregg, Mrs. .Jennie, 64 Peyton Ave. 

18. Goodman. Mrs. D., c, Slielbv St. 
1«. Glarkraan, \V. .1., c, Elliott St. 
W. Green, Ella, e, 41.j Wellington St. 

19. Gable, Sophy, w, 22il Madison St. 

19. Green, Joe, e, Dunlap St. 

20. Gritlin, John, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
20. Galiaher, James. 

20. Gay, Ida. 

21. Gregg, Miss Sallie, w, Peyton Ave. 
21. Glass, Matt. A., w, Trigg Ave. 

21. Gorrell, Dr. J. G. O., w, Court St. Infirm' ry. 

21. Gordon, John, o. Walker Ave. 

22. Grififin, Mr., \v. 

22. Gray, Susie, c, Je.ssamine St. 
22. Gwyn. Miss M. Eliza, w, Raleigh. 
2-1. Gregg^ Willie, 04 Peyton Ave. 
24. Griffin, Mary E., o. 

24. Gabler, Elizabeth, w. Old Raleigh Road. 

24. Gordon, Albert, c, eor. Hernando and 

Walker Ave. 

25. Gilmore, William, w, Ciiureh Home. 
2.5. Grigsby, Samuel, e, 172 Vance St. 

26. Gorin, Eugene. 

26. Grempe, Charles, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
26. Gain, Eugene, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
26. Genoke, (Jaroline, w, Poplar St. 

26. Garrison, William. 

27. Goodman. A., w. 

27. Garrett, C, w, Chelsea. 
27. Gordon, Millie, e, Hernando St. & Walker 
Ave. 

27. Gatzen, Eliza, c, cor. W'ehster & De Soto 
Sts. 

27. Garesehe, Engene, w. 

27. Gra,ham, Mrs. Martindale. 

28. Gerlack, Franz, Sr., w, Shelby St. 
2S. Gerlack, Mary, w, Shelby St. 

28. Goebel, Fred., w, Elmwood. 

28. Gerlack, Franz, Jr., w, Shelby St. 

29. Green, Mamie, w, 1*8 Beale St. 
29. Gordon, Annie, Hernando Road. 
29. Gath, Janvs B., w, 27 Beale St. 
29. Griggs, Nvs. 

29. Green, Martin, c, Georgia St. 

Oct. 1. Green, Capt. Nat , \v, Gill'.s Station. 

1. Green, Mrs. Elizabeth, w. Gill's Station. 

1. Gordon, Charlotte, c, cor. Hernando St. 

and Walker Ave. 

2. Gnmbel, Francis, Buntyn's Station. 
2. Gordon, Isaac. 

2. Goodwin, child of E. B., w, Chelsea. 

4. Grayson, Steve., c, 3 Bntler St. 

5. Goodman, George, c. Gas Works. 

7. Garvin, Mike, w, City Hospital. 

8. Gladden, Alfred, t, Overton Point. 

9. Giistave, Fondam, w. City Hospital. 
9. Goodwyn, E. B., w, Thomas Ave. 
9. Griffin, Mrs. H., c, Tennessee St. 

9 Griffin, Charles, c. 
10 Galling, Mrs. John. 
10. Gossett, Eliza, w, Market St. 

12. Gear, Miss Doeia, w, Raleigh Road. 

13. Goebel, Theodore, w, Elmwood. 

13. Galloway, Mary A., w, Cooper Ave. 
13. Goldstein, Fannie, w, Raleigh Road. 

16. Gill, Henry, w. Walker Ave. 

17. Glass, Mrs. R , w, Trigg Ave. 
19. Givers, Lewis, c, 88 Main St. 

19. Gillem, child of Lena, c, McLemore Ave. 

24. Gregor, Thomas, Elmwood. 

25. Garnon, Fred., w, Country. 

30. Gift, Sarah J., w, Rozelle Station. 
30. Grant, Martha, 106 Market St. 

30. Garvin, Sarah. 
Nov. 6. Gregory. Isam, e, Huppers Ave. 
9. Gnigel, John H., w, Main St. 
12. Galloway, INI. E., w, Cooper Ave. 

15. Griffin, R. S., w, McLemore Ave. 
Aug. 14. Hill, Albert. 

16. Hay, infant of Levi. 

17. Hendricks, Mrs. F. C. 

19. Houns, Ben. B. 

20. Hahn, Moses, w, 2 Jackson St. 

20. Haskell, Rachel, w, W.) Poplar St. 

22. Hooges, William H., w. City Hospital. 

22. Hill, E, J,, w, Worsham House. 

22, Hnpert, ISI,. w, Poplar St. 

22. Helfener, Jerry, w. Exchange St. 



Aug. 24. Hill, Mrs, E, J,, w, Worsham House. 
24. Haissig, Daniel S,, w. 
24. Hall, infant of Lulu, 101 Second St. 
22. Haissig. Henry, w. 
26, Hiilstead, W. H., w, 487 Pontotoc St. 
26, Hollenberg, Mrs. Carrie, w. 

26. Harringlon, H. S,, w, 242 Monroe St. 

27. Holley, Luke, w, Breedlove Ave. 
2(. Holland, R. C, w, City Hospital. 
27. Henry, John (;. 

27. Hunter, Sallie, Winchester St. 

27, Haskell, Benjamin, Louisville, Ky. 

28. Haynes, Nannie, w, cor. Exchange and 

Third Sts, 
28, Hntchins, Thomas A. 
28, Hesse, Hester. 
2)S. Halliday, A., w. City Hospital. 
28. Hall, Janu s, w, Hernando Road. 

28. Henery, Henry, c. Second St. 

29. Harder, Henry, w. Market St. 
29. Herman, Lizzie, w. Hill St. 
29. Hewitt, Peter, w, Monroe St. 
29. Harris, Jordan, Quinby St. 

'29, Hughes, Janus, City Hospital. 
29, Htint, Tilila, ;!7 Commerce St. 
29. Hanson, William. 
29. Hall, John. 

29. Hi.ssic, Catherine. 

30. Heynum, Howard, w. Poplar St. 
31). Heyman, Moriis, w. Poplar St. 

30, Hill, George. 60 Third St. 

31. Hightower, Daniel, w, 84 Second St. 
31. Hesson, Henry, w, 45 Beale St. 

31. Hays, Marv, c, 42 Allen Ave. 
31. Hill, Austin, c, 60 Third St. 
31. Haley, Daniel, w. Main St. 
SI. Hackett, Mary, w, Hernando Road. 
31. Hudson, James, c. 
Sept. 1. Hutchinson, Emma, w. Front St. 

1. Hurt, Otto, w, Dunlap St. 

1. Houston, Charles, City Hospital. 

1. Hall, Esther, c, Orleans St. 

1. Hami>ton, Eli, c. 111 C^ouit St. 

1. Hendeison, Jim, c, 42 Jackson St. 

1. Hendricks, Dennis, South St. 

1. Hopkins, c, 22 Main St. 

1. Ihudwav, Goodman, 37 Commerce St. 

1. Holt, Neil B., w, 359 Poplar St. 

1. Hoist, George A., w. Court St. 

1, Hnd.son (cliild of John\ c. 

1. Hackett, Mary, w. 

2. Hvman, Mrs. M., w. 
2. Hargan, Mildred. 

2. Hill, Tom, c, Monroe St. 

2. Hosmar. Chris., w, 108 Vance St. 

2. Hicks, George, c. City Hospital. 

2. Henderson, Robert, c, 1 Suzette St. 

2. Hnber, J. J., w, Robinson St. 

2. Hanson, Julia, w, Robinson St. 

2. Hopper, James, w, Exchange St. 

2. Hightower, Willie, w. Second St. 

2. Heidaw (infant of John), cor. Third and 

Auction Sts. 
2. Harman, Wm, N., w. South Jackson St. 

2. Hustin, A. 

3. Hardin, Monroe, 18 Washington St. 
3. Holmes, Henry, c, 169 Jefferson St, 
3. Hite, Henry. 197 Jeft'erson St. 

3. Jrlamilton, Charles, w, Charleston Ave. 
3. Holmes, Henry, Exposition Building. 
3. Hollingsworth, Monroe, c, 86 Washing- 
ton St. 

3. Hill. Sam., c, 96 Adams St. 

3. Hawkins, Florence, c, 11 Turlcy St. 

3. Hoo, Lang, 34 Poplar St, 

3, Howard, Willis 6 Turley St. 

3. Haber, Emily. 

3. Hurst, Henry, c, Jefferson St. 

3. Houston, Chas., c. City Hospital. 
3 Harper, James, w. Exchange St. 

4. Healey, Marv Ann, Winchester St. 

4. Hodges, Dr. W. R,, w. Fifth St., Chelsea. 
4. Harrison, M. J., w, Robinson St. 
4, Hohlin, Amelia, w, 172 Alabama St. 

4. Hope, John, w, Second St. 

5. Hoffman, Jacob, w, Second St. 

5. Haggerty, James, w, 73 Railroad Ave. 
5. Heins, Augustine, c. South St. 
5, Hertz (infant of L.), w. Bull Run. 



220 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Sept. 5. Hanson, M. J., w, Robinson St. 

5. Hurnder, .Millie, c, Pontotoc St. 
0. Habaroii, 120 Gavoso St. 

C. Haggerly, N , Oli'io R. R. 
(i. Hunter. Ida, :i2 Ros-i.\ve. 

6. Hood, Mis-;, w, ."lO Ross Ave. 

6. Hagge, Jolin ('., w, Broadway St. 
G. Hannegan, .Toliii, w, IS De Soto St. 
C. Hagge . Lewis, w, Broadway St. 

C. Hadish, S., w, Chelsea. 
0. Hood, Mrs., w, Ross .Ave. 

7. Harrington, Mary, w, Bjale St. 
7. Hosj, Tliomas, Ro^s ,\ve. 

7. Hobsnn, ,Iess',\ e, iV) .Monroe St. 
7. Hall. William, e, cor alley i Fifth St. 
7. Horn, .\Iag'.;le, w. 2:!3 Main St. 
7. Hays, Tobin, 209 Diuilap St. 

7. Hays, Gabriel, c, Ross Ave. 

8. Hauenbnrg, James, w, 244 Front St. 
8 Hnpper, Mrs., vv. Second St. 

8. Haggerty, Annie, w. Gill's Station. 
8. Horn, Mr.s. Maggie, \v. Union St. 
8. Hicks, George, w, Shelby St. 

8. Hughes, Mary, GayosD St. 

9. Hewitt, Henry. 

'.). Hardin, HenrV. w, .")4 Jackson St. 

9. Harris, Matt., 4fi Allen Ave. 

9. Higgins,Williani,»', Market St. Infirmary. 

9. Hall, Rosa, w, cor. Fifth & Broadway Sfs. 

9. Ham nerstein, Laura, w,,s3 Second St. 

9. Hughes, Miss, w, Dunlap St. 

9. Heath, Thos , w. 
10. Hood, Thomas B., w, Madison St. 
10. Hope, George, w. Commerce St. 
10. Holt, Herman, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
10. Harris, J., 44 Pontotoc St. 
10. Hubert, w. Second St. 
10. Hammerson, Pauline, w, S:U Third St. 
10. Hyde, John, 19 Hernando St. 
10. Hammerstein, Mrs., Greenlaw St. 
10. Hicks, Erasmus, 55 Charleston Ave. 
10. Harris, Mamie, 02'^ Front St. 
10. Humes, A. R., w. Main St. 

10. Hoft'niaster, Joanna, Louisville, Ky. 

11. Hardv, John, V>5 Union St. 
11. Halle'nhead, S. B. 

11. Hiekerson, Simon, 252 Elliott St. 

11. Hayes, James, w, Market St. 

11. Hammerstein, Emilv, w, 8:! Second St. 

11. Hunter. Willie, w, 269 Union St. 

11. Hurt, Henrv, 2 Tuiley St. 

11. Hodges, Mrs. E., w, Lauderdale St. 

H. Hunter, George, 2(>:» Union St 

11. Hammerstein, Mrs., cor. Mill & Green- 

law Sts. 

12. Hiekerson, Simon, c, 2-^2 Elliott St. 
12. Harris, Willie, w, Gavoso House. 
12. Hardv, John, 121 Beale St. 

12. Holt, Mrs., w, 417 Main St. 

12. Hutchins, R. 

12. Hinds, Mrs. Ellen. 

12. Hemmerly, John. w. 

13. Harris, Ed., c. Poplar St. 

13. Hodaes, B. M., w, 41li Lauderdale St. 

13. Hardin, Lucv, c, 11 North St. 

13. Hudson, William, w, 374 Main St. 

13. Hare, Henry, w, 13G Orleans St. 

13. Havnes, Richard V., w, 3G4 Union St. 

13. Harvev (child), c, 59^ Front St.. 

13. Hill, William A., Poslen Ave. 

14. Hanna, Tisha, c, St. Martin St. 
14. Hamilton, J., c, Linden St. 
14. Hallam, Sallie, c, Georgia St. 

14. Hightower, Francis, w, cor. Third and 
Adams Sts 

14. Havden, James, w. Market St. Infirmary. 

14. Hallam, Mollic, Front St. 

14. Hameron, James V., 2.") Vance St. 

14. Hitzfield, William, w. 2:!3 Second St. 

14. Herman, Ma.v, w, 39 Madison St. 

14. Hutchinson, Mrs. Jentiie, 81 Adams St. 

14. Holcomb, Mollie, c. Ninth St. 

14. Haynes, Richard V., w, 304 Union St. 

15. Hampton, C, e. 

I, 1. Hope, Mrs. Tim., w. 
15. Healey, Pat. 

15. Holraau, Harrv, Hernando St. 

15. House, Lee, c, 130 Beale St. 

15. Hilton, Margaret, 182Rayburn Ave. 



Sept. 15. Hall, Georgiana, w, ia5 Betile St. 
1.5. Horsley, Nellie, w, Citv Hospital. 
IC. Hawlev, Pat., c. South St. 
16. Horton. Henrietta, c, Clinton St. 
16. Hemnle, Eliza, w. loot of Market St. 
16. Henrv, Lulu, w, foot of Auction St. 
16. Hewitt, Mike, w, 298 Second St. 
16. Hubert. George. 
16. Hnlah, William, w, Church Home. 
16. Horasley (child of J.) 
16. Han is, Jliss Rosa, w, cor. Exchange and 
Third St-;. 

16. Han.sman, Fred. R., w. Market £t. Infirm- 
arv. 

16. Hicks, Willie, w. 

17. Hinklc, M. W.. w. Walnut St. 
17. Hollensbud, C. B. 

17. Hitchcock, Thonms. 

17. Heath, J. W., w, 82 Fifth St. 

17. Hope, Tim., w. 

17. Hill, W. P. 

17. Hanley, Margaret, w. Walnut St. 
17. Hogg, Mrs., w. Fort Pickering. 
17 Hogg (child of Mrs.), \v. Fort Pickering. 
17. Hinkle, M. W., cor. Georgia cV Walnut Sis. 
17. Henderson, Minnie, c. Linden St. 
17. Higgins, H C, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
17. Haldion, John, 289 Linden St. 
17. Hamilton, J. W., w. Front St. Ft. Picker- 
ing. 

17. Hammock. R. L., w, Madison St. 

17. Hoggin. Mrs., c, Alabama St. 

17. Hicks, Dr. J. B , w. Court St. Infirmary. 

17. Hays. Tim., w, 61 Commerce St. 

18. Hardin, Ben., c, cor. Jones Avenue and 

North St. 

18. Harris, Miss Jesse, 229)^ Second St. 

18. Hope, Mrs. Rjiehiicl. 

18. Harris, Angeline R. 

18. Higgerson. Fannie. 

18. Hafron, John, w. Linden St. 

18. Hotchkiss, 'I'homas (of Shreveport), Mar- 

ket St. Infirmary. 

19. Harris, Lewis, cor. Hernando it Elliott 

Sts. 

19. Heiiison, Mrs., w, 83 Second St. 
19. Hammerstein, Julia, 83 Second St. 
19. Hicklin, Wm., c, Horn Lake Road. 

19. Hellvig, Rudolph. Louisville, Ky. 
20 Howard, Henrv. citv lIospitaL 

20. Hasten, V., w. city Ibispital. 
20. Hays, Thomas, c, 4?s Ross Ave. 
20. Horaii, Mary. 

20. Hunt, Fannie T., \v, Hernando Rond. 
20. Herman, w, Adams St. Stjition-house. 
20. Hays, Cynda, », 42 .\llen Ave. 
20. Herring', Mary, c. Exchange St. 
22. Hogge, John, c, Broadway St. 
22. Hammerstein, J., w. Second St. 
22. Houston. Alii e. 

22. Headey, Dr T. J.,w, Market St. Infirmary. 

22. High, "Mansfield, w. Shelby County. 

23. Hinds, Jackson, c, Overton St. 
23. Horton, W. N. 

23. Holtz, T. W. 
23. Harris, Adolph. 

23. Henderson, Virgey, c, cor. Lane Ave. <t 
Ayers St. 

23. Haggle, John, w, Broadway St. 

24. Horton, C. w. Market St. Infirmary. 
24. Hought, G., w, Market St. Infirmary. 
24. Harris, c. Poplar St. 

24. Horsley, T. T. 

25. Hallows, Eveline, w. Pierson Place. 

25. Ha'.igerty, J. F., w, Orleans St. 

26. Hiuhtower, Lewis, c, cor. Tennessee and 

Clay Sts. 
26. Hightower, Lewis. 
26. Harmon, Capt. Wm. 

26. Headey, Mrs. Francis, w, Market St. In- 

firmarv. 
26. Hoi>lev, "Benton. 
26. Hill, Alfred C. 

28. Havs, cliild of Mrs., c, 209 Dunlap St. 
20. Hunt, Wm. W., w, 4.50 Hernando St. 

28. Heidelberg, Louis, Louisville, Ky. 

29. Hughes, Christopher, o, cor. Tennessee 

and Clay Sts. 
29. Hordou, c, 65 Elliott St. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



221 



Sept. 29. Haggerty, Annio. w, Orleans St. 

29. Higgiiis, Mr., w, Memphis and Little Rock 

R. R. 

30. Haley, Mrs., w. Father IMatliew Camp. 
30. Heraple, Willie, w, Market St. 

30. Higgiiis, Albert, e, cor. Vance and Wal- 
nut Sts. 

Oct. 1. Harrison, James, c, cor. Third and Coffee 
Sts., Ft. Pickering. 
1. Hollenberg, C. B.,w, Market St Infirm'ry. 

1. Highland, Jnc).N.,w, Market St. Infirm'ry. 

2. Henderson, \V., c, -130 Linden St. 
2. Hickman, E., w, Georgia St. 

2. Hatcher, J. S., w. Main St. 

2. Hollv, Josepli. w, Mosebv Ave. 

3. Hnnt, Ellen V., c, Washington St. 
3. Hereford, Harriet, c, Union St. 

3. Hyman, William, w. City Hospital. 
3. Heomig, I. M., w. Market St. Infirmary. 
3. Hill, Lewis, Broadway St. 

3. Harris, James, c, cor. Main and Beale Sts. 

4. Henricle, J. R., w. Madison St. 
4. Harris, Davev, c. Short Third St. 
4. Hill. Lewis, c, 38 Jackson St. 

4. Hunter, Carl, Shelby Comity. 

4. Hewitt, Thomas, w. Maiii St. 

5. Howard, Mrs. C. W., w, Posten Ave. 
5. Hanlev, Peter, w, Snzelte St. 

5. Holt, Jolin A., w, .350 Poplar St. 

(i. Harris, Ruth, c. Linden St. 

G. Hiukle, L., w, Georgia St. 

0. Harrington. A., w, Horn Lake Road. 

7. Hanley, Edward, w, Vance St. 

7. Hack, 'Miss M., w, Marley Ave. 

7. Hawley, Isaac H., w. Market St. Infirm'ry. 

7. Hawkins, Mr., w, McLemoro Ave. 

8. Holmes, Mari.i, c. Poplar St. 

8. Hewitt, Mrs. Jesse, w, Causey St. 
8. Hewitt, child otDr., w. 

8. Howard, Frank, c, Waldron Ave. 

9. Hardeman, Eva, c, near Elmwood. 

10. Harvey, W. \V'., w. Camp Joe Williams. 
H. Hawkins, A. S., w, Madison St. 

11. Hawkins, Pres., c. New Gas Works. 

12. Holland, T. P., w, Union St. 
12. Holston, Martha, c, Trigg Ave. 

14, Hefley, C, w, Wright Ave. 

11). HLMHiiger, Otto, w, Breedlove Ave. 

17. Ilainer, Mrs., w. It ileigh. 

18. Heidel, Robert B., w. 

18. Harrington, A., w. Market St. 

19. Hollywood, Mrs. J., w. Camp Father Ma- 

thew. 

10. Hollywood, L.,w,Camp Father Mathew. 

21. Henniger, Fred., w, Breedlove Ave. 

22. Hellman, Fred., w, Dunlap St. 

24. Henniger, Miss A., w, Br.'edlove Ave. 
2(i. Harris, Mrs. NL, w. Central Ave. 
27. Haynes. W. B.. w, Elliott St. 
30. Horn, Mary A., w, Boulevard. 

30. Henniger, Rosa, w, Breedlove Ave. 
.31. Henderson, infant of Mrs. 

31. Hanna, Noah, w. Pigeon Roost Road. 
Nov. 1. Hightower, James, w. 

4. Hanlev. Mrs. E. P., w, Ruth St. 

11. Hug, Peter, w, Jackson St. 

12. Henderson, Virginia, c, Walnut St. 
21. Hartlege, M'lllie, w, Alabama St. 
30. Harris, W. H. 

Aug. 12. Isaacs, Mattie L., w. 
12. Ivery, Turner, c. 

11. Ivery, Turner, cor. Sixth St. & Broadway. 

15. Isaacs, E., w. 

23. Isaacs, Isaac. 

Sept. 7. Irby, Amanda T).. Main St. 
7. Ingalls, Dr., w, 430 Jfain St. 

12. Irvvin, Lottie, 107 DeSoto St. 

12. Irwin, Peter. 

13. Irwin, Emma N., \v, Jones Ave. 

14. Ida, w, Tiiom.T-s Ave. 

17. Ike, Ben., c, De Soto St. 

18. Isdell, Carrie. 

19. Idley, Jack, c, Huling St. 

20. Is.iac, cor. Carolina and Main Sts. 
23. Infant child. City Hospital. 

Oct. .5. Irving, Mrs. John, w, Poplar St. 
Nov. C. Isbell, Daniel, Madison St. 
Aug. 12. Jones, Roscr. 

12. Jackson, M., City Hospital. 



Aug. 12. Johnson, Ben., c , Tnrley St. 
12. Jones, Riichael, 158 Poplar St. 

14. Johl, Maxcy. 

15. Johl, Henrich. 
15. Jenkins, Mrs. E. 

18. Jones, Daniel, c, Robinson St. 

21. Johnson, Henry, c, 9>^ Johnson Ave. 

'23. Johnson, William, c, cor. Alabama and 

Qninby Sts. 
24. Johnson," Henry, c, City Ilospit.al. 
24. Jones, (.'atherine, c, Worsham House. 
'25. Jones, Caroline <'., \v. 
'2(1. Jones, I. II., '242 Monroe St. 
20. Johl, w, Commerce St. 
20. Jackson, Colden, w, City Hospital. 
27. Johnson, Cyrus, w, Poplar St. 

27. Johl, Mrs Z., w. Commerce St. 
'28. Jones, .\nili'rMin, c. Poplar St. 

28. Jenkins, Williiim, w, 17 Second St. 

'28. Johnson, Nannie, Cane Creek, Shelby Co. 

28. Joslin, Mrs., 170 Poplar St. 

30. Joyce, Patrick, w, Washington St. 

30. Johnson, Ed., 37 Commerce St. 

30. Jones, Robert, '2'22 Monroe St. 

,30. Jacobs, Joe., 39 Front St. 

30. James, Robert. '242 Monroe St. 

30. John, nliax Chicago John, alley, between 

Main and Front Sts. 
.30. Johnson. Maria, c, St. Martin St. 

31. Jones, Liltleton, c. Market St. 

31. Jacksfjn. Minerva, c, 313 Union St. 
31. .Iiincs, Mollie, c, U Jackson St. 
Sept. 1. Johnson, Mattie. 39 Adams St. 

1. Jack.son, R. J., w, r26 Johnson Ave. 

2. Jackson. Mrs., Raleigh Road. 

2. Jepson, Sarah, 18 Winchester St. 

3. Jackson, James, c, cor. Front and Syca- 

more Sts. 
3. Jf)hnson, jNfarv, c, 71 Front St. 
3. Jones, Mrs., 33 Third St. 
3. Jones, Monroe, c, Huling St. 
3. Johnson, Mary Jane, Jackson St. 
3. Jackson, Anderson, c, 17 Poplar St. 
3. Jones, Lavina, c, cor. Concord and Second 

Sts. 

3. Jackson, Anderson, 17 Poplar St. 
3. Jessen. Jerrold, c, Winchester St. 

3. Jackson, Mary, e. 

4. Jerome, Mrs. K. L., "w, Worsham House. 
4. Jacobs, Roberta, c. South Jackson St. 

Jones, Albert, c, 32>2 Causey St. 
■5. Johnson, Annie, c. Commerce St. 
0. Jones, Manda, 21G Front St. 
0. Jones, Henry A.. 210 Front St. 
0. Johnson. Henry, c. Second St. 
(i. Jones, Nellie, c, 02 Promenade St. 
0. Jefferson, Louis, c. 
fi. Josepha, Sister, w. La Salette Academy. 
7. Jeiniy, F. W., w, Beale St. 
7. James, Alice J., w, Georgia St. 
7. Jdcte, Joseph, 800 Main St. 
7. Jacobs, Dennis, c, 182 Georgia St., Ft. 

Pickering. 
7. Joyce, Jennie, 110 Gayoso St. 

7. Junkerman, Mr. 
8 Johnson, Gus. 

8. Jones, Monroe, De Soto St. Engine House. 
8. Judah, Charles, w. City Hospital. 

8. Jackson, Robt. L. 

8. Jeffrey, Amanda, w. 

9. Janes, Eddie. 
9. Jobe, Jacob, c. 

9. Jenkins, Henry, c. 
10. Jones, Charles, c. Union St. 
10. Johnson, Edward, w, Market St Infirmary. 
1(1. Jones, Charles, c, 344 Union St. 
10. Jackson, Mrs., w. Sycamore St. 
10. Jackson, Andrew, c, foot of JlcCall St. 
10. Jones, John, cor. .lack.son & Seventh Sts. 
10. Jones, C, c, 192 Robinson St. 

10. Jackson, H., c, 8 Lauderdale St. 

11. Jones, John, Monroe St. 

11. Jones, Matilda, c, Monroe St., extended. 
11. Jones, Lena. 192 Robinson SI. 

11. Johnson, William, c. HI Wincliesler St. 
n. Jackson, Phil., c. city Hospital. 

12. Johnson, Ben., '2.57 Wasliington St. 

13. Jones, Hailey, 47 Main St. 

13. Jolmson, John,w, cor. Second A Keel Sts. 



222 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



Sept. 13. Joiics, Melcssa, \v, Jackson St. 

13. Johnson, Edward, o, ]9S Elliott St. 

13. James, Tucker, e, Broadway. 

13. Jackson, Sol., c, De Soto St. 

13. Jessie, c, cor. Adams and Manassas Sts. 

13. Jackson, Al., c, De Soto St. 
14 Joiner, Parker, c. 

14. Jone.s, Richard, c, 65 Elliott St. 
14. Johnson, Sallie, c, 89 Market St. 

14. Jndge, Theodore, w, 18 Exchange St. 
14. Johnson, Annie N., w. 

14. Johnson, Sallie, c, cor. Madison and De 

Soto Sts. 

15. Jackson, John, c, Short Third St. 
1.5. Jacobi, J. C, w. 

1.5. Jarvis, w, Court St. 
10, Joiner, Mary, c. 

Ki. Johnson, Virginia, c, 75 Pontotoc St. 

17. Johl, Mamie, cor. Seventh ct Jackson Sts. 

17. Johnson, Tom, w, 44 Causey St. 

17. Johnson, Annie, c, De Soto St. 

17. Jones, George, c, Spring St. 

17. Jenning-i, Matthew, w. Church Home. 
1,S. Johl, Mr>. Mary. w. 

IS. Jolnison, Mrs. M., w, 245 Saflerans St. 

18. Johnson, Eliza, c, Broadway. 
IS. Jones, Walter, c. Bluff. 

IS. Jennie, c, 02 Madison St. 

18. Jackson, Lou., c, Marlin Ave. 

18. Johnson, Courtney. 

19 Jukes, W. C, c, 129 Cansev St. 

19. Jones, Robert N., P^rleigh Road. 

19. Jones, Mrs. H., c, Court St. 

20. Jordan, Henry, c, Echols St. 

20. Joiner,Calvin,cor.Alabama& Seventh Sts. 
20. Jones, Daisy, w, cor. Georgia & Fourth Sts. 
20. Johnson, Fred., c, Tennessee Railroad. 

20. Joiner, Calvin, e, cor. Safferans and 

Seventh Sts. 
22. Jackson, John, c, Third St. 
22. .Johnson, Edmund, w, 245 Safferans Sts. 
22. Jackson (childi, c, Central Point. 

22. Jackson, Mrs.,w, cor.Third & Jackson Sts. 

23. Jones, Alfred, c.cor.Linden it Walnut Sts. 
23. Jones, Bettio, c.cor. Tennessee & Clay Sts. 

21. Jones, Miss M. 

25. Jefferson, Miss P>., c, Poplar St. 
25. Johnson, Mrs., w, Orleans St. 
■ 25. Jackson, Clara, c, Carolina St. 

25. Johnson(child of .Jennie), c,915 GeorgiaSt. 

25. Josephine, c, Second St. 

25 Johnson, Mrs. F., c. Spring St. 

20. Johnson, J., Jr. 

20. Jones, John, w. City Hospital. 

27. Jones, Calvin, c, cor. Main and Mill Sts. 

27. Johnson, Caroline, c, 139 GeorgiaSt. 

27. Jackson, Sarah, c, Waldron Ave. 

27. Johnson, Jennie, 915 Georgia St. 

27. Jones (child). 

28. Jackson, George. 

28. Jones, Hannah, w. Fourth & Georgia Sts. 

28. Jamieson, Wm., w, Hernando Road. 

29. Jefferson, Thomas, c, cor. Linden and 

Hernando Sts. 

30. Johnson, Charles. 

30. Johnson, Handy, c. Mill St. 
SO. Johl, Edward, w, Brinkley Ave. 
Oct. 1. Johnson (Oliild of Lizzie), 13 Market St. 

1. Johnson, Charles, w, Hernando St. 

2. Jones, Eliza, c, Chapin Ave. 

2. Johnson, Sarah, c, foot of Beale St. 

2. Jackson (infant of Julia), Carolina and 

Second Sts. 
2. Joanna, w, 67 .Jefferson St. 
2. Jolinson, Robert, c. City Hospital. 

2. Jackson, Ella, c, Carolina St. 

3. Jones, Mary E. 

5. Jobe, S. M., w. Court St. 

5. Johnson, Sidney, c, Hernando St. 

5. Jones, Preston, c. Walnut St. 

6. Jones, Susiin,c,cor. Jackson & Allen Ave. 
6. Jones, Lewis, c. Third St. 

G. Jones, H., c. Union St. 

6. Jackson. A., c, Wnlker Ave. 

7. Jones, Clara, c, Shelby County. 

8. Johnson, T. N., w, Hernando" Road. 

8. Johnson, J. S., w. Poplar St. 

9. Jacobs, Mrs. J. C, w, Memphis and 

Charleston Railroad. 



Oct. 9. Johnson (child of Pierce). 

9. Jake, south gate, Eimwood. 

9. Jacobi, J. C, w, Memphis and Charleston 

Railroad. 
10. Jones, John, w. Union St. 

10. John, c, 42 Second St. 

lu. Jon_es, Frank, c, 70 Auction St. 

11. Joli'nson, Henry, c, Carr Ave. 

12. Johnson, Miss, w, foot of Market St. 
12. Johnson, Cora L., w. Market St. 

14. Just, M. B., w, Gill'sStatiou. 
10. Jones, w. 

30. Jones. Irene, c. 

31. Johnson. Fayette. 

Nov. 2. Jones, Daniel, w, Moseby Ave. 

3. Jones, J. C, w. Fourth St. 

4. Jackson, Cora, c, Madison St. 

Dec. 10. Joyiier, ^\'illiam, w, cor. Alabama St. and 

Jones Ave. 
Aug. 12. Kearns, John W. 

12. Kinney, M. W., w, Adams St. 

14. Knhn, Aithur. 

17. Ketlerman, C. F. 

18. Kelley, James, 22 Alabama St. 

19. Klostermeyer, Bertha, \v. 

20. Kearns, Mrs., 83 Winchester St. 

21. Kounds, B. B., w, 179 Second St. 

25. Kleiner, John R., w. 

26. Kleiner, John. 

26. Klaffki, Andrew, w. 

26. Klein, John, w. North Court St. 

27. Kesillen, A.,w, Shelby St. 

28. Kealhotler, George, w. North Court St. 
28. Kirkland, Harry, w, Monroe St. 

28. Keary, James C., w, Bradford St. 

30. Kelly, John, w. 

31. Kennerly, Martin, w. City Hospital. 
31. Kallaher, C, w. City Hospital. 

31. Kearn, Arthur, w, Washington St. 
31. Kallaher, -Sarah, w, Jefferson St. 
31. Kleiner, Joseph, w, Jefferson St. 
Sept. 1. Kinston, Auguste. 

1. Keiston, Thomas, 40 Exchange St. 

1. Knight, Anna, 59 Moseby Ave. 

1. Kelley, Jennie, c. Second St." 

1. Kershaw, Thos., Exchange St. 

1. Krutcher, Chas., c. 

2. Kohler, Amelia, 172 Alaba7iia St. 

2. Kaufman (infant), w, C:ty Hospital. 
2. Knight, Mrs., 49 Second St. 
2. Kctler, B. F.. 147 Madison St. 
2. Kaufman, Louis. 
2. Keeley, Annie. 

2. Kelley, Hugh. 

3. Keef, Annie, w. 

4. Keef, w. Causey St. 

4. Knight, Andv, c, 69 Second St. 

5. Kadish, S., w. 

5. Keyer, Martin J., w. 

5. Kennedy, Mrs., w, cor. Mill & Third Sts. 

5. Keff, R.,"48 Front St. 

5. Knox, Florence, w, Jefferson St. 

6. Kallaher, Mike, w, Market St. Infirmary. 
6. Kadish, Mrs., w. 

6. Keyer, M. J., w, Monroe St. 

7. Kernell, Mamie E. 

7. Kassava, Adolph,w, Market SI. Infirmary. 
7. Kearney, Martin, w, 18 Market St. 
7. KenzU r, Louis, w, Jefferson St. 

7. Keefaber, A. W., w. Market St. 

8. Kearns, Frank. 

8. Kraft, P., 148 Washington St. . 
8. Kelley, Michael, w, Ross Ave. 
8. Kipper, Morris S., 82 Greenlaw St. 
8. Kifferel, Joseph, cor. Poplar & Manassas 
Sts. 

8. Kearns, Henrv, 35 Main St. 
8. Kellev, Lucv, 95 De Soto St. 
8. Kernell, Lizzie, c, 26 St. Martin St. 

8. Kelly, Luckaby, w. 

9. Kauffinan. Henry. 
9. Kerr. A. W. 

9. Kautrman, Henry. 
9. Kallaher, John, w, Jefferson St. 
9. Kenney, Mr., w, Walker Ave. 
9. Kite, Mrs., c, 22 Allen Ave. 
9 Koser, James, Shelby County. 
9. Kerr, J. M., w, Madison St. 
10. Kilpatrick, L. 



A HISTORY OF 



THE YELLOW FF.VKR. 



223 



Sept. 10. Kclley, .T.me. 

10 Kohlieldt, Irwin, w, Poplar St. 
JO. Kilpatrick, L., l; ToU-Kiite. 
10. Kelley, George, c. County Jail. 
K). Kitchens, H., c, 04 Pontotoc St. 
10. Kofibril, Wollie, cor. Poplar & Manassas 
.Sts. 

10. Kflley, Mrs. Ilannali. 

11. Kailisli. 

11. Kiuiipf, William. 

11. Koch, Willlaiii, .Jr., w, 170 Bonth St, 

11. Kinilal, Katie, W, 15'.l .Second .St. 

12. Kiihii, Paul vv. Market .St. Infirmary. 
12. Kumpf, .Matilda. 

12. Kester, Susie, w. City IIo.spital. 

13. Klearheart. John, w[ SheU)y County. 
13. Kind, Bridget, w. Vance St. 

13. King, Lewis, c, City Hospital. 
13. Kelher, John, Hernando St. 

13, Keeley, Cornelius, c, cor. Front & Jack- 

son Sts. 

14. Kennedy, Miss. 

14. Kates, John S., c, cor. Linden & Shelby 

Sts. 

15. Knowlton, L. S., w. South Alabama St. 

1. "). Kelley, Tillie, Old Ilcn Islanil. 
10. Kilbourne, Henry, w, 77 Bcalo St. 
10. Kimiey, James, w, City Hospital. 
10. Keyser, A., w, Butler St. 

17. Kamera, Louis, w, Brinkley Ave. 
17. Kirwin, Davie, w. Union St. 
17. Kinos, Joseph, Shelby County. 

17. Kriiin, John, Madison St., extended. 

18. Kennedy, \V. A., State Female College. 
2J. Kane, John, w, Poplar St. 

24. Kantieldt, E , Poplar St. 
24. Kantieldt, Kphraim. 
24. Kerchner Alice, w. Clay St. 
2.5. Kircheval, E,, w. Spring St. 

2. x Kinney, Jolm M., w, ('arolina St. 
20. Kclley, F., c, cor. U.une.s tt First St.s. 
20. Krhni, Jlrs. J. 

20. Kim, Louis. 

27. Kautmau, Charles, w, Leath Orphan Asy- 

lum. 

28. Kaufman, Samuel, w. 

30. Kendall, Peter, w, Carolina St. 
Oc't. 1. King, H. S., w, Masuolia Block. 
3. Koch, William, w, 170 South St. 
3. Kathascna, Emma, w, Hernando Road. 
3. Kerr, Wm,, w, Moseliy Ave. 
3. Kendall, Roliert, w, liandolph Road. 

3. King, Margaret, w, *ii'<irgia St. 

8. Klarutz, John, w, Market '^t. Infirmary. 
8. Koeidg, J. M., w, Jlarkct St. Iidirmary. 

4. Kerr, .Mrs. J. H., \v, Moseliy Ave. 

4. Kotford, Thoma-s, w, Raleigli Road. 

5. Kraus, William, w, Horn Lake Road. 

6. Kimball, Ida, c, Carolina Sf. 

6. Kulsch, Theodore, w. Ft. Pickering. 
8. Kutseli, Katie, \v, Ft. Pickering. 
8. Kerr, JloUie, w, Moseby Ave. 

8. Kerr, John, w Moseby Ave. 

9. Knox, Miss Charlotte, w, Brerdlove Ave. 
9. Krause, Carhitla, w, Lewis Ave. 

10. Knev, Charlotic, \v. 
10. Kincaid, Emma, c, Butler St. 
10. Kane, James, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
12. Kinman, Thomius, w, Raleigli Road." 
12. Kerr, Charles, w, 87 Moseby Ave. 
14. Kelley, James, w, Shelby ('ounty. 
I 14. Kraus, Mi-s. B., w, Vance St. 
10. Kaufman, Mi's. L., w, Trigg Ave. 
10. Kennedy, Florence, w, State Fc male Col- 
lege. 

16. Kamera, Miss E., M , Olympic Park. 

17. Kraus, George, w, Vance St. 

18. Keating, Dr. M. T., w, Peabody Hotel. 
18. Kerger, Mrs R., w, Broadway St. 

18. Kutsch, (ieorge, w. Walker Ave. 
23. Kutsch, John, w, Walker Ava. 
23. Kraus, Jacob, w. Vance St. 
Nov. 2. Kilpatrick, c, City Hosp'tal. 

6. Keating, Miss Katie, w, Elliott St. 

7. Kirk, Sam., w. Elliott St. 

Aug. 14. Lusher, Charlie, w, Madison St. 
* 1."). Lowenhardt, Wm. 

10. Lowenhardt, Mrs. Katie, ICS Poplar St. 
17. Lavegnii, Frank, w. 
15 



Aug, 17. Lnniligan, Richard, w. 
17. Lang, Miss Augusta, w. 
17. Latcli, Mrss Louisa, w. 
17. Latch, Mi.ss Amelia, w. 
21, Levaris, Fannie, w, li'tS Poplar St, 
21. Lochmeyer, Wm., City Hospital. 

21. Large, Jack, w. 

22. Lochmeyer, A., 9 Washineton St. 
2.'). Lemon, Nellie J., w, 4.iO Poplar St. 
20. Lester, Mollie, 20 Winchester St. 
20. Lynch, Mrs. Mary, 12 Alabama St. 

20, Lynch, Mary, w, 12 Adams St. 
27. Latsch, John, w, Robin.son St. 

21. Louis, Louisa, w. Main St 

27. Lohmaii, Katie, w. South .\labamaSt. 

28. Lee, James, \v, 97 Commerce St. 

28. Lee, Bennie, cor. Jai kson<S: Front Sts. 

28. Livingston, Henry, w. Poplar St. 

29. Livingston, Fannie. 

29. Lntz, Jacob, Sr., w, Winchester St. 
29. Lynch, Jlrs., w, 08 Commerce St. 
29. Lannagan, Maggie, City Hospital. 

29. I^yiich, James, 12 Alabama St. 

30. Louis, F. W., w, 187 Main St. 

80. Lavallen, Catherine, w, 4 High St. 

30. Lowe, Esther, c. Fifth St. 

30. Lasalle, Mrs., w. 111 Poplar St. 

.30. Lemon, Tom, JeHerson St. 

30. Lucas, Robert, c. 

30. Lemon, George W., w. Poplar St. 
80. Lnlkcnie, Joseph. 

31. Lntz, Jacob, w, Winchester St. 

31. Le Guerre, Julia H., w, Waslnngton St. 
31. Logan, Catherine, w, Linden St. • 
31. Liiidsay, Charles, c. City Mosjiital. 
31. Loranz^ L. M., w. City Hospital. 
31. Lemoy, Alexander, c, Ml Washington St 
31. Luster, Bettie, e, Pontotoc St. 
Sept. 1. Lynd, Mike, 78 Commerce St. 

1. Lacey, .Mrs. C.. w, Chel.sea. 

1. Lihnbenner, Gus., G18 Shelby St. 

1. Loranz, James. 

1. Lynch, Mike, w. Commerce St. 

1. Lytus, Dick, c. 

2. Lynch, James, \v, 3 North Jackson St. 
2. Lindliilen, Gus., w, 518 Shelby St. 

2. Lane, H. B., w. City Hospital. 
2. Lindsay, Charles, w. City Hospital. 
2. Lnnighiim, Bridget, City Hospital. 
2. Lindsay, Belle, w, Hernando St. 

2. Looney, R. H. A., w, Adams St. 

3. Locke,' Robert, 170 Vance St. 
3. Liitt, Rol.iert, 1.10 rni(aiSt. 

3. Lowell, Carrie, c, Madison St. 

4. Littig, Willie, w, Chelsea. 

4. Le Guerre, .lulia E., w, Washington St. 

r>. Latherty, Kate, w, camp, Shelby County. 
!). Lohman, George, cor. South Alabama 
and Second Sts. 

5. Lohman, Mrs., w, Alabama St. 
5 Le Fiaui'e, Henry, 39 Poplar St. 

5. Lehman, Leo, w,' South Alabama St. 

6. Lee, Bennett, c, cor. Sveamore ifc Chelsea 

Sts. 

C. Lohman, Ida, 982 Alabama St. 

C. Leary. .Mrs. Joanna, w, Secoud St. 

0. Loop, Annie, w. Ladies' Mission. 

7. Look, Err, w, Adams St. 

7. Letcher, Fannie, 31 Ruth St. 

S. l.averson, Mrs. C . w, Jackson St. 
8 Lastin, Miss A., w. Auction St. 

8. Lilly, W., c. 

9. Loci), Jacnli, w. 

9. Lindev, Miles, c, cor. Vance & Tennessee 
Sts. ■ 

9. Locffle. Charley, w, 63 Causey St. 

9. Langster, Lucnis, cor.Echols it Vance Sts. 
10. Love, Xhce, w, South St. 
10. Laniiegan, Morris, c. 3 Overton St 

10. Lane, (Jeorge, w, Korth Court St 

11. Leopold, Isaac. 
11. Lieben, Edward. 

11. Laws, L.,c, cor. Manassas & Robinson Sts. 
11. I. indsav,W.T.,w, cor Walnut &. Vance Sts. 

11. Lamb, L., 30 St Paul St 

11 I.cgorini, Lewis, w, Beale St. 

12. Ling, Lucy, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
12. Lirch, Mrs". Rosini, v, Shelby St 

12. Lovely, Eveline, c. 



224 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV' FEVER. 



fccpt. 12. Landriim, Herbert S.. 'Wellington St. 

12. Lacey, A. T.,\v, cur. l iltli i Greenlaw Sts. 

12. Long, A., c, Seeouil St. 

13. Lane, Jesse, c, 2 0 South St. 
Leverre, Mrs. 11. S.. c, Washington St. 

13. Larkin, liau., ; liradforil St. 

14. Lego, Cliarlrs, w, 313 Union St. 

It. Lewis, Joliii, e, cor. Seventh St. and 

Walker Ave. 

l-l. Lnnily, Tom, c, cor. Seventh & Alabama 

1 1 1/ a, lii rry, e, HnmholcU Park. 

It. 1. me, Irai c, De Soto St. 

II. lauas, JI. A. 

14. Lindner, Lizzie, w, Henry Ave. 

1.1. Leman, William, w. Sycamore St. 

1.'). Lay, John, w, City Ho'spital. 

].=.. Lu'nn, Mis.s Reno, w, Vanee St. 

1.'). Lonsdale, .L G., Jr., \v, BcUeview Ave. 

l."). Lyons, Larry, ICG Gayo.so St. 

Vk Linn, Ro.sa, w. 

1. '). La.sse, Mrs., w. 
Ifi. Lidwell, V. M. 
Hi, Linsey. Jark. 

III, Lieben, Miss Amelia, w, 217 De Soto St. 
US. Lnnn, Thomas, w, Vanee St. 

3(1. Lnnn, Phil. H., w, Vance St. 

36. Lunn, William, Jr., w, Vance St. 
3i;, Liir, J. N., w, St, Martin St. 

37. Lnnster, Fred., w, 17 Causey St. 
17 LliiUhause, Jacob. 

37, Larry, J. N. 

37. Leatli, Hamilton, \v, Manassas St. 

3«. Lee. Charles, w. 

3><. L wis, Thomas. Pontotoc St. 

3s. LdclUe, E.. w, id Alabama St. 

3'.i. L )Ve, Buddy, w, north gate, Elmwood. 

1'.). Love, Kobert, w, Elmwood. 

311, Lyons, Lizzie, Brinkley Ave. 

39. I,ove, Charley, w, Hernando & South Sts. 

3'J. Lane, Adolphus, w, De Soto St. 

20. Lynch, Bernard, Third St. 

20. Liicarani, J. F., w. 

20. Ix'rtura, Miss Louise, w, Boulevard. 

20. Lons lale, Jlrs.J. G., Sr.,w, Belleview Ave. 

20. Littlejohn, Lewis, w. Linden St. 

20. Latham, Tillie, c, Rayburn Ave. 

21. Linsey, Joseph, c, Manassas St. 
21. Love," Annie, c, 237 Monroe St. 
21. Lontield, Mrs. W. \V. 

21. L iwton, R. H., Louisville, Kv. 

21. Lewellyn, J. C, c. Walker Ave. 

23. Lewis, John, w. Second St. 

23. Lewis, Noel, c, 9S Pontotoc St. 

2. ). Lyman, H. J., w, Beale St. 

2."). Landrnni, George, \v, Rayburn Ave. 

2.'). Lawson, Fred., c, 70 Causey St. 

21'). Lonsfoid, Jno. T. 

20. Love, Rosa, w, cor. Jackson and Fifth Sts. 

26. Lewis, Mary, c, cor. Walker & Seventh Sts. 
20. Latson, B., c. Bond's building, Ft. Piek- 

oriug. 

27. Lonsl'ord (child of Jno. T.). 

27. Lewellyn, Mary, c, Hernando Road. 

20. Leach, John, w. Market St. Infirmary. 

20. Luetke, Lewis, w, B.oadway. 

29. Layden, Margaret, w. Front St. 

30. Leman, Henry, w, 7 Sycamore St. 
30. Langford, C. R., w, Madison St. 
30. Jjano, Ed. 

Oct. 1. Lonsdale, John G . Sr., w, Shelby St 

2. Lanham, E. W.. w, Chelsea. 

2. Locke, Susie, c, Si.xthSt. 

2. Luala, West, ."wS Main St. 

2. Locke, Phajbe, c, Sixth St. 

3. Lndy, Mrs. 

3. Ludy, Lewis. 

3. r.ynch, Amelia, w, Washington St. 

3. Lewis, Henry, c, City Hospital. 

3. Locke, Phoebe, cor. Si.xth i Jackson Sts. 

3. Lake, Peter, c, Webster St. 

4. Loranz, Sister, w, St. Peter's Orphan 

Asylum. 

4. Lake, Miss Flora, w. Walnut St. 

4. Lolinski, L , w. Market St. Infirmarv. 

ry. Lee, Susan, e, 4S Sixth St. 

.'i. Lane, Crawford, c, Broadway St. 

.'■>. Lewis, Mason, c. Marlev St. 

(i. Lake, Wm. IL, w. Waln'ut St. 



Oct. f). Lahadic, Mrs., v.-, Horn Lake Road. 

G. Lehman, Willie, w, cor. Front & Sycamore 
Sts. 

G. L'Hommc, Leon P., w, Market St. In- 
firmary. 

7. Lightmore, Pope, c. South Jackson St. 

7. Leon, Market St. Infirmarv. 

7. Lake, Robert, \v. Walnut St. 

7. Lowery, Dr. James, w, Georgia St. 

7. Ludlow, F. W., w, JIarket >t. Intirmary. 

8. Lavaza, Emma, Shelby County. 
8. Lamb, EtUvard, w, Overton Point. 

8. Labe.sque, "Mr.s. J. M,,w,Horn Lake Read. 

8. Lawliorn. Jac k, c, Carolina St. 
!). Lindenlinr.u', ('has., w. 

9, Lnpkin, w. Walnut St. 
30. Lany, Louisa, c, Country. 

30. Lewis, George, c, 430 Hernando St. 

10. Labrella, JIajor, w, Anderson Ave. 

11. Lee, Tish. c, Overton Point. 
11. Love, Richard, c, St. Martin St. 
11. Lane, Richard, c, Elliott St. 

14. Lamb, Annie, \v, Citv Hospital. 
14. Lucas. Miss Lou,, c. College St. 
14. Lippolil, Wiley, w, Washington St. 
3."i. Lvibiu;!, John, w. Front St. 
3.'i. Lewis, Clara, c. cor. Jackson & La Rose Sts. 
35. Liudenburg, Mrs. Annie, W, S. E. cor. 
Elm Wood. 

18. Lonsford (child of W. W'.). w. Gas Works. 

21. Lillie, Joe, c, 200 Gayoso St. 

21. Lawrence, Jennie, ^v. City Hospital. 

21. Lake, Daniel, w, Jackson'.St. 

23. Lewis, Adeline, w. Walker .\ve. 
23. Lindon, Charles. \v, Elmwood. 
2.'). Lawrence, C, w, Richmond Ave. 
2\ Lott, c. 

2.1. Lehman, Y., w, Raleigh. 
20. Lucas, William, w. Boulevard. 
27. Lagoria, A., w. Country. 
2.S. Lee, Bettie, c, County .iail. 
29. Leydon, Margaret, Ci Front St. 
Nov. 3. Lonsdale, W. J. B., w, Dunlap St. 
4. Lehman (infant of Y.). 

11. Levy, Ephraim. 

l-'i. Loop, E. Rush, w, Mana.ssas St. 
1«. Lntz, Mrs. S. E-, w. Exchange St. 
Aug. 12. Mitchell, George, c. 

12. McConnell. James, w, 448 Poplar St. 

12. :\[rCombs, R. H. 

13. Jlonnegan, M. E., w, Alabama St. 
l:;. .Miller, .lohn H., w, Adams St. 

1.5. Jliller, Ida G. 
l(i. Macbeth, Mabel. 
17. Miller, Irwin. 
17 >rcGregor, 102}^ Poplar St. 
17. Meyers, Adolpll, cor. Main and Washing- 
ton Sts. 

17. McMahon. Joseph, w. Commerce St. 

19 Metcalf, Sam., w, Chelsea. 

2(1. Mason, Philip, Johnson Ave. 

20. Mi-Mahon. Mis. Ann, w. Alabama St. 

22. .Madison. .lolin. w, Cilv Hospital. 

22 .Morgan. Henry, w, 05 De Solo St. 

23 j\leti-alf, Emmons, w, Shelby County. 
25, >IcKeiina, Mr., w. City Hospital. 

25. Mitchell, R. W., o. 
20. JIurphy, Frank, w. Commerce St. 
20. Malone, Robert, Monroe St. 
20. Miller, R. B., w, Fffth St., 
2('>. JlrKeon. James, w, Poplar St. 
27. Mac, Pat., w, Citv Hospital. 
27. Mitchell, S., c, Ci'ty Hospital. 
27. McCall, Henrv. cof. Walnut and Pontotoc 
Sts. 

27. Mitchell, Charley, 155 Jtain St. 
27. Jliller, Joe. w, Cily Hospital. 
27. McKinii, Mrs. JIary, w. Poplar St. 
2/. Morris, Mrs. Alice,"w, Poplar St. 
27. McKinn, Raleigh. 

27. Melvin, Robert, Monroe .St. 

28. Jlcllvaine, Mrs. Marv, Brinkley -Vve. 
28. Muller, Albert, w, PciplarSt. 

28. Miller, S. B.. w, Alabama St. 
28. MofTat, John. 

28. McGivenoy, Thomas, w. Carroll Ave. 

2S. >Ionl'j;omery. Wm., w. Exchange St. t 

2s, Michaels. Gus., w. City Hospital. 

2S. Morris, James, w, 144 Moseby Ave. 



A HISTORY OF TIIF, YEI^LOW FEVER. 



Aug. 28. Jlatrinus, Anetta, w. Marlcct Square. 
28. Malone, Jcsie, c, Monroe St. 
28. MoKaiii, Mrs. John. 3.') .lolmson Ave. 

28. Many, James, Louisville, Ky. 

29. JlcIC'.-iin, KiG Wasliiiigtoa St." 
2'.l. Martli.i, City Hospital. 

2.1. Marv Ann, foot of Exchange St. 

29. Morse, David, Alabama St. 

29. Morris, James, 144 Moseby Ave. 

29. ^[orcill, cliilii, alley, between Main and 

Front Sts. 
29. Miller, An^nste, w, Ilupert St. 
29. Meiiarvey, John R., \v, St. Peter's Orphan 

Asylum 

29. jrineV, T. F., \v. Central .-Vve. 

30. iMcK.iv, C itheriiie, Poplar St. 
30. Miller, Mrs. S. B. 

30. McMillan, Mrs. JI., w, Winchester St. 
30. Jliirphy, f)lissa, w. Front St. 

30. Melton, Thomas, 173 Jelt'erson St. 

31. Jta^ee, Snsan, c, Elliott St. 

31. Mevers, Adolph, w, Washington St. 
31. Moore. W. \V., w. Second St 
31. McConley, Jami'S B., w, Hernando St. 
31. JIanly, Ma.^gie Ellen, w, Winchester St. 
31. .McWiliiams, C, w, County Jail. 
Sept. 1. ]\Iacklin, A. 

1. Mansford, E. J., w. Second St. 

1. Jlon^an, Walter, w. Johnson Ave. 

1. Jlerritt, George R., w, Orleans St. 

1. Jliller, J. W., w, Marshall Ave. 

1. McElrov, W. N., \v. Second St, 

1. Morrill, R. R., vv, 43 Poplar St. 

1. .Malone, Mike, vv, 79!-^ Concord St. 

1. McDonald, Mrs., w. Poplar St. 

2. Meadows, Jane. 

2. Madden, Wm., vv, cor. Mulberry and Lin- 
den Sts. 

2. Malone, Maria, c, cor. Third and C<jncord 
Sts. 

2. Malone, Albert, cor. SafFerans & Fifth Sts. 

2. Molton, Uriah, w, Main St. 

2. Jlorgan, John, w, Johnson Ave. 

2. Meadows, Jane. 

2. Menken, Nathan D., w, Peabody Hotel. 
2. Madden, J. J., w, Yates Lake. 

2. Miller, Mrs. John a., 224 Hernando St. 

3. Morgan, Delia, c, Greenlaw St. 
3. McCullough, Mrs. Ben., w 

3. McCullough, son of Ben., \v. 
3. Mnllaney, Peter, w, Dunlap St. 
3. McGirk, A., c, Lauderdale St. 
3. Mitchell, Mrs. R. W., w. Fort Pickering. 
3. Morgan, Delia, cor. Sixth and Greenlaw 
Sts. 

3. McCullough, Mi-s. Bju., w. Old Raleigh 
Road. 

3. MeCnllougli, Ben., \v, O'd Raleigh Road. 
3. Miillaven. Orphan Asylum. 
3. Mnrphy, John, w, City Hospital. 
Masou, 243 Monroe St. 

3. Mitrphv, Eliz I. 9 Front St. 

4. Mitche," iMrs. .Mollie, Main St. 

4. Mulligan. Richard, vr. Monroe St. 
4. Mackenzie, w, cor. South A Tennessee Sts. 
4 MeCauley, John, w, eor. 1)3 Solo & Beale 
Sts. 

4. Maher, Mike, w. Cit.v Hospital. 

4. Mud, John G., w, 224 Hernando St. 
.'■> Moore, Edward, w, 199 Main St. 

.Moran, Mike, Citv Hospital, 
."i. Maddox, Robert O., w, Citv Hospital. 
.'V. Moch, Millie, c, 129 De Soto St. 
r-t. Mccormick, John, w, Winchester St. 
,'). Moore, Virgil V., w, P,)ntotocSt. 
r:>. McClellan, Millie, e. 
."■>. McLane, John W., w, 319 Jlain St. 
."i. Maloney, Peter, vv, Dunlap St. 

5. Mc(<orks, Alabama, \v, Lauderdale St. 
(<. MacDongal, Chas. 11., w, Ciayoso St. 

<1. McDowell, Mrs. 
C. Mitchell, Slater, c, Dunlap St. 
<i. Macelfresh, James, w, Peabody Hotel. 
<i. MeL"an, John, w, 310 Adams St. 
0. Marshall, Henry, c. 248 Third St. 
0 Moran. Mike, w. City Hospital. 
r». McDew, c, 274 Washington St. 
C. Moore, Miles, c, cor. SafTerans & Looney 
Sts. 



Sept. 7. McGliec, Tony, c, cor. Shelby ct Vance!- ts. 
7. Moore, Miller! c, cor. Sycamore iV: L(,(un v 
Sts. 

7. McKinley, Mrs. E., w, Poplar St. 

7. McDonald, Rosa, w. City Hosp.tal. 

7. Motley, Ike. c, Broadway. 

7. .Macniimara, John, 17 Sc.iith St. 

7. Meil, Michael C., w, Vance St. 

7. Mead, Dr. W. C, w, Peabody Hotel. 

7. Martin, J. R. 

7, Malsi, Conrad. 

7. Morton, Lewis, GO De Soto St. 

7. Moore, Miles. 

7. MeCracken, Miss M., \v. 

8. Macklin. Eliza, c. 

<S. Mazeilye, Jcanetta. Van Btiren St. 
8. Myiiiitt, Lizzie, w, Alabama St. 
8. Mynatt, Thos. B., w, Alabama St. 
8. JIanley, Theresa, w, Moseby M-e. 
8. Maroo'ney, David, 101 Pontotoc St. 
8. McBiide, Emma, cor. De Soto and Gavoso 
Sts. 

8. McBindley, Ed., on Lamb Place. 

8. Mnrphy, Mollie. w, 9 Fiont St. 

8. McConnell, A., w, 117 Kobins(ni St. 

8. Mitchell, Josephine, e, cor. Ovcrtoji r.ud 

Promenade Sts. 
8. Miller, Ferd. A., w, Brownsville. 
8. Mauchei-, A., \v. 

8. Mauley, Y. R., w. 

9. Mackenzie, Mrs. S. A., \\\ cor. South f.nd 

'It'iuiessee Sts. 
9. Mazetta, Annie, w, 188 Beale St. 
9. .Meek, MissSallie, w. Walker .'Vve. 
9. Mitchell, Mollie, w, 9.5 De Soto St. 
9. McJIichaels, Thos., Market St. Infirmary. 
9. Mac'ether, A., Medical College, Tnion .'si. 
9. Mackenzie (child of Ed.), w. Merriwealhcr 

Ave. 

9. Mack. Charles, 307 Fifth St. 
9. Mathews, Mrs. F., vv, Shelby St. 
9. Mead, James. 
9. Morrissey, Peter. 

9. Mackenzie, E. S., cor. South and Tennes- 
see Sts. 

9. "Mares, J., c, Pontotoc St. 

9. Milenus, Father, w. JIain St. 

9. McArnish, Promeinxde St. 
10. McGdvrev, Mrs. J. G. 
10. MeCauley", J. W. 
10. Milden, .'lenuie. 
10. McFall, Jlollie E., 40 Cnti ev St. 
10. Morrissey, Peter, w. Third bt. 
10. Malone, Louis, c, cor. Third and Overton 
Sis. 

■10. Mulvahill, P. J., w. Market St. InfirniiHy. 
10. McCloy, G. W., \v. Market St. Infirmaiy. 
10. Morris, James P., Louisville. Kv. 

10. JIcKiiiley, child of., Boulevard. 

11. Moore, Ernest, 4.") Mulberrv St. 
11. Miller, D., c, 133 Monroe St. 

11. McConnell. Tom, \v, 147 Robinson St. 

II. Mitchell. Moses, 334 Jefferson St. 

11. Merrill, Wm., c, Valentine Ave. 

11. Marv, c, Carolina St. 

II. Mathews, F, A., w. Shelby St. 

11. McGowen, Michael. 

11. Mullen, (Jeorge. 

11. McParl land, 323, Madison St. 

11. Madsley, John. 

11. Mtirphv, Jane, c. Main St. 

11. Mitchell, Joe, c. City Hospital. 

12. Morrison, Channing M., w. Main St. 
12. McClellan, c. Causey St. 

12. Mcljraw, Nellie, \v, Vance St. 
12. Mahonev, Hainiah, w. Second St. 
12. Moore, f'. G., w. Walnut St. 
12. Meyers, Frances, w. Linden St. 
12. Morgan, John, w, Orleans St. 
12. Malone, Ned., c, 192 Beale St. 
12. Madley, Frank, 28 Winchester St. 
12. Moore, Charles, w, cor. Walnut and Ti'.te 
Sts. 

12. McBridi', Margaret, Chelsea. 
12. Murphy, Sam., Linden St. Infirmary. , 
12. McLemore, Jordan, c, Ifil Gayoso St. 
12. McLaughlin. Florence, w, City Hospital. 

12. Maron, Reuben, c. 

13. MeSlieve, John, 274 Second St. 



226 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



Sept. 13. McKee, Sallie, c, Walker Ave. 
13. Mary, c, Sliort Turley St. 
13. Moliiiilev. Mrs., w, Lamb Place. 
13. MiicDoiiald. c, 62 Spring St. 
13. Morton, Bettie, c. Central Point. 
13. McGee, Charles, w, Bealo St. 
13. Mynatt, Henry, w, '23.7 Alabama St. 
13 Miller, William, w, DunlapSt. 
13. Massey, Joseph, w, 10 Howard's Row. 
13. Madhanlt, Elizabeth, w, Hernando St. 
13. Mirtv, Tennie, w, Shelbv St. 
13. Miller, Genrf;eS., w, MarketSt. 
13. M<'Shean, John, w, Seventh St. 

13. Marks, M., c, Madison St. 

14. Malone, Jlrs. Wesley, McLemore Ave. 
14. Miles, H. 

14. Mayo, Samuel, w, cor. Madison and De 
Soto Sts. 

14. Mcllvaine, Mrs., c, cor. Linden and Well- 
inston sts. 

14. McCall, Henry, w, cor. Pontotoc and 
Walnnt Sts. 

14. McCalf, Zae.. City Hospital. 

14. Mnrpliey, Margaret, City Hospital. 

14. JleCnrley, Thomas, w, Market St. In- 
firmary. 

14. MeRendle, Edmonds, \v, Market St. In- 
firmary. 

14. Murdnck", Lottie, w, Beale St. 
14. Miller, Laura. 

14. Mc( lann, John, vv, cor. Vance & Walnut 

Sts. » 
14. McCadden. Mary .'\nn, c. 
14. McCall, Henry, cor. Walnut & Pontotoc Sts. 
14. Miiniiing, George, w. 
14. Mulligan, Tom. vv. Winchester St. 
14. MeElroy, E., \v. Waldrou Place. 

14. Mayes, Sain., c, '23 Madison St. 

15. Marks. George,cor Seventh & Jackson Sts. 
1.1. .McGregor, Dr. T. H., w, Linden St. 

Ifi. McCalli'Ster, J., c. 

IX Majcr, T. \V. J. 

15. .MaliatleV, H. J., w. 

1.5. McDowell, J. \V.,w, Madison & Second Sts. 

1.5. Maag, George, w. Walker Ave. 

15. Morrison, Florence, c, Georgia St. 

15. McCullock, S. J.,w, Market St. Infirmary. 

15. McKinley, Mr., w, 148 Beale St. 

15. McLemore, Belle, c, 161 (Jayoso St. 

15. Martin, Mrs. Maria, w, Market St. 

15. JliiUigaii, F., w, McGliee's Station. 

15. McLane, Morgan, 430 Linden St. 
1.5. Massar, J. N., w. 

16. Maag, Mrs. George, w, Walker Ave. 
16. Marshall, E. C, w, Peahodv Hotel. 
16. McCain, George, w, 69 Filth St. 

16. McDonald, Peter, w, Citv lL>spititl. 
16. Moses, Albert, c. City Ho.spilal. 
16. McDonald, Charles, c. 176 Spring St. 
16. McFreeley, John, w, 177 Second St. 
16. Marks.Mrs.,\v.cor.Si.xth St.tt Walker Ave. 
16. Miller, Granville, c. Seventh St. 
16. Moss, Major, c. Thomas Ave. 
16. Maiiierre, Dr. Thos. W., w. Court St. In- 
flrmarv. 

16. McCallum, W. D., w, 19 Madison St. 

16. Mofl'at. Wm., w, Wright Ave. 

16. Jliller, Andrew, c.cor. Clay and Main Sts. 

16. McManus, Sam'l W., w, Woodlawn. 

17. Mc('nllough,Bill,cor.Third & Overton Sts 
17. Mathews, Ferdie, w, cor. High and Wash- 

ingion Sts. 

17. Moeller, Louis, cor. Main and Washing- 
ton Sts. 
17. iNrofford, Wm. 
17. McMunsoii, A. H. 
17. Merriman, Georgia, 449 Hernando St. 
17. Mason, Jane. 

17. Mike, w, cor. Gayoso and Hernando Sts. 
17. Mav, W. B. 

17. McNamara, Mrs., w, Shelhv St. 

17. Marion, George, w, 449 Hernando St. 

17. Madison. H.. w. City Hospiial. 

17. Martin, Mary, w. City Ho.spital. 

17. Manches, Giis., w, Medical College. 

17. Moon (Child oi Alice), c, Causey St. 

17. McMann, .\. H., w, Raybnrn .A."ve. 

17. Mason, Jane. c. Ruth St. 

17. McManus, A. S., w, Howard Infirmary. 



Sept. 18. Mavs, C, c, C:tv Ho.spital. 

18. McCullock, Wm"., e, 58 Third St, 

IS. Moore, Mis., w, cor. Maxwell and Saffer- 

ans Sts. 
18. Moon, W. J., Jr,, w. 
18. Morti, Giis. A.,w, cor. Shelby & South Sts. 
18. Mogrige, Lottie. 

18. Jlillcr, Wm., cor. Looney & Manassas Sts. 

18 McClellan, WileV. 

18. McCiillom, W. D. 

IS Mea'.;lier, Patrick. 

IS. Mit(-hell, J, H., w, Court St. Infirmary'. 

18. MuUett, Massv. 

18. Mitchell, Mrs. Jno. H., w. Mill St. 

18. McNeil, Mrs. 

18. McDonald, J. W., Filth St. 

18. -Meaher, Annie, w, 41 Fifth St. 

19. Monier, C. V. S , w, Beale St. 

19. Meyers, William, vv, Ft. Pickering. 

19. MeCormick, W., w. MarketSt. Intirmarv. 

19. Maltese, Mrs., w, 83 Echols St. 

20. Moseby, Mary, cor. Linden & Walnut Sts. 
20. Mackenzie. H., c. City Hospital. 

20. McGregor, Robert, w" 3 Wicks Ave. 
20. Martin, Cornelius, cor. Third and Wash- 
ington Sts. 
20. McNamara, L. 

20. Malone. C. C, w, McLemore Ave. 
20. Morris, Frank, c. Second St. 

20. Moody. JIary, c.cor. Linden & Walnut Sts, 

21. McMenema, Francis J., w, Rayburn Ave. 
21. Montgonierv, J. D. 

21. Marsh, Rohiiie, w, Pontotoc St. 
21. Michel, .Miss Annie. 
21. Meyers, John, vv, 300 Front St. 
21. Jlorrow, J. S., w, Hernando Rond. 
21. McCoy, Miss Minnie, vv, Pigeon Roost E'd. 
21. Mhoon, R. B., vv. Poplar St. 
21. Mathews, Mrs. F.. c, Mackelroy Ave. 
21. McCrea, Mr., w. Second St. 
21. Morton, William, c, cor. Walnut and 
Spring Sts. 

21. Mathews. John, c, De SotoSt. 

22. McConnell, Alex., w, .59 Ross Ave. 

23. Morgan, Mrs., w. Henrv Ave. 

23. McNeil, Willii>. c. Short Third St. 
23. Monteverdi, Miss K., vv, Bfuilcvard. 
23. Mi'Gilvrey, David, w. Poplar St. 

23. .Morton, Miss Lizzie, w, Hernando Eoad. 
2:'.. McNeil, Annie, w. 

2:;. M.iseby, Emily, Mill .St. 

24. Montgomery (child of J. D.). 

24. Moore, Jessie, 504 Rayburn Ave. 
24. McDonald, Susie. 
S4. Marks, F. 

24. Jlilton. Frank, w, 2.'^0 Second St. 
24. McCall, F. F., w, 10 Jefferson St. 
24. Moseby, Emily, c. Carolina St. 

24. Marraret, vv, Canfield Asylum. 

2.5. McKinney. John.cor. Carolina it Fifth Sts. 

25. Mullen, George, vv, MarketSt. Infirmary. 
25. Mullen, Mrs. Willie, vv, Market St. In- 

fiimary. 

25. Monteverdi. Marv, w, Boulevard. 

25. Meath, .Tohn, w, De Soto St. 

25. .McNultv, Robt., Jones Ave. 

25. Marshall(child of .Sam.),110 WinchesterSt. 

25. Moss, Mrs. A., c. Second St. 

26. McCoy, Sallie. 

26. Mitchell, Jno. H.. w, Mill St. 
2fi. McDonald. Wm. R. 
26. Moore, G. W., 54 Jackson St. 
26. M.uirie, Annie. 

26. Maunord (child of B.), c, cor. St. Martin 

and South Sts. 
26. Jleath, Thomas, vv, De Soto St. 
26. Miller, W. W. C, vv, 448 Main St. 
26 ^^erritt, Jane, C. 278 Linden St. 

26. McNamara (child of John), vv, 139 Main St. 

27. Mordinn, Jno.H.,vv, Market St. Intirmary. 
27. Moonev, Rev. Father, w, Camp Father 

Matliew, 

27. McClannahan. Mrs. H.. w, Main St. 
27. McDowell. Carrie, w. Walker Ave. 
27. .Massa, Maiv A., Poplar St. 
27. Jlclvitchcii. J. N., White Haven. 
27. Moreiiev, Mrs. M. 

27. M' Donald, Mrs. J. W., VV, cor. Georgia & 
Fifth Sts. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



227 



Sept. 2S. Milbnrne E>1., 'WalnntSt. 

2S. McKay, Miiuk, c, near Elmwood. 

'J8. Marks, Jacob, w. 

2S. Massu, Mrs., w, Poplar St. 

28. Malioiit'y M\\Ul of Mrs.), w, Diinlap St. 

28. Malouey, Eliza, w, Pontotoc St. 

29. Mallon,"Grc'cMi, c, Cieorgia St. 

29. Millicaii, C. R., \v, MoGhee's Station. 
29. Mead, Francis, w, C'ncrrv Ave. 

29. Muraii, W. F.. 3.)3 Main St. 

30. Miller, Caroline, cor. Central Ave. and 

Trezevant St. 
30. McCall, Robert, w, Pontotoc St. 
30. iMcDowell, Henrv, \v. Walker Ave. 
30. Meredith, B-ttie, c. Walker Ave. 
.30. Miller, w, Market St, Infirmary. 
Oct. 1. Martlev, Wni. P., c, Fort Pickeiins. 

]. Mlioon W. .J., w. Poplar St, 

1. Mil-hot, Minnie, w. Horn Lake Road. 

1. .Michels, N., w. Walker Ave. 

1. JIann, Sallie. 

1. McKenna, Mrs. Annie, Louisville, Ky. 
1. McdJonald, J. W .. w, De Soto St. 
1. Maur, Tillie, w, Raleigh Road. 

1. Moran, .Jolni, w. 

2. Moran, John. 

2. Moore, W. H., w, Georgia St. 

2. Mneller, G. W., w. Carolina St. 

2. Michot, Eugene, \v, Horn Lake Road. 

2. Mack, Mike, w, Georgia St. 

3. Marks, II. 

3. Mhoon, Miss M. S., w, Poplar St. 

3. McClure. Mrs. Jf. 

4. Ma.son, Jack, c, Rnth St. 

4. Murphy, Louisa, c, 440 Shelby St. 

4. Murray, Henry, c. Linden St. Infirmary. 

5. Mack, Ann, w, City Hospitjvl. 

5. McGregor, James, Hernando St. 

ii. 5[orrow, Miss Jennie, w, Hernando St. 

Pi. Morrow, Mrs. Julia, w, Hernando St. 

5. Manning, Pat., w. Center .\lley. 

5. Moffat, Edward, Shelby County. 

5. Miller, Jos. E., w. Market St. Infirmary. 

5. Moseby, Charlie. 

5. Munter, Carl, w, Springdale. 

5. McGregor, Jos., w. 

6. Moseby, Mrs., w. Boulevard. 

fi. Morris^ John, w, New Raleigh Road. 
C. Micliot, Lady, w, Horn Lake Road. 
G. Mhoon, J. G., w. Poplar St. 

7. Miller, John E., Market St. Infirmary. 
7. Michot, Miss Eliza, w, Horn Lake Road. 
7. Mitchell, Avery, Shelby County. 

7. McNeil, Charles, \v,Mernphisit Charleston 

R. R. 

8. McGowen, June. 

8 McMiUen, William, \v, Jackson St. 

8. McMillen, E. J., w, Jackson St. 

8. McGowen, Charlie, c, Ft. Pickering. 

8. McGowen. James, w, Shelby County. 

9. Meyers, Pete., w. City Hospital. 

9. McCIure, George, c. City Hospital. 

<). JIartin, T., w. City Hospitid. 

9. Mallory. A. H., w" David Ave. 

9. Meyer, Caroline, w. Ft. Pickering. 

9. Massengale, A.S., w, country. 

9. Maloney, Edward, w, Raleigh Road. 

9. Mf)nnegan. Mrs. Ellen, w, Po[>lar St. 

9, Malev, .Marv A , w. Main St. 

9. Mallory, L. H., w, David Ave. 
10 lIcNeii, J.imes, w, Me.nphis & Charles- 
ton R. R. 
10. Morean, E., w. 

10. Madison, c, cor. Hernando & Waln\itSts. 

11. McCartiiev, Mrs. M.,w, Calvary Cemeterv. 
n. Meyer, Rest., Alabama St. 

11. McDonald, Kate. w. Calvarv Cemetery. 

12. Maloney, .Miss Ma-gie, M. Raleigh Road. 

12. Maurer, Phil., w, Pojilar St. 

13. M(d)onaM, Corneiiiis, w. Jones Ave. 

13. Morris, Mary, w, cor. Manassas St. and 

L me Ave. 

14. JIurpliy. Jeremiah, w, .38 Front St 

14. Mann. Eiidie, w, cor. Union St. & Wal- 

dron .\vc. 
14. Manuel, R. C, w. Adams St. 
14. Jleycr, William, w, ]'"t. Pii'kering. 
14. Martin. Sam., c. Linden St. Infirmary. 
14. Meyers, EJ , c, foot ol Jackson St. 



Oct. 14. Moore, Robert, c. City Hospital. 
14. Martin, Joseph, w, city Hospital. 

Maloney, Grade, c, cor. Georgia and 
Seventh St. 

1. ^. Mayhew (infant of Wm.), \v, Carolina St. 
IG. Morris, John, w, cor. Manassas St. and 

Lane Ave. 

16. Morris, Mrs., w, cor. Manassas St. and 

Lane Ave. 

10. Jloiris (son of John), w, cor. Manassas St. 

A; Lane Ave. 
]G. Jfaildo.K, Charles, w, Thomas Ave. 

10. McKay, D. L., w, Ncsbit Station. 

17. Michot, E. L., w, Horn Lake Road. 
l>i. Maisden, John, w, 73 De Solo St. 

18. McCoy, R. J., w. Poplar St. 

18. Morton, Albert, \v. Hernando St 

19. Monsuratt, Oscar, w, Valentine Ave. 
HI. McCrowell, Mrs. 

19. McElroy, Paliick, w. Boulevard. 

19. Martingley, M. A., w, Chrisman Place. 

20. McLeniorc, John, c, cor. TcniieSite and 

Linden Sts. 
20. Maher, Wm., w, Tnrley St. 

20. Mead, Sarah A., w, Peyton Ave. 

21. Mcssick, Mr., \\\ Raleigh Read. 

22. McAnelly, W. T., w, Main St. 
2.3. Marks. Moses, w, Raleigh Road. 
24. Mahatfey, L. W., w, Wellington St. 
24. Mathews, William, c, McLemore Ave. 
24. Mayo, Martha. 

24. Slalsi, Miss Caroline, w. Poplar St. 
26. Meyers, Linda, c, Jackson St. 
28. Ma'hon, Miss IL, w, Pigeon Roost Road. 
28. Mason, I. B., w. 
31. Miller Phoebe, 111 Exchange St. 
Nov. 4. McCabc, James, w, Henry Ave. 

4. Martin, Michael, w, Davis Ave. 

5. Martin, V. B., w, country, 
f). Miller, Lucy, c. 

9. McKeon, M., w. . 

11. May, Mrs. Minlie, w, Wilson Station. 

13. McBride, Mary, w. Commerce St. 

16. McGee, Martha, c. 

17. Moore. EmmaT., w, Gholson St. 
21. IMowbry, R. A. 

2. ). Mason, c, Alabama St. 
2'i. JIartin, John, c. 

Aug. 12. Neighbors, Katie, c, Madison St. 
17. Nelson, Susan H. 
n. Nel.son, Samuel. 
20. Natchtbrand, J., Hnpert .St. 
24. Nolan, Mary, w, City HospitaL 
24. Noel, Emma, w, Vance St. 
2.'). Norris, Mary E., \v. City Hospital. 
26. Nichol.'-on, Robert. 
26. Nelson, Mollie, w. 
28. Napier, A., c, 7 Dunlap St. 

28. Novitzkv, Annie, w, Bradford St. 

29. Nclms, Thomas, 173 JeH'erson St. 

30. Newman, Mrs. Mary, 128 Washington St. 

30. Noonar, John. 

31. Newman, James, De Soto St. 
31. Newsom, Ida, w, Overton St. 

.Sept. 1. Nornient, Tom, 256 Washington St. 
1. Norment, Joseph, c. 

3. Norris, Mrs., City Hospital. 

4. Noble, Mary, City Hospital. 

4. Nelson, Andrew, c, Poplar St. 
0. Norris, John, w, 77 Front St. 

7. Nel.son, David, w, Monroe St. 

8. Neeley, Frederick, e. 

8. Neclev, Ed.,c, cor. Orleans & Jeflerson Sts. 

9. Nel.son, Dr. W. W., w, Trigg Ave. 
HI. Nelson, JIartha. c. Exchange St. 
10. Nichols, W. L., w. High St. 

10. Noel, T , w, Vance St. 

10. Noun, Ernest, County Jail. 

10. Nelson, Mrs. 55 Exchiinge St. 

10. Newhouse, Miss A. M., Market St. Infirm- 

ary. 

11. Noel, Mrs., w. Vance St. 

12. Neiding, N., w. Market St. Infirmary. 
12. Nieolati, F,. w. City Hospital. 

14. Nelson, Albert, c. Gaines St. 

14. Nolton, Eugenia, W., w. 
l.'i. Nilton, M:irgar<'t, w. 

]."). Nelson, into, w, .'ils Shelby St. 

15. Nelson, Albert, c, Woolen Mill. 



228 



A HISTORY OF THE YKJ,I,0\V FEVER. 



Sept. I.'i. Nugent, Dr. P. C, w. Cnurt St. Iiifirm.ary. 
18. Noble, Robert, w , jNlurket St. lutiniiary. 

18. Noeler, Louis, vv, cor. Main i Wasliiugtoii 

Sts. 

19. Nail, John W., w, Elmwood. 

20. Nelson, Romeo, c. 

20. Nance, Spencer, e. Poplar St. 

20. Nel>on, Samuel, c, Linden St. Infirniary. 

20. Neil, Mrs. M. C, w, near Elmwood. 
.21. Norman. Mrs. A. A., w. 

21. N.) ill, Lllen, c, Gliolson St. 
21. Nelson. .Mrs,, w, Carolina St. 
21. Nicliolson, S. B. 

2:i. Niewmann, W,, w. Poplar St. 

2,"^. Nasli. w. Manassas St. 

2,1 Nntall, M K., u, .Market St. Infirmary. 

20. Norman, Lewis, cor. Butler it Shelby Sts. 

29. Noonan, Mary, w, Vance St. 

30. Noonan, Mrs.,w, Vance St. 
Oct. 1. Neison, Victor, w, TriLcu' Ave. 

. 2. N.e;le, Mrs, T,, w. Broadway St. 

?.. Noi tolk, John Henry, w, lG:j Clie.ster St. 
Nelm, William, c, Sixth St., Ft, Pickering. 

3, Nelm, Jlollie, c. Sixth St,, Fl. Pickering. 

4, Nelson, Miss Jniia, w. Trig'.; Ave. 

5, Nelson. Mis., Dr. A. W., w, Trigg Ave. 
8. Nicliols. John B. 

10. Nail, Mrs. Mary, w. Walker Ave. 

10. Nichols, Wm. L., High St. 

12. Nnttinj;, G. A., w, Overton Point. 
12. Nnrthrup, Rachael E,, w. Chester St. 
],">. Navlor. Simnel. c, Main St. 
16. North, .Nelson, w, lO'J Orleans St. 

21. Niclio'.son, S. B,, \v, Broadway St. 
28. Norman, Willie F. 

Aug, 17, O'Bi ien, WiUio A. 
IS. O'Doiinell. Bridget. 
21). O'Brien, Mrs. .Vnn, w, MannssasSt. 
2G. Overtel. H., w. 177 Adams St. 
2.S. Owen, A. J.. 2l:i Court St 
SO. Oakley, W.dtir D,, w. Union St. 
oO. Owen, Henry, c, 173 Adams St. 
30, O'Gar-a, Miiry, w, Brinkley Ave. 

30. O'Hearn, Mary, w, Winchester St. 

31, O'Hara, John D., w, Wliitemore House. 
31. Otev, G,jor4e, c, ijl Linden Sc. 

otli'j. A., \v. City Hospital. 
Sept. 2. I I'I.earv. John.'w, De Soto St. 
2. <.»slay, Helen, City Hospital. 

2. O'Hara, James T., w. 

3. O't.'onnor, John, Jr., w, 11.5 Main St., 

3. O'Connor, Jolm, Sr., w, 11.5 Main St. 

4. Otto, Geo., w, 46 Orleans St. 

5. Owen, Minnie, c, Jones Ave. 
.5. Orselle, E., w, Hennindo St. 

6. O'Brien, M , w, Manassas St. 

0. Owens, Dock, e, cor. Hill A Robiuson Sts. 

(). Oriega, Lewis, w. Linden St. 

(). O'Leary, Mrs. J., Second St. 

8. O'Brien, Willie, w. 

8, O'Brien, Terrenee, w. 

8. Overton (child), Overton St. 

8. Owens, Jane, c, 08 Cansev St. 

8. Owens, Pierce, CS Causey St. 

8. Owens. Marv, w, Gavoso House. 

8. Odell, Mrs, ('., w, Siiulli St, 

8. O'Neill, M., w, \'ani'e St 

9. Owens, James, (>S l.'ansev St. 
9. O'Farrell, Hugli. w. Main St. 

11. O'Bji'-t, (Catherine, w, Tbiimas Ave. 

12. O't.'onnor, John, w, 11.5 Main St. 

12. O'Donnell. Wm., w. City Hospital. 

13. O'Connor, c, .Spring St. 

13 O'Connor, Mary, Market St. Infirmary. 

13 O'Farrell. .\nnie, o, 1,55 Beale St. 

l:!, Odell, Ellen, 1,S3 South St. 

13. O'Coniiell, Ellen, w. 

13. O'Connell, John, c. Clay St. 

11. Onetta, G. 

15. O'Neil. James, w, cor. Seventh and Jack- 
son Sis. 

15. Offntt, Alfred N., 170 Burlington St. 

16. O'Brien, Patrick, w, 17 Jackson St. 

lii. O'Neil, Mrs. Maggie, w, Hernando Road. 

16. Ordiiig, Gertrude, w. .539 Main St. 

17. Obei-st. Wm,, \Y, Thomas Place, 

17. Olloted, Fn d.. w. Market St. Infirmarv. 

17, (.)'Donnell, Mrs, w. Main St. 

18. Owen, Julia. 



Sept. 19. O'Bi ien, John, w, 42 .TelTer.son St. 
20. O'Neil, Alice, w, Uradford St. 

23. Oliver, Lou., e, cor. Hernando and Broad- 

wav. 

24. Oliver. Z. P,, 82 Gavoso St. 

27 O'Malev, Mis., Av, (jrleaiis St. 
28. Otey, lir. Pant ti., w, Dunlap St. 

28. Ocliiier, Martin. 

29. O'Brien, Jerry, w. Main St. 

30. O'Brien, James, w, M .in St. 

30. t.)'Coiini r, BriM>4et, l.s2 Froi.t St. 
Oct. 3. ti'Xealey, Patrick. 

6. Owens, .'lolm. w, Market St. Infirmary. 

7. O'Connell. Mis. C, w. Aviet:oii Square. 

7. Owen-, Julia M., w, Keir Ave. 

8. Owens, Thos. J., w, Kerr Ave. 

9. O'Hearn. M;>sH., w, Walker Ave. 

9. On lev, .Mi^s luiiiini, w, Raleigh Road. 

9. O'Mah y, Mary Ann, w. Main St. 

9. Obermeimer, Joe, w, Boulevard. 
12. Oberst, Catherine, Thomas Ave. 
12. Onley, John. 

1:',. Oiieist, Mivs Julia, w. Thomas Ave. 
11. (.isknian, Henry, w. Estival Park. 
Hi. Gates, W. J., w, McLemore .A,ve. 
18. Owens, Emma. 

23. O'Kcele, Mamie, w, Brcedlove Ave. 
Nov. 11. O.ites, Miss Laura, \v, McLemore Ave. 
Aug. 13, Perkins. .left'erson, Monroe St. 

15, Patterson, Laura li. 

17. Peiise, Jliss Luc v. 

17. Packer, C. A., w. 

20. Payne, Mary, Fifth St. 

20. Peoples, Jennie, 

20. Porter, William. 

20. Pease, Fannie, w, 177 .Second .St. 
2L Penn, Ma.cgie. c, Washington St. 

21. Paynes, Mary. w. 

21. Pu'llen, Minerva, w. Gill's Station. 

21. P.a.L-e, William, Main St. 

22. Porter, William, w , 91 Commerce St. 
21. Price. Edwaril, w. 

2.5. Pag'.es. Charles, «-, 105 Main St. 
2.5. Pollock, Samuel, \v, Fonith St. 
l5. Parish, Brooks, c, City Hospital. 

25. Precomp, G. L.. w, .Allen Ave. 

28. Pratt, Patsev, coi'. Third and Jeffer.son Sts. 

28. Pearsall, A." 

29. Patton, E. S., 37 Robinson St. 

30. Powers, Edward, w. Poplar St. 

31. Payne, Marv, c, Bass Ave. 

31. Pleasant. Dilly, c, .33 Robinson St. 
31. Powell, Charley, c, Monroe St. 
31. Power. Green, c. 
Sept. 1. Plisehke, Chas. H., w, Vance St. 
1. Pohl, Annie, Orleans St. 

1. Price, Eriward, c, Poniotoc St. 

2. Pohl. Theodore, w, .lellei.M.n St. 
2. Privett, Miles, w, ^^■hltl '^ Slai ion. 
2. Pearson, Eliza, 80 Wa-.biiigtoii St. 

2. Pryor, James, cor. Looiiey and Fourth Sts. 
2. PeVotti, Vincent, w, cor. Union and De Soto 
Sts. 

2. Pelcquiii, Rosamond. 
3 Potter. John. 

3. Prvor, Melinda, cor. Fourth and Safferans 

Sts. 

3. Perkins. N. T., w. Orleans St. 

S. Pagels, .\melia, w, Main St. 

3. Palmer, Dennis, c, City HospitaL 

3. Prvor, Green. 

3 Price, Annie, w, 173 Third St. 

4. Pai ker, G. A., c, 109 Madison St. 
4. Penn, Citv Hosiiit:il. 

4. Pagels. Otto, w . Main St. 

5. Pocai, Henry, w, Hernando St. 
,5. Powers, John H., w, Miulison St. 
.5. Patillo. Lucy J.. \v. Walker .\ve. 
5. Parker, Eli, c, 173 Jefierson St. 

5. Parker, Charlotte, c, cor. Looney and Sev- 
enth Sts. 

5. Prvor, Matilda, cor. Fourth and Saffcraus 

.sts. 

.5. Pad, John, w. City Ilospit il. 
.5. Plummcr. Frank, w, De .Soto St. 
C. Pease, Mrs. Nancy. \v. Second St. 

6. I'arsoiis, Iti'v. C. ('., w. Poplar St. 
0. Phillips, Will., Clielsea. 

0. Pandert, Annie, w, 16 Second St. 



A HISTOKY OF 



THE YELLOW FEVER. 



229 



Sept. 7. Philmot, Jlrs. Annie, 388 Main Pt. 
7. Picor, Victor, w, lli2 Robinson St. 

7. Powell, M. T., w, 7 We.st Court .St. 

8. Plummer. Mis.s, w. 

8. Poll;, Amiinrla, 208 Gayoso St. 
8. Pharow, Phil. 

8. Potter. Mrs., Market St Infirmary. 
8. Polk, Manil, 208 (;uyo.?o St. 

8 Prvor, Miek, :il Robinson St. 
8. Piicli, .5(1 Seeond St. 

8. Purdy. Clirissa, 121 Union St. 
8. Paul, N. P., w, Jefferson St. 

8. PatiUo, R. F., w, Walnut St. 

<). Preseott, WalttT, w, Chelsea St. 
'.I. Pre.sh, Fred., w, 220 Main St. 

9 Perkins, Henrv, 07 Dl' Soto St. 
!l. P^'tuay, S., c, Beale St. 

!). Perleet, Ernest, vv. Market St. Infirmary. 

9. Perodeau, B. D., w, 77 Main St. 
y. Parker, S. 

10. Piper, .1. II., w. 

11. Parker, .James G., Market St. Infirmary. 
11. Patehell, .lames, w. liOit I'oplar St. 

10. Peck, F. B., w, Ralei,s;h Road. 

10. Payne, Mi.'hael, w, Atarket St. Inlirmarv. 

10. Park, , lames G., w, Market St. 

10. Peters, AVin., Hernando St. 

10. Pliar.nv. I'nil., w, Ross Ave. 

11. Pohl, .Mrs. Theodure, w, Vance St. 
11. Patillo. K. H., w. Walnut St. 

11. P,iS'\ G., e, 1-17 Causey St. 

11. Preston, .lohn, c, cor. iSixth & Georgia Sts. 

11. l'ael;er, .lames, 2G1 De Soto St. 

11. Pasi lial, H 'urv, o, De Soto St. 

n. Peiider^-rast, Bridget, 

11. Patiflo, Dr R. II , w, Walnut St. 

11. Parish, Charitv. 

11. P.isre. G. Iv. l.-,l Cans -v St. 

12. Piumiiicr, M.iiuan'i, :;8 Linden St. 
12. I'irkriH, .lani '^, e. |S7 ShelliV St. 
12. Partlow. .Mr<. F , w. Hernando St. 

12. Peeples, Isaac, c, Winchester St. 
1:1. P.irks, Ida. c. 01 Clay St. 

1:1. Pa\Mu'. X ncissa, c. 11 North St. 
]:;. l'i'r;;nis, .\ n'hie, Short Third St. 

15. I'ai ks (child). 
l:i. Pens III. Clara, 
l:?. Pearsall. Aline. 

13. P^,■;^■, Miss M. B., w, Dunlap St. 
II. Price, Mi's, Susan. 

14. PardiiMi. cirirles. 

M. ]>i4-in-, F. li.x, 210 Beale St, 

14. Perkins Riutlall, c, 222 Washington St. 

II. Palchell, Mrs., w, Poplar St. 

l,"). Philliiis, .Mary, w, 220 Elliott St. 
1.). I'lichcr, P. 1 1., w. foot of Broadway. 
1.'). Phimmer, Mrs. 13., \v. 
1."). Pluinnvr, Al., w. 

IC. Peiiii, Dr. .1. E., w. Court St. Infirmary. 

III. Perry, Leonora, w. South St. 

IG. Penriers. Barbara, w, cor. Fourth and 
Keel Sts. 

Ifi. P.isehal, Andreu', c, D,^ Soto St. 
1(>. Powell, Andrew, c, 101 Fourth St. 

16. Pellegran, Einile, \v, eor. Poplar and 

Washin>;ton St.s. 
Ifi. Pet-r, Thomas, w. '.'17 Pontotoc St. 
10. Polk. Bud, e, coi-. Filth auii C.irolina Sts. 
Ifi. Peter, cor. Sixth and Broalwav Sts. 
IC). Pointoi'. Roxina, c. Walnut St." 
16. Paiu", Marv, c. Ill: ^Nlaiu Si. 
16. PaR-e,N.,w, cor. S -cond ,t Wasliington Sts. 
Hi. Plunira-r, B. F . w Pc s,iio .St. 
l(i. Pavnc, Mary, w, ISi Main St. 
10. Pk'tz, F. 

16. Pierce. Dr. Hiram M., w. Court St. In- 
firmary. 

10. P iwders, R. W., \v. Gavoso House. 
10. Patterson, R. A-, 171 I'iiion St. 
10. Pope, Ra Iiel 
16. Perry, Soiners, \v. South St. 
16. Parker, Richard, e, car. Fifth and Ala- 
bam I Sts. 
10. I'ointer, John, c. Walnut St. 

20. Pierce, Thomas, c, ao Linden St. 

21. Pfister. Jacob, w. 

2:!. Patter'-on, Joseph, w. Market St. 

2:!. Polk. Lizz e, r, .Marlin Ave. 

23, Powers, Mr. J. C, w, Gayo.so House. 



Sept. 2,^. I'ealiody. Geo. N., w, Leathe Orphan 
Asylum. 

24. Pier,-e, Nellie, w, 19 Hernando St. 

2.-.. Phoebus, R. VV. K. 

2."i. Patterson, Willie, c, 17.') La Rosa St. 

20. Partee, C. L., w, Mcd^'Uiore .-Vve. 

20. Pri{-e, Sarah A., c, Central Point. 

26. Prvor, Nathan. 

28. Pliske, iMrs. 

28. Palmer, Mrs. Lucinila, w. 

20. J'aliner, Elizaheth, \v. 

20. I'elly, Joseph, c. .Suuth St. 

30. I'itman, Carrie .\., 4.10 Hernando St. 
'Ml Probert, George C., \v. 
;;0. Pucket, Mr. 

30. Poyner, Mr,, w. Walker Ave. 
:50. I'ickens, Oliver, c. Sliort Third St. 
Oct. 1. Palmer, Miss Ella, w, Jackson St. 

1. I'ligo, Mr,, w, Rayburn Ave. 

2. I'atler. Charles, w, Orleans St. 
2. P<iniato, Henry, c, Broadway. 

2. Penacchi. Lotiis, Moon .\ve. 

3. Peoples. Jesse, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
3. Porter (infant), l.")7 Poplar St. 

3. I'eabody, Jno. M., w, Leath Orphan 

Asylum. 
3. Pearl, Emma, \v, Davis Ave. 

3. Peebles, Dr. P., w. Citv Hospital. 

4. Pritcliett, Thos. T., w. Slate Female Col- 

lege. 

4. Payne, Charles, c. City Hospilal. 
4. Penaeidii, Leans, \v, jfoon Ave. 
6. Pntnana, S. G., County Jail. 

6. Pope, Willie. \v, Craig's Nur.sery. 

7. Prnvenzale, Mike, w, Po]ilar St. 

7. Phils(m, Eliza, \v, Jbd.emore Ave. 

7. Pollard, J. E., \v, Kerr Ave. 

8. Piauuio, Victoria, w, 216 Beale St. 
HI. Philliiis. Miss M., w. Walker Ave. 
10. Plain, Kalie, w, Gavoso St. 

10. Palmer, II. L., w, South Jackson St. 

11. Prilchett. Mrs. F., w. State Female Col- 

lege. 

11. Parker. Isaac, c. 

14. Piescott, O. F.. w. Walker Ave. 

14. I'laiii, Miss Carrie, w. Walnut St. 

14. Pii'.^g. W. T., w, Ralei!;h Road. 

14. Pearson, Albert, w. Chiinh Home. 

14. Pride, Mrs., c. St. Mai tin St. 

17. Peterson, Martha, w. Citv Hospital. 
17. Perk, Elvira, c. City Hnsiatal. 
17. Palton. Macule, w. Fii lit Row. 

15. Phillips. Jennie, Ohl Rah iuh Road. 
10. Payne, Jennie, c, McLemore Ave. 
10. Pollanl, Naui'y L., \v, 3.')2 Vance St. 

21. I'ugh, Mary Ann, \v, Ralci.sh Road. 

22. Peterson, .folin. w, Poplar St 

22. Phelan (child of P. H.). \v. Sprin.gdale. 

2.'). Po.sey, If. J., w. Boulevard. 

28. Perry, Geoigiaiia, \v, 40 St. Martin St. 
Nov. 4. Patterson, Mrs., Ravburii Ave. 
Iiec. 10. Palteisoii. Mrs., \v. 

Sept. l:"i. Quinu, Marv, \v. cor. Mill & Second Sts. 

1 1, (.Jiiiulan, John C. 

10. Qniglev, iNIarv, vv. Jessamine St. 
Oct. 2. Qiiinii, .Mi'ke,'w, Hernando 8t. 

0. Qniu'aii, Eugene, w. He rnando Road. 
Aug. 1:^1, Rvan, James, \v, Washington St. 

1. 'i. Rehkopf. C. 

\o. Reiley, Martha Hughes. 

17. Rnscnstiel, Anunste. 

17. Reagan, T., Cily Hospital. 

1.8. Roberts, Hannah, vv, Mosebv Ave. 

10. Ru.s.sell, Maugie. 

20. Russell, Birdie, w, 14 Allen Ave. 

21. Riuker, Ann, County Poor Ihaise. 

21. Ruhiusou, Beniiie,313 Court St., extended. 
2:1. Roush, John A., vv, Monroe St. 
24. Rodders, Dr. Jno. C., vv, AdanisSt. 
24. Rehkopf, Fred,, w, cor. Alabama and 
Winchester Sts. 

2. "i, Rvan, Elizabeth, w, Johnson Ave. 

2.'i. Richardson, S. A., c, alley bet. Monroe 

and Madison Sts. 
20. Riley, Mrs., w, 70 Winchester St. 
20, Reyder, Patrick, w, Commerce St. 
20. Rengi;, Auguste, w. Adams St. 
20. Rooks, Ellen, De Solo St. 
27. Ring, Maggie, w, City Hospital. 



230 



A HISTORY OF Til 



i: YELLOV/ FEVER. 



Aug. 27. rting, Da:i., w, City ITospitul. 

117. Rittir, Alice E., w, Louisvillo. Ky. 

28. Rezzinoct'o, Mrs. C, \v, Poplar St. 

29. Reiley, Jof, U Wasliiiigtoii at. 
29. RoZL'Ue, Louisa, c 

'29. Regiiolil. Lewis, w, B.iss Ave. 
29. Ruminel, A., w, Huppert Ave. 
29. Redders, Auguste, \v, 107PopIarSt. 

29. Robeson, Mnrv, c. 

30. Record, W. H., w, 104 Exchange St. 
30. Ringu'uld, IMinnie, w. 

30. Riggonica, L. N., w. 

30. Ringwald. Miss, w, Bass Ave. 

30. Ryan, Steven, Alatiaraa St. 

31. Ruramel, Sopliy, \v, Huppert Ave. 
3L Ruice, Jo.sephine, w. Main St. 

31. Russell, Joseph E., w, Carolina St. 
31. Reiley, Mil;e, w, City Hospital. 
31. Riun, Vincent, w. C'ltv Hospitiil. 
31. RufTm, Charley, w, 21.^^ Alabama St. 
31. Ricord, Annie, w, 104 E.Kchauge St. 
31. Riley, Dan..c, MonroeSt. 
31. Robertson, Perry, c. 
Sept. 1. Reinig, Moses, w. 

1. Ringwald, Edward, iv, Bass Ave. 

1. Ring, Moses, w, Marshall Ave. 

1. Ruriis, Oscar, c, Poplar St. 

2. Rice, Annie, w, La Salette Acadomv. 

2. Raggio, Mary R., w, cur. Causey and 

Beale Sts. 
2. Raggio, Amelia. 

2. Rogers, Dennis, c, cor. Carolina and 

Eighth Sts. 
2. Roddy, Jane, Shtlby Countv. 
2. Redd, Austin, c, 92 Second St. 
2. Rice, Billy, ITii Vance St. 
2. Richardson, B. A., c. City Hospital. 
2. Reinert, Wm., w. City Hiispital. 

2. Rodgers, Robt., c. 

3. RadclifTe, Steven, Main St. 
3. Roberts, Wni., 6 Turley St. 

3. Rufhn, Wm. H., 1.53 Johnson Ave. 
3. Rubenstein, Lena N., w, Jackson St. 
3. Roberts, Ann Eliza, w, Madison St. 

3. Reder, Gus , w, Dancvville. 

4. Ravenall, Alfred, w, il North Third St. 
4. Radt, Mr., \v, 4:i7 >Iain St. 

4. Reveiley, J , \v, x) Main St. 
4. Raverson, A., 14 Secoml St. 
. 4. RufTin, Wm., c, Johnson Ave.- 
4. Ryan, Ellen, -w, 138 Alaliania St. 
4. Ravenos, A., w,. 36 Second St. 

4. Reed. Wm., e, 17G Vance St. 

5. Rootes, Mrs. Harriet A., w. 
5. Risk. E. F., w. Main St. 

5. Redders, Fred., w, Poplar St. 

6. Ramsey, Cleburne, w, Vance St. 

6. Rogers, Capt. Joseph, w, Tennessee St. 

6. Rauburg, John, w, 72 Winchester St. 

7. Retwick, w. Market St. Infirmary. 
7. Rawlings, Hennie, c. 

7. Rean, J. B., w, City Hospital. 

8. Restraeyer, Fred,, \v, Alabama St. 
8. Read, Cieorge, w, Ross Ave. 

8. Reardon, Cohn, w, Hernando St. 

8. Rush, R. L., w, Waldrou Ave, 

8. Rudd, Wni, A., w. 

8. Robinson, Percy, c. 

8. Ryan, John, w. Market St. Infirmary. 

8. Rusk, Charley, w, Shelby County. 

8. Rudd, GJeorge, ,"i Ross Ave. 

9. Rogers, Emily, 2,-)2K Third St. 
9. Rudd, Mr., Cooper Place. 

9. Roseborough, Rev. D. R, S., \v, Shelby 
County. 

9. Russell, Wm., iv, Carolina St. 

9. Rjad, E. P., w. Cooper Place. 
10. Ringwald, S., w, Bass Ave. 
10. Rich, Henry, c, Hernando St. 
10. Ryan, Jennie. 

10. Read, Mrs., cor. Carolina &. Second Sts. 
10. Rvan, Jennie, South St, 
10. Robins, Dr. 
10. Rogers, A. 

10. Rogers, Emma, iv, 2-'n Tliird St. 

10. Rvan, James, w, JIarket St. Infirmary. 

10. Raws, Mi-s. Jlillie, Charleston Ave. 

10. R isigio. Joliu, w, Hernauilo St. 

11, Robinson, Mary, e, 01 CuroliuaSt. 



Sept. n. Radt, Mr., 407 Main St. 

11. Roocii, I'rank, c, cur. DunUp St. and 

Huppert Ave. 
11. Roach, Bill, l:.0 Do Soto St. 
11. Puiiney, P. 

11. Robinson, George, -w, Third St. 

11. Roysier, F. W., Jr., w, Boulevard. 

12. Roi.iinsiin, M. 

12. Rvan, Will., 84 South St. 
12. Ray, C. W., 442 Beale St. 

12. Rhiiiles, L(mis, c, loot o£ Exchange St. 

13. Rnunds, Belle. 

13. Rabenstein, Pike, w. 

13. Ross, Benjamin, c. 

13. Reiitz, Jolin, w, 230 Main St. 

13. Romango, John, w, 252 Safterans St. 

13. Reilev. James, w. City Hospital. 

13. Rod'..;'crs, w. cor. Sixth &i Looney Sis. 

13. Riindolpli, Hudson, c. 

14. Randall, Rachael, c. 

14. Ripley. Fred., w. Market St. 
14. Roliinsoii.Andeisoii.clootof ExchangeSt. 
14. Richard.son, Turner, c. 109 De Soto St. 
14. Rvan, James, w, 138 Alabama St. 

14. Robinson, Eliza, w, 300 Beale St. 

15. Roberts, John, c. 
15. Reinig, Mrs. C, 

15. Robinson, Grandison, c, 4G9 Court St. 

15. Rogers, Peter, c, Martin Ave. 

16. Randall, Fred., \v, Gayoso House. 
16. Root, Erwin, w, City ilospiial. 

16. Richmond, George, c, 212 Alabama St. 
16. Renner, Dr. J. E., w. 
16. ReviKilds, l-'annie. 
16. Ruhv. Jackson. 

16. Kilford, Hannah, c. 

17. Robinson, Sophie, c, 354 Lauderdale St. 
17. Reardon, Rev. Father, w, De Soto St. 
17. Reiley, Sarah, w. Linden St. 

17. Roper, Ann. w, Hernando Road. 
17. Rc'ynolcis, Maggie, c, 513 Main St. 
17. Roiiinson, Lawrence, c, 174 South St. 

17. Riffi (child of Telly), c, Dunlap St. 

IS. Rohinsdii, William, Market St. Infirmary. 

18. Revnold.v H. S., w. 

18. Ross, C., P( abodv Hotel. 
18. Reynolds, Mrs. H. S. 
18. Runge, Wm. 
IS. Robinson, Cheney, c. 
18. Ruth, Sister, w. 

18. Ruth, Jester, av, Dunlap St. 

19. Ryan, Mrs., cor. St. Martin & South Sts. 

19. Richardson, John, w, Donahue Place. 

20. Ross, John, e, South St. 

21. Rice, David, c, 388 Main St. 
21. Rester, Jacob, 434 Vance St. 

21. Ray, Miss Lizzie, w, 442 Beale St. 

22. Robeits, Sarah. \v, Chnn h Home. 

22. Rognett. Mrs. Sbiry, av. Old Raleigh R'd. 
22. Reynolds, Mrs. Fannie, w. Posten Ave. 
22. Reynolds. Frank, w. Posten Ave. 
22. Ritter, John, w, 52 Clav St. 
22. Robertson, J. D. 
22. Redcourl i child). 

22. Ransom. Mary, w, Vance & AVnhintSts. 

23. Richardson. Lucy, c, Donahue Place. 

23. Richardson, c, Memphis & Charleston 

R. R. 
2.3. Rntter, John. 

23. Roper, Miss Lizzie, w, Hernando Road. 
2). ■Raiiier, Jlartin, w. City Hospital. 

25. Rogson, J. A., w, Horn Lake Road. 

26. Roark, Katie. 

27. Reilly, Katie, w, Beale St. 

27. Rindeis, John, w, cor. Tennessee and 

Turlev Sis. 
as. Roberts, C, S.. Court St . Infirmary. 

28. Redl'ord, M. W.. w, AdumsSt. 

28. Ross, Miss Fannie. 

29. Roeiiiheld, John.w. 15 Washington St. 
29. Robinson, Nora, c, Shelby County, 

29. lieid, Walter, w. Cooper Place. 
29. Roberts (child), w, near lirewery. 
29. Rooch, George, c, Georgia St. 

29. Reid, Susan, c, Madison St. 

30. Raiicoske. A., w, Citv Hospital. 
Oct. 1. Robins. Miss A. JL, \v. Coopi r Place. 

3. Robinson, Jane, c, cor. Third ot. and 
Walker Ave. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELI.OW FEVER. 



231 



■ \t. 3. Robinson, Willis, c. Walnut St. 
3. Rulter, Miss Annie, w. 
3. Kuby, Mrs Owen, 74 Jackson St. 
3. Riitter, Miss C, v.', Clay St. 
6. Reese, Marv, c, Georgia St. 
6. Riiyford, Tboraas, Walker Ave. 
8. Kestmeyer, Frank, w, Alabama St. 
8 Revoy, Lanra, w, Washinfjtou St. 
8. Ruttin, Freddie, w. Fort Pickering. 
8. Ringer, Lal'.iyetle, w, 40 Excliange St. 

8. Restinger, J., Fort Pickering. 

9. Roberts, Susan, w, Fort Pickering. 
9. Reston, Wm., \v. 

9. Randall (son of Henry), c. 

9. Rutfln, Joe, w, Gayoso St. 

9. Raiii, Susan, c. Causey St. 

9. Randolph, Taylor, c. 
10 Raggio, MLss Lizzie, w, Raleigh Road. 
11. ReTOli. Mrs. Lou., w. Walker Ave. 
11. Ryan, Jack, w, Georgia St. 
11. Rounds, James, Jr., w, Walker Ave. 

11. Restmeyer, Mrs. Fred., w, Alabama St. 

12. Revoli, Lizzie, w, Walker Ave. 

13. Rossi, John, w, Trigg Ave. 

13. Ryan, James, w. Sycamore St. 
13. Riitfin, J. B., w, Carolina St. 

13. Reinliardt, Dr., w, Jefferson St. 

14. Reed, Ross, c, Gaines St. 

14. Richardson, John, c. Main St. 

15. Rice, John, w. South Jackson St. 

1. ">. Ruffin, Marley, w, Carolina St. 
IT). Reed, Louisa. 

Ifi. Rustin, Mrs., w. Coffee St. 

IB. Rustin, Miss, w, Coft'ee St. 

17. Roljinson, Clarke, c, lOS Linden St. 

19. Richardson, Mattie. 

19. Richards, Mollie, w, Raleigh Road. 

19. Reidel, Robert, w, Raleigh Road. 

21. Redl'ord, Geo. R., w, City Hospital. 

22. Richardson, Jane, c, cor. Seventh and 

Broadway Sts. 
22. Roper, Jam"es. w, Hernando Road. 
22. Roocli, Miss Delia, w. Union St. 
22. R iwlings, Lou., c, Monroe St. 
24. Rawls, Willie. 

2. >. Rooch, Miss Lena, w. Union St. 

26. Roper, Mrs. M., w, Pleruando Road. 

2(>. Rapp, Miss A. R., w, Tliomas Ave. 

29. Reiley, Nancy, c, Vance St. 

81. Reiney, Caroline J., w, Boulevard. 
Nov. 1. Roe, Mrs., w. 
.'). K insoni, W. Z. 
7. Rivers, Gussie, c, Allen Ave. 

14. Reddick, W. L., w. 
Aug. l-t. Stewart, Ellen J., w. 

13. Stewart, Eliza J., w, Frain's Island. 

1.'). Savage, Rosa. 

1.5. Saruer, Dr. F. 

17. Sclial.scha, Ida, w, Washington St. 

17. Sronce, Jake. 

17. Smitli, Mrs. Barbara, w. 

19. Slielfon, child of Caroline. 

21). Sclileimance, Henry. 

21. Siie|>lierd, Thomas.' w, Pontotoc St. 

21. Sliefley, Joint, w, Moseby Ave. 

21. Schnltz, John, w. 

22. Sclineider, E., w. City Hospital. 
22. Shultz, Henry, w. 

22. Scliwab, Antiiony. w. 

22. Saunders, Thos. B. 

Schlemmer, C. H., w, 2.') Alabama St. 

23. Sauter, Charles, w, Mos"by Ave. 

23. Shute, Frank, w, City Hospital. 

24. Schalscher, Fannie, w, Wasliington St. 
21. Stanberg, Charles, 2 Ross Ave. 

24. Stranberg, Ernest, w, Ba.ss Ave. 

25. Sli'd'-'e, Ciroline, c, 155 Main St. 
25. Slielian, Alice, w. 

25. Sclialscha, Hannah, w, Washington St. 
2G. Sullivan, L. S. 

26. Scales, George, c, cor. Auction and Second 

Sts. 

26. Stanberg, Ed. A., w, 2 Ross Ave. 
2i;. Siieplierd Mr . F., w, Linden St. 

27. Sliepherd, Lanra, Poplar St. 
27. Smith, Ann, e, Allen Ave. 

27. Speckernagle, Win., w. Poplar St. 
27. Scalley. Jl. E , Louisville, Ky. 
2a. Si-haler, Herman, w, Front St. 



Aug. 28. Scully, Agnes, w, Moseby Ave. 
28. Smith, John, w, City Hospital. 
28- Smith, Frank, c, 22 Johnson Ave. 

28. Sales, Ellen, c, 86 Winchester St. 

29. Stewart, Maggie. 
29. Salzeger, H, G. 

29. Smitli, John, c, 129 Main St. 
29. Seytuour, Joseph, 90 Hill St. 
29. Scott, Gei>rge, 173 Jeflerson St. 
29. Sipp, Marv, Court St. extended. 
29. Stalin, Mrs. Helen, w, Fifth St. 
29. Spencei-, Nora, w. Poplar St. 

29. Smith, Mrs., w. Pigeon Roost Road. 

30. Saunders, Miss Clara, w, Robinson St. 
30. Stahlen, J. N., w. Filth St. 

30. Shelby, Matt., w. Pigeon Roost Road. 

30. Sweeney, Ada, Greenlaw St. 

30. Selden, Jim, w, 3 Johnson .Ave. 

30. Shipling, Martha, 7 Moseby Ave. 

30. Seymour, Monroe, c, 31 Robinson St. 

30. Steinell, John, City Hospiuil. 

■SO. Solomon, E. 

30. Schnltz, Charles. 

30. Smith, W. J., Jr., w, Elliott St. 

SO. Schafer, Alice O., Overton St. 

30. Scullv, Charles. 

30. Shipley, Mathias. 

81. Samons, Harriet, c, cor. Poplar and Echols 
Sts. 

31. Sherry, Patrick, w, Winchester Ave. 
31. Saunders, Jim, w, Railroad. 

31. Stehle. Frank, w, Memphis and Charles- 
ton R R. 
31. Shea, Thomas, w. Hill St. 
31. Stinette, John, w. City Hospital. 
Sept. 1. Shuter, Miss Emma, w, Madison St. 
1. Saunders, Clara, \v. Main St. 
1. Selest, John, c. 111 Poplar St. 
1. Shearer, Mary, e, 76 Third St. 
1. S inberg. c, cor. Washington and Main Sts. 

1. Sheridan, Mary, c. Jackson St. 

2. Stevenson, M., Cilv H. .spital. 

2. Stanford, Tom, c 95 Madison St. 
2. Smith, John, w. City Hospital. 
2. Smith, Edward, c,"cor. Orleans and St. 
Paul Sts. 

2. Steinau, Joseph, w. City Hospital. 
2. Sakeford, Charles,- Union Ave. 
2. Schneider, Jacob, w, landen St. 
2. Shepherd, Annie, e, Jefferson St. 

2 Sterla, Frederick, w, Chelsea. 

2. Stnrdevant, Mrs., w. Poplar St. 

3. Sullivan, M., w. Orphan Asylum. 

3 Sohm, Margaret, w, Bass Ave. 
3. Stillman, Henry, w, Broadway. 
3. Strehl, .Mollie, w, Bass Ave.' 

?. Sillivan, Mary, w, 161 Pontotoc St. 

3. Steel, 505 Rayburu Ave. 

3. Schrider, Jlrs., 188 Linden St. 

3. Stetson, Eddie, c, Winchester St. 

4. Stnrdevant, Mrs., w, 65 Poplar St. 
4. Sliced, Laura, w, 47 HulingSt. 

4. Smith, cor. St. Paul and Orleans Sts. 

4. Switzer, Mary, w, 108 Vance St. 

4. Strong, w, cor. Hernando and Beale Sts. 

4. Smith', Hob, Old Raleigh Road. 

4. Sullivan, Mrs., w. City Hospital. 

4 Sclimnck, Peter, w. Greenwood Ave. 
4. Starrelt. .Mrs. F. E., w. Jackson St. 

4. Sellers, John, w, L(aiisville, Ky. 

4. Sm-th, Martha, c, Jeflerson St. 

5. Smith, John, City Hosjiital. 
5. Stanley, Mike, City Hospital. 
5. Stever," Joseph, 178 Front St. 

5. Smith, Martin, l(i3 Jefierson St. 

5. Slocum, Ed., c, 209 Hernando St. 

5. Shanders. Mrs., w, 46 Orleans St. 

5. Straubcr.!, Charles, w, 11 Charleston Ave. 

5. Sussete, George, Citv Hospital. 

5. Stewart, W. F., w. City Hospital. 

.5. Swearinger, E. F., w. City Hospital. 

5. Sprausberger, Chas.,w, 11 C harleston Ave. 

5. Steel, J. M., W, M. & C. R. R. 

.5. Starrett, Eddie, w, Jackson St. 

.5. Stewart, Mrs. N. M., w, Country. 

5. Slagle, Josephine. 

5. Sclicrs, Theresa, w, Louisville, Ky. 

5. Smitli, Adeline, c, Monroe St. 

D. Smith, Mary, c, Avery St. 



232 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Sept. 0. Schu!ze, A. F., w, Diiiilnp St. 
(j. Smith, L., w, Vance St. 
1). 8uliivan, Dennis, \v, Ciayoso St. 
G- Stron,', Nancy, 113 Beale St. 
U Siiniauns, K "becea, c. P ip ar St. 
(j. Suift, <'<>i'. TliirJ ami Mn iioe Sts. 
(). SUaw, Fannie, c, 17U Vance St. 
(i. Snndies, Wm., cor. Vanc^,- & St. Martin Sts. 
(j. Spjlhaan, Wm., 1(U Beale St. 
(i. S iyles, Lncretia, c, Mi Winehcstcr St. 
(). Susetle, George, ( 'ity Hospit.il. 
C. Smitli. John, City Huspitil. 

6. Stanley, Mike, t.'itv lli'.^pital. 
G. Sp 'll.nan, P., Beale St 

G. Smith, Sally, c, .leli'jrson St. 

G. S|):,v I, M irhn, c. 

G- Sa:ili ii-i;-, .lohn, Win 'licsterSt. 

7. Si.i'iL^L;, .loan, X.ivy Yanl. 

7. S'hnl/,, A (>., \7, .ieller-iiin St. 

7. Speers, .Mrs. Elizibelli, w, Alabama St. 

7 Stanbji'^, A."tiinr, \v. 11 Ch irl.-ston Ave. 

7. S 'vin m;-, Kjbeeca, 0,3/ Robinson St. 

7. Sin,; b, Willis, .iG Mala St. 

7. II, 1; ivi.l, c, 3 Johnson Ave. 

7. S imin IS, ('. H., w, 224 Hernando St. 

7. Si,nt!i-y, WMli uu, 132 Beale St. 

7. Stick, IMis. \l iri;aret, w, Hernando St, 
iS. .Shepherd, B. E.^ \v, I,indenSt. 

S. Slerlie, Helen, w, Ross Ave. 

8. Sohuler, MoUie, w, Georgia St. 
8. Sanona, Emma, \v, 

8. Sailth. Ivniua, \v 
8. .s^l 'wa-t, Cilvin, w, Cans^-y St. 
K. .<m:ia, I'lia.rlcs M,, .Mailiso'n St. 
8. Sb v.Mia .\;bert,c, L uulcrdale St. 
,s, S ]'-,aiiiia, c, PU .Mus 'by Ave. 
■s. Saav, E I., w, Citv llospit il. 
8. Sart'lr.uis, X , r. ciiv H .spital. 
8. SeUey, Ann, ( 'itv 11 isp;tal. 
8. S,>iithern, W'., w. 

8. Severson, P. (J., -.v. 

U. Sraitli, iMiss B., w, 275 Washinsrton St. 

9. Sliigher, A. T., Market St. Infirmary. 
9. Soharf, Mi-s , w, Si> -oiia St. 

9. Seharf (iufa ili, S aid St. 

9. Sara^o, .Io!ui, lis IPaaiando St. 

9. Shines, Bettii-, <\ W.alnut Ave. 

9. S lylor, Jascp'i, w, B'?ale St. 
10. Sweeney, w. Third St. 
10. Swc.aicv, .1 II., w, Greenlaw St. 
10. Stinsoii, U- s • 

10. S UtalaMiachi, Frank, w, Orleans St. 

10. J'auij,.uii, .lolui. 

10 Si-ni-n, .1, lines. 

10. SI, 11 i-. I'rel. C , w, Chelsea. 

10. Sbiiinons, L,, \v. La Rosa .St. 

10. Saltalamaehi, Frank, w, cor. Orleans and 

Vance Sts. 
10. Stovall, Mollie, 91 De Soto St. 
10. .S-lvin, John, SjcondSt. 

10. Sirri'.'s, J. B,. Coop;r Place, 
n. Siss, ,Julia. 105 Pe Soto St. 

11. Snencer, Caroline. 
11. Scherer, H. 

11. Sullivan. James J , w. T'nion St. 

II. StCL-le, (' L.. \v, r,i;o:i si 

11. Stiley, Cbarli-, w. 271 Main St. 

11. Sutton, F.innic, c, ilii RiiseSt. 

11. Satherley, J,im''s. SalTerans St. 

n. Small, Marv, 17(i Spring St. 

11. Shaw, .v., c, t:iay St. 

11. Sullivan, Mary, Uniim .\ve. 

11. Spiiii, Lncv, (lonord St. 

11. Salf a-iins, ,rames, e, Chelsea St. 

11. Siininons, Mrs., w, Linderdale St. 

11. Sutton. Thomas, La Rosa St. 

12, Schneider, Kate, 

12. Slac!;, Elizi, w, Madison St. 

12. Shnttleworth, Alfred, w, Manassas St. 

12. Sivan, Mollie. 

12. Stanislaus, Sister, w. Market St, 
12. Smith, John, \v, Tennessee St. 
12. Sullivan, Tom, \v, .500 Main St. 
12 Sheelev, Gallins, Dunlap St. 
12. Scott, Win,, c, 51 St. Martin St. 
12. Samoo, S'G Caiisev .^t. 
12. Smith, H., c. City Hospital. 

12. Snider, Katie, w, Navy Yard. 

13. Stokes, John. 



Sept. 13. Sorrv,, Mitchell, 138 Elliott St. 

13. Stcw.iit, r. v., w, 

13, St' w.irt. s.ir h \V., w, 103 Hernando St. 

13. Sin;t:i. 'Iciiiiic. 

13, SIM Ui, .y, .buiics, w, Market St. Intirmarv 
l:;. ScMijLs, Amanda, c. In Howard Kow, 
13. Saiiicb is, sallic, w, cor. Seventh and .Vlii 

Pallia sts. 
13. Sevier K. 

13. Steveiiseii. -William G., w, Dnnlap St. 
13. Siniiiiniis, .lulins A., w, Pontotoc St. 

13. Slielliv, (ie.iigia, c. 

14, Stewart, P. I,., \v, 103 Hernando St. 
14. Seais. .1 J., w. 

14. f?i-liiller. .b)sr]jliinc, 152 Causey St. 

14. Sell' are;-, '1 bulll; s. 

14. Scatter, .biliii, ( la' Shclbv & Linden Sts. 
14. Stev: iisiai. Ibiiiis. e, 19 Winchester St. 
14. Siiylnr, .Mary, u , lieale St. 
14, Sutton, Mo, lie, w, cor, Madison and Or- 
leans Sis. 

14. Shri'.;lit. Minnie, e, cor. Walnut and 

V.aliee S|s, 

14, Sciiejas, 1 'a ad ford, c, cor. Tennessee and 

LiieUai Sis. 
14. Small, Ilettie. w. Church Home. 
14. Sannili IS. Hannah, c, G Dtinlap St. 
14. Sticlil, Sarah R., w. Bass Ave. 
14, Smith, M. F.. w, Peyton .\ve. 
14, Schneider, Mrs., \v, 'laicUii St. 

14. Steinknlil. Iliiiry. w, Bmikvard. 
1.3. Schneider, w. laiah n St. 

15. Schnmak- r. 1',, w , Sbeihy St, ' 
15. Sunberry, .Mrs,. \v. ;ii7 .Main St, 

15. Selke, ciiarKs. w . Maikel SI. Infirmary. 
15. Scott, Fannie, e. A\ ebster St. 
15. Scliumaker, Pi iv r, w. 114 Shelby St. 
15. Sullivan, .leiry. I'liimi .Vve. 
15. Shepherd, IClizi w, 
15. Slick, Call, w, l:;3Siaitli St. 
15. Shnttleworth, James, w. 
15. Schumaker (child of Peter), w, 414 Shelbv 
St. 

15. Scl'.r.mal^er (child of Peter\ w, 414 Shelbv 

St. 

16. Shnttleworth., Annie R., w, JIanassas St. 
1«. Smith ichildi. 

16. Seibi rl, Fenlinand, w, Humboldt Park. 

16. Smilh, Sam., w, Tennessee St. 

16. Sims, e. p;3 He Soto St. 

16. Scoit, .Mr., w, cor. South St. and Ray- 

burii Ave. 
16. Stanton, Eliza, c. Marshall .Ave. 
16. Scepers, Joe, c, Horn Lake Road. ■ 
16. Saluu-rca. J., w, Raleis;h Road. 
16. Sims, Lizzie, c, 303 DeSctoSt. 
16. Soiibr, .losepliiiie, vv, Andrew Ave. 
16. Sadler, Sarah, w. 

16. Saidbnrn, Ellen C, c, Bass Ave. 

17. Simmons, Mary, c, 82 rbiy St. 
17. Smilh, Dave, w, steamer luiiuinn. 
17. Smith, \v. City Hospiial. 

17. Slenson, Reese, c, 103 Pi niotoc St. 

17. Swfui, .\uruste, \v, ( hiiieli Hi me. 

17. Schneider, l oia. w. Linden St. 

17. Shaw, James .\., w, lliilinu St 

17. Shelton. Mrs. M. A., w, Si.xih St. 

17. Schuyler, l;ev.L.S.,w, Court St. Infirmary. 

17. Stein'. nlil, Mari;aixt, 

18. Shepherd, W. B., w. 

18. Shortey, Clara Matilda. w, 62 Peyton Ave. 

18. Smiioks, Louis, GieiiiWnod .\ve. 

18. Steven.son, Miss Marv T., 32 Dunlap St. 

IS. Smith. Charlev. 

18. Schlatter, Sani'l, w, City Hospital. 

18, Stanloii. Liicv A., c, cor. Filth and Lau- 

del-ilale sis'. 

IK, Salt ilaiiiaelii. Frank, w, Louisville, Ky 

19 Street, Kaniiie, \v, Clinrch Home. 

19. Seaiiiicll. Father, w, St., Peter's Church. 
19. Swiiit, Lizz e, e, 84 South St. 

19. Strain, Mr,, w, Buntyn Station. 

19. Sledge. Henry, c, cor., Second St. and 

Henry Ave. 
19. Selinltz. Fred., Hernando Road. 
19. Street, Nannie, w. Church Home. 

19. Smith, Josic, w. Second St. 

20. Shellev, Henrv. 

20, Sims, Andrew, c, Elliott St. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



233 



Sept. ■Itl. Seafe, Alex , w, Second St. 

20. Sliields, Petei', w, City Hospital. 
•20. Stein, Mai y, w, Front St. 
20. Salari, Toney, ^\', eor. Alabama and 
geventli Sts. 

20. Steele, Mr?. C. L.v w, City Hospital. 

21. Scully, James H., w, Whichester Ave. 
21. Sassamon, Frank, \v, Georgia St. 

21. Sliive, W. H., w. City Ho.spilnl. 
21. S ilari, cor. Maxwell and Saft'er.ms St. 
21. Stevenson, Miss, w, DunlapSt. 
21. Stevens, .Julia Ann. 
21. Scliallary. Thomas. 
^ 21. Sliaildy, 'Margaret, w, near Elmwood. 

21. Sledge, Mrs., w, Jackson St. 

22. Searafiatta, Joseph, w. Wolf River. 

22. Sehuinaker, Mrs. M. G., w, Marley Ave. 
22. Schneider, Andrew, w. City Hospital. 

22. Saunders, Willie, c, cor. Orleans and 

Court Sts. ' 

23. Sugss, Mrs , c, T j Clay St. 
2;!. Smith, Biirrell, c, Chelsea. 
23. Spears, Mrs., Jackson St. 

23. Settle, Annie, c, (jli La Rosa St. 
23. Sherrod, Fred., vv, foot of Jackson St. 
23. Salari, F. M , w, cor. Satieraus and Max- 
well Sts. 

23. Scherer, Mr., w, foot of Jackson St. 

23. Sclierrie, Mrs., w. Poplar St. 

24. Smith, Patrick, c, cor. Seventh and Broad- 

way Sis. 
24. Slink, Mrs., w, 1.33 Court St. 
24. Smith, J. J., vv, cor. Hernando and 

Vance Sts. 

34. Sheltou, Mrs. R.W.,w, National Cemetery. 

21. Strong, Henry, e, Alabama St. 

24. Shnrts, Mrs., w, foot of Jackson St. 

24. Steel (child), w, Echols St. 

2.1. Stall, August, w, 9 Linden St. 
2 1. Schilling, L., w, Georgia St. 
2.5. Sanders,' M., c, Central Ave. 
26. Smith, H. G., w. Market St. Infirmary. 
- 2(i. Sanders, Charley. 
26. Smith, Aggie, c, cor. Van Buren and 

Washington Sts. 
2(i. Schaf_^r, Henrv, w, Raleigh Road. 

26. Stewart, Geo,,"c, Wolf River Ferry. 

27. Shoemaker, Mr. 

27. Sl.ater, Miss Sallie, w, Boulevard. 

27. Sauer, Miss Amelia, w. 

27. Salirclie, Mr , w, Anders Place. 

27. Smith, Mi.ss H , w, Vance St. 

28. Schley, F., w, Winchester Ave. 

28. Scruggs, Caroline S. 

25. Smith, W. C. 

29. Smith, Eliza, w. City Hospital. 
29. Sauer, Philip Henrv, w. 

29. Schilling, Ferd. S.,'w, 12 Adams St. 
29. Stokie, Mrs. Annie, w. Main St. 

29. Shepherd, Daisy, 21.5 Poplar St. 

30. Sauer, Louis. 

30. Sutton. Geor.ge W. 
30. St /wart. Charles, c. 
Oct. 1. Siiigg, Edward, w, Jladison St. 

1. Schroedev, Caroline, w, Secoml St. 

1. Shjlton, R. W., w. National Cemetery. 

1, Shehaii, John, w, Hernando St. 

1. Sauer, Ada, w, Jeti'er.xin St. 

1. Stratlmaii, Bernard, w, Carolina St. 

1. Selineider, Mrs., w, Raleigh Road. 

2. Schroeder, H. L., w. Second St. 
2. Smith, Nellie, w, Broadwav. 

2. Smith (chdd), w, Thomas Ave. 
2. Sullivan, Mrs., w. City Hospital. 

2. Sciillin, Jim, 65 Unioii St. 

3. Saxson, George, w. 

3. Sticker (child of T.', c. 

4. Stanley. Jno. R., w, McLemore Ave. 
/ 5. Slack, Jerry 

/ .5. Shaw, Mrs. Katie, w. Hiding St. 

5. Strattinan, A., w. Fifth St. 

5. Swep, Taylor, c, Mulberrv St. 

6. Scott, Tnbmas, c. Chelsea". 

6. Smith. Cornelius, c, Stewart Ave. 
6. Spun, Mary Ann, w. Woolen Mills. 
6. Scnlliu, Patrick, w. Library Building. 
6. Smith, Charles. 

fi. Siiier, Mrs. Margaret, w, Jefferson St. 
6. Strehl, .Mrs. J. A., w, Breedlove Ave. 



Oct. 6. Smith, Clara, w, Hernando St. 

7. Sample, Dr., w, Camp Joe Williams. 
7. Shepherd, Wni., w. Front St. 
7. Stovall, Dinah, c, Trigg A\ e. 
7. Schmeyer, Edward, w, B^ale St. 

7. Stewart, Thomas, w. Elmwood, 

8. Settle, Louis, w, 65 La Knsa St. 

8. Snelling, C. Jr., w, Winchester Ave. 
9 Smith, Bob. c, Bass Ave. 

9. Shepherd, Mrs, Jiliniiie. 

9. Sherwood. Miss Lena, w, Raleigh Road. 
9. Spiegle, Mr.. \v, Bluff Ciiy Grays. 
9. Snnih, Philip, w, Vance St. 
9. Smith, Angus, w, City Ilo^-pitnl. 
9. Seypel, Miss Jliiinic, \v, Wilson Station. 
10. Sabrelle, Marv. 

10. Sharpe. D.ir. 

11. Smith, Rolit., c, Mhoon Ave. 
31. Shine, Charlotte, c. Sixth St. 

11. Strange, Netia, w, Hernando Road. 

11. Sullivan, Jaspar. 

12. Slater, Mrs. E. C, w, Boulevard. 
12. Sliultz, William, w. Court St. 

12. Shoi maker, L. M,, w, I^ii]iiiir St. 

14. Stone, James, w, Old Kiileigh Road. 

14. Shoemaker, Morris, w, Marley Ave. 
14 Smith, Emma, c. 

15. Scales, Ellen, e, 38 Third St. 

15. Slater, Miss Moll ie, w. Poplar St. 
15. Shrover, W. P., w, Latham Ave. 
15. Scales, Allie, c, 38 Third SI. 

15. Stickers. Elvira, c, Georuia St. 

I. 5. Stowe, Mrs., w, Ruleigli Roail. 

16. Shields, Viney, c, Selma Railroad. 

16. Shields, Chanty, c. Elmwood. 

17. Sample, Susan, w, Valentine Ave. 
17. Saiipe. Frank, w, Valentine Ave. 

19. Siaaiiigs. P. T., w. Goodlelt Station. 

20. Smith, Mrs. H. D., w, Siielliy Cimnty. 
20. Stome, Ida, w. Church Home. 

20. Strange. Tovn, c, Jackson St. 
21- Schilling, W. II., w, Georgia St. 

21. Strong, Mrs., c. Commerce St. 

22. Stewart, Maud, w, Raleigh Road. 

22. Stephenson, Nelson, c. City Hospital. 

23. Shehan, Jlrs. M., w, Lucy'.^ve. 

24. Shrover, Miss Margaret, \v, Latham Ave. 
24. Summers, Mrs. Margaret, w, Kcrr.Vvo. 
24. Spicer, Jennie, w, Kerr Ave 

24. Stanley, Mrs. P. w. Second St. 
2.S. Shehan, Mrs, C, w, liayburn Ave. 
2.S. Saul, Jacob, w, Market St. Infirina,ry. 
29. Smith, Dorcas. 
29. Sumiii'is. William, yy. 

29. Simms, Mrs, M. L., w, Rozelle Station. 

30. Scott, David, cor. Hernando St. & Kerr 

Ave. 

30. Staeey, G. C, Horn Lake Road. 
Nov. 1. Scales, James. 

1. Smith, Albert, 126 Pontotoc St. 
1. Snell, Albert, w, Beale St. 
1. Smith, Alfred, w, Pontotoc St. 
1. Sullivan, Nelson, c. City Hospital. 
8. Stevenson, Jennie, w, Clay St. 
8. Sims, Lewis, w, Kerr Ave. 

II. Steinkuhl, C. D., w, Madison St. 

11. Siieh in. Kate, w. South St. 

13. Sambnsctta, Victoria. 

14. Schmidt, Mrs. Susan, w. Seventh St. 
Aug. 12, Tail, Jung Yung, w, Jelferson St. 

12. Tiudall, C M. 

14. Tillman, Rosa, 

17. Troinbly. Geo., w, MoseViy Ave. 

15. Tafier, Sopliy, Madison St. 

18. Thompson, Minerva. 

19. Tavlor, W. H., w. Mulberry St. 

20. Tiglie, I'etca- A , w. Poplar St. 

21. Trig.:-, AlPai, N., Front St. 

21. Tracey, Miss Maggie, \v, Hernando Road. 
24. Tavlor, John L.,"c, cor. Broadway and 
Sixth Sis. 

26. Turner, Thomas, w, cor. Court and Or- 

leans Sts. 

27, Tiirney, Mrs.. 4 High St. 

27. Theveat, A., w, cor. Poplar St. & Carroll 
Ave. 

27. Thorn, Lillie, w, Brinkley Ave. 
27. Thomas. Henry, 26 Second St. 
27. Taylor, B. 



234 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOAV FEVER. 



27. Tweedy, Tliomns. 
27. Tiillmaii, K. M. 
29. Townsend, Caiidos, 203 Monroe St. 
2i). Turner, Duiilap St. 
29. Tate, David. 
29. Tally, Annie, c. 
31. Tiiriey, Mike, w. City Hospital. 
31. Tiernay, Charles. 
Sept. 1. Townsend, Aleck, c, 111 Poplar St. 
1. Tilford, M A. 

1. Taggert, R. L., w. County Jailer. 
1. Tate, Lney A., w, Orleans St. 
1. Tinman, Alice, w. Winchester St. 
1. Tiensun, Alex., c, Winchester St. 

1. Turner, Philis., c. 

2. Tavlor, Jennie, c, Goslee St. 

2. Thnmel, Adulph, Poplar St. 

3. Thomas, Rev. A., 79 Robeson St. 

3. Thonip.son, R. A., vv, Wellington St. 

3. Trneheart, Susan, c, 5 Auction St. 

4. Townsend, Willie, w, 27 Main St. 

4. Turner. Vina, c, Pontotoc St. 

5. Tighe, Peter A., Jr., w. Poplar St. 
5. Thomas, Joe, c, Winchester St. 

5. Tighe, James C, w. Poplar St. 

6. Tavlor, Mrs. Annie, w, Union St. 
6. Tibbs, Johnson, St. Martin St. 

6. Townsend, Miss, w, 27 Main St. 

6. Thompson, Jerry, c, 73 Lauderdale St. 

7. Thomas, Mrs. Caroline, St. Martin St. 
7. Thayers, Adolph., w. 

7. Thomas, Sallie, c, 93 Alabama St. 
7. Turner, Henrietta, c, 38 St. Martin St. 
7. Tighe, Samuel, w, Poplar St. 
7. Thomas, Hatcli. 

7. Thrall, J. C, w, Adams St. 

8. TenluU, Mrs. Breton, w. Poplar St. 
8. Thompson, Mi-s. Mattie, w. 

8. Thompson, Willie, w, Shelby County. 

8. Tavlor, Lou., w, cor. Second and Auction 

Sts. 

9. Tershus, Patrick, Linden St. 

9. Townsley, Sam., w, Market St. Infirmary. 

9. Tngler, James. 

9. Turner, Robert, 259 Union St. 

9. Taylor, Nora, w, 13 Main St. 

9. Theobus, T. V., w, Madison St. 

9. Torrence, Hugh, \v, Poplar St. 

9. Towns, Earnest, County Jail. 

9. Turner, Edna, w, 167 De Soto St. 
11. Thomas, Free, 217 South St. 
11. Tavlor, Ciiroline. 
11. Turner, Sitllie, c, 299 Union St. 

11. TlKuniis IJonnie. 

11. Trigg, Marsluill. 

11. Tucker, Charles, w, City Hospital. 

11. Tonlson, Charles, w, Hernando St. 

12. Theveat, Noble. 

12. Thomas, Richard, 242Sont^St. 
12. Tithian, Hester E., w, Alabama St. 
12. Thorne, p;d. 

12. Tavlor, James, c. 

13. Terry, Jesse, c. Short Third St. 
13. Terry, Andv, c, Short Third St. 
1.3. The lias, Ida. 

13. Theckler, Sister, \v, Poplar St. 
13. Theventh, Robert, w, Ruth St. 

13. Turner, A., c. 

14. Thomas, Hattie. 

14. Temps, Willie, w, 179 South St. 

14. TJieveat, Bernard, w, cor. Beale St. and 

Charleston R. R. 
14. Thomps(m, W. B., w, 43 Poplar St. 

14. Thompson, A. R., w. Court St. 
1.5. Thixton, W. K., w, Bolen Ave. 

1.1. Tavlor, Caroline, c, 1078 Alabama St. 
Ir,. Treadwell, Gertrude, c, 6.5, Clay St. 

15. Thompson, Mrs. Joanna, w, cor, Orleans 

& Georgia Sts. 
15. Thompson, Tansey, c, City Hospital. 

15. Thomas, Viola. 

16. Tobiu, .Mrs. Ellen, w, cor. Hernando & 

South Sts. 

16. Thompson, West, c, Southern Oil Works. 
16. Tilion, R., Plank Road. 

16. Tnvliir. Joe, City Hospital. 

17. Tentnll, Julius, w. 179 .South St. 

17. Tiivlor. Kli/.a, 291 Union St. 

18. Taylor, Charles, \., 220 Washington St. 



Sept. IS. Thomas (infant of Bettiel, c, 8r. De Soto St. 
18. Tenlull, Settle, w, 179 South St. 

18. Thomas, Renie. 

19. Thomas, Joe, c. Front St. 

19. Tucker, Francis, w, Raleigh Road. 

20. Train, Thomas, w. City Hospital. 

21. Thompson, Ann Eliza, c. 

22. Tighe, James, w. Poplar St. 

23. Tenfnil, Joseph, w, 179.'^outh St. 

24. Thompson, ilrs. , w. City Hospital. 

25. Thomas, John, c, Riiybnru Ave. 
25. Tomeney, Hale, w, Bliss Ave. 

25. Tobin, Mike, w. South St. 

26. Trezevnnt,S. P. 

26. Tufts, Peter T. E., w, 377 Orleans St. 

27. Thomas, H., c, 1.51 St. Martin St. 

28. Tobyn, Dennis, w, 238 South St. 
28. Tomeney, Helen, w, Bass Ave. 

28. Taylor, Miss M., c. Concord St. 

29. Tate, Jesse M., w, Orleans St. 
29. Tate, Wm., w, Poiibir St. 

29. Tuerk, Dr., w, 400 Main St. 

30. 'I'hixton, Mrs. 

Oct. 1. Tines, Esther, w, Seventh St. 
1. Taylor, John B., w. Main St. 
1. Turnan, Kate, w, Washington St. 
3. Taylor, Marshall, w. City Hospital. 

3. Thompson, Aggie, w, City Hospital. 

4. Taylor, Lucy, w, cor. Walnut & VanceSts. 
4. Towers, Joe, c, cor. Front & Van Buren 

Sts. 

4. Thomas, Miss Pauline, w, Breedlove Ave. 

4. Tavlor, Ensley. c. Union St. " 

5. Taylor, Swift,' 114 Mulberry St. 

5. 'i'omeney, Jlrs. J. 51., w, Bass Ave. 
5. Taylor, t). S., w. Central Ave. 
5. Taylor. A. W., w. Union St. 
5. Thomas, D., c. 

0. Tillson, Elizabeth, w. Walker Ave. 

7. Taylor, Park, \v. Central Ave. 

7. Thomas, Alma, w, Thomas Ave. 

7. Turner, Selhy, c, 72 Marshall Ave. 

7. Thompson, D. H.,w, MarketSt. Infirmary. 

9. Tomeney, j. M , w, Ba.'-s Ave. 

9. Tilson, Samuel, w, south gate, Elmwood. 

9. Thorpe, Richard, e. South Jackson St. 

11. Tyson, Nick, 40 Exchange St. 

12. Tillson, F., w. City Hospital. 

13. Thornton, Ellen E. W., c, Pigeon Roost 

Road. 

1.5. Taylor, Jesse, c, Turlev St. 
IS. Tavlor, Dave, c, Clav St. 

19. Taylor, Preston, \v, Jackson St. 

20. Townsend, Joseph, w, Randolph Point. 
22. Thomas,Miss Charlotte.w, Breedlove Ave. 
25. Turner, Thomas, w. Gill Station. 

28. Thompson, Sam'!, w. City Hcspital. 

29. Townsend, Miss MoUie, w. 

31. Taylor, Preston, c, Beale St. 

Nov. 2. Tucker, Mrs. Sallie A., w, Third St., Ft. 
Pickering. 

1.5. Tavlor, Mary Ann. 

1.5. Tavlor, Mrs. Ann E., w. Central Ave. 

17. Tnhell, Mrs. C, w. College St. 
Aug. 16. Unknown, 163>^ Piiplar St. 

17. Unknown man, foot of Trezevant St. 

19. Unknown, Raleigh Road. 

24. Uuverziigt, Wm., w. Exchange St. 

25. Unknown miui, w, 105 Main .''I. 

25. Unknown Avoman, alley bet. Monroe and 

Maiiison Sts. 

26. Unknown man, Poplar St. 

27. Upchurch, C. H., w. iss Robinson St. 

28. Upchnn-h, Mrs. C. 11., w, iss Robinson St. 

30. Unknown, cor. Ponlotoc and De Soto Sts. 

31. Unknown, Concord St. 

31. Unknown child, c, Coiu't St., extended. 
31. Uiikudwii. 
Sept. 1. Unknown, Old Raleigh Road. 

1. Unkn(iwn man, 51SSlu'lliy St. 

2. Unknown man, c. 90 Filth St. 

2. UidvUdwn man, c. Library Building. 

2. Unknown, Union St. 

2. Unknown, room 391) Gayoso Hotel. 

2. Unknown, cor. Market and Main Sts. 

2. Unknown woman, c, cor. De Soto and 

Jfadi.son Sis. 
2- Unknown, 108 Vance St. 
2. Unknown, City Hospital. 



A HISTORY OF TlIK YELLOW riCVKR. 235 



Sept. 2. Unknown man, \v, Broadway. 
3. Uiii;iii]\vu, 

3. IjiiUnowii, liWi-.; Poplar St. 

3. Ijiillnown, M-l Poplar .'^t, 

4. Unknown wmnaii, \\. Iss Linilcn St. 
4. L'nUnoWn cliild, ),ss Viinw .St. 

4. IhiUnovvn, LSI Main .<l 
4. Unlcnown fliild, fjoutlj St. 

4. Unknown man, c, cor. St. Patll and 

Orleans Sis. 

5. t'nknown boy, Kxchanse St., extended. 

5. IJnknown man, w, City Hospital. 

6. I'nknown. 

B. Unlcnown man, \v. 

.^. Unknown, City Hospital. 

5. Unknown nmn, IWi .K'tfcrson St. 

6. Unknown, I7:i .Ji^lferson St. 

5. Unknown man, o, 2011 Hernando St. 

5. Unknown 1 1'J jL'lTcr.ron St. 

6. Unknown Woman, 12'.) De Soto St. 
5. UidvuoWn man, c, 129 Hernando St. 

5. Unknown, bnrled by .lames Allen. 

6. Unknown, f, 118 Front St 
6. Unknown, e, 109 Se<'ond St. 

fi. Unknown, It) Howard's How, 

6. Unknown man, w, 11 Charleston Railroad. 

G. Unknown woman, p, 50 Marshall Ave. 

C. Unknown, 449 Hernando Road. 
6. Unknown, Front St. 

C. Unknown woman, o, cor. JelTerson and 
Main Sts. 

6. Unknown man, c, cor. Hill and Kobin- 
son St.s 

6. Unknown woman, w. 173 S nith St. 
6. Unknown man, bet. Dunlap and Manas- 
sa.s Sts. 

C. Unknovvn, cor. Sonth and Hernando Sts. 
R. Unknown, JEonroe .St. 
6. Unknown, cor. Georgia and Seventh Sts. 
6. Uidinown, City Hospital. 

6. Unl;noWii, 238 Man.assas St. 

7. Unknown, Chelsea St. 

7. Unknown, 139 Midisnn St. 

7. Unknown, (.'ity Hospital. 

7. Unknown, foot of Carolina St. 

7. Unknown man, hospital Wugoil. 

8. Unknown child. 

8. Unknown, la Overton St. 

8. Unknown, Conrt St., extended. 

8. Unknown (bee raiser), Raleish Road. 

8. Unknown man. c, Monroe St. 

9. Unknown, 381 Be.ile St. 

9. Unknown woman, cor. Vance and Allen 
Ave. 

9 Unknown man, cor. Elliott St. and Allen 
Ave. 

9. Unknown, 2.'i0 Wa-sbinston St. 

9. Unknown, cor. Hernando and Vance Sts. 

9. Unknown. Dickinson's Pla -e. 

9. Unknown child, 17(1 Sonth St. 

9. Uaknown, 133 Main St. 

9. Unknown, 13 .Mulberry St. 

9. Unknown, 128 Cans /y St. 

9. Uidinown, Raleigh lioad. 

9. Unknown, 320 .Main St. 
10. .Unknown (hostler). (18 Nfonroc .St. 
10. Unknown worn in, MrLemore Ave, 
10. Unknown, 21 Beale St. 

10. ITuknown, 370 Vance St. 

11. Unknown. 
11 Unknown. 

11. Unknown man. 111 Pontotoc St. 

11. I'nknown, I< uiderdale St. 

11. Unknown, 12'i Dnnlap St. 

11. Unknown, Old Libr.iry Building. 

11. Unknown, lii(i De Soto St. 

12. Unknown. 

12. Unknown, Poplar St. 

12. Unknown, :»9 Shelby St. 

12. T^nknown woman, ll'O Jlaln St. 

12. Unknown, (17 Jefferson St. 

12. I'ldcnown woman. 372 Union St, 

12. I'nknown man, 189 South St. 

12. t^nknown, Breedlove Ave. 

12. Unknown, 7.> Clay St. 

13. Unknown. 

13. Unknown, l'2'i Fifth St. 
13. Unknovvn man (in cyrnfleld), Randolph 
Koad. 



j Sept. 13. Unlcnown mnti, 230 Slain St. 
1:1. I'liderwood, Uiles, c. 
14. Unknown. 
14. Unknown. 

14. Unknown, cor. Exchange and Alabama 
Sts. 

14. Unknown, cor. Exchange and Alabama 
Sis. 

14. Unknown Child. Chnrch Orphan Heme. 

14. .Unknown, city Hospital. 

14. Unknown, 32 ; .Jetterson St. 

14. Unknown man, 2.8.> Sonth St. 

ITi. Unknown, I-indenSt. Infirmary. 

1.1. Unknown, cor. Keel and Second Sts. 

1. ). Urittl, w. 

l(i. Unknown nmn, Hernando Road. 
17. Unknown cliilil. CanHi ld Asylum. 
17. Unknown, 17 (iholson St. 
17. Untnini, i hailcs, w, 80 Hernando St. 

17. Unknown. 

18, UiikiKiwn, .lohnson Avenue. 

18. Unknown, cor. Walnut St. and Pigeon 

Itoost Road. 
20. Unknown child. Canfleld Asylum. 

20. Unknown. City Hospital. 
'Jl. Unknown, Bu.ss Ave. 

21. Unknown. 

22. Unknown. 

22. Unknown, Raleish I?ond. 

23. I'nknown, Ci(y Hospitnl. 

24. Unknown man, b'A Main St. 
24. t'nkni.wn. 

20. Uid;nown. 

27. I'nknown, Ponntv .Tail. 
2.8. I'nknown, Ininlap St. 

SO. VnklKiwn cliild, Caiifield Asvhim. 

30. T'niinown nuin, fooi of Adan'is St. 
Oct. 2. Vnknow n I hild, (17 Jctt'erson St. 

2. I'nknown I'liikl, Canfield Asylum. 
9. Unknown, 24(l,Iohnson Ave.' 

10. UnliUown Woman, cor. Broadway and 
Sonth ,'^ts. 

10. Unknown child, cor. Broadway and 
Souih Sts. 

14. Unknown, C'ltV Hospital. 

Ifi. Unknown child, cor. Mill A- Second Sts. 

1(1. Unknown i hdd. Church Home. 
Oct. 23. l'id;iiown man, new gas works. 
Nov. 1. Ui know n fi male, 
Aug. 13 Vac( am, Mrs. Nicoletta. 

20. Vainer, .Tohn, 114 Front St. 

28. Veh.nica. Sister, w. Third St. 

29. Van Hook, .lohn, Citv H()sliilal. 

31. Vishljcr, John, (.'ity Hos]>ilal. 
31. Vii stiai, Wislcy, 1', Adams St. 

Sept. 3. Vincent, Sol , 220 Poj.lar St. 

."i. Van Walsh, Hanlel, w. Linden St. 
fi. Vogeli, II. J . w. died at Bartlelt. 
5, Vogeli, Mrs. H. J., w, died at Uartlelt. 
7. Volgi r, Violet. 

10. VeUable. Joseph, w, Chelsea. 

11. Viiicenlia, Sister, w. Union St. 

14. Valier, Thomas, City Hospital. 
10. Vanburit, Jolm. 

is. Van H.inie, W. C, w, Market St. Infirm- 
ary. 

15, Virg son. M. W., w, Monroe St. 

19. Vanhoostenljerg, Father, w, cor. Third A 

Adams sts. 
22, Varlev. Thomas, w, Broadway. 
22. Violet, Tliomas, w, 70 Broadway. 
23,. Viini. Clara C , W. 
23,. Valkner, Fred., w, Cily Hospital 
2.">. Vanknnze, C A.,w, Market St. Infirmary. 

20. Venn. Mary L., w. 
28. Valuner, Nicholas. 

Oct. 1. Voorliees, C. V., w. Poplar St. 

8 Vaccaro. Alonzo, w, 79 Tate St. 

21. Vauuhn, Manuel, c, Kerr Ave. 
Aug. 12 WIdte, Mrs. Jennie L. 

12. W()od, John W. 

12. Wilcox, Nancy, c, Washington St. 

12. Winston, LucV, c. 

14. Wilkins, Sharp, De .Soto St. 

14. White, S. M. 

10. Waslicr, Haltie. 

10. Winters, Kmmet, Raleigh. 

10. Walker. Willie, c. 

17. Williams, .Marry, 5" Main St. 



236 



A HISTORY or THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Aug. 17. Walker. William, riav St. 

18. Woiiil, Wri'.'ht, Main St. 

19. WaU;er, Cady, Old Kaloi-h Road. 

•Jl. Wiiglit, Kubert .V , w, '.lii Commerce St. 

23. Werdt, Cliarlotte, w, 14o Washington St. 

23. While, Frank, City Hospital. 

23. Washington, Pinkie, c, Beale St. 

21. West (inla)it of Angelinel, liil Tnion St. 

25. Wills, Walter C, \v, Madison St. 

25. Williams, Mrs. S. E., w. Poplar .St. 

25. Williams, Miss JIa.tcgie, w. Main St. 

25. \Vinters, Thomas, Jr., w, Linden St. 

26. Welch, Marv, w. 

20. Weiler, LiU'ie, \v, Washington St. 
20. Walsh, Ivtitie. 

26. Walsli, Lillie. 
2e. Walter, C. 

26. Wilson, John O., w. City Hospital. 

26. Ward, Albert, City Hospital. 

26. Welcli, Milce, w. City Hospital. 

26. Walsh, John, City Hospital. 

26. Winters, Thomas. 

26. Warner, Tom, c. Front St. 

26. Wa)ide. Albert, w. City Hospital. 
27 Wild, Ed., City Hospital. 

27. Winston. Charles, 2 Ro5S Ave. 

27. Walton, C, w, Madison St. 

28. White, Mollie A., Shelby Count.v. 

28. Whittleton, Ben., c, Worsliam House. 

28. Watson, Dr. K. P., w. Second St. 

29. White, (icorgianna. 

29. Williams, Biddy, 30 Overton St. 
29. Woodsworth, Mrs., 29 Bass Ave. 
29. Williams, Katie, c, 129 Poplar St. 
29. Walsh, Rev. Martin. 

29. Wallace, Elizabeth. 

30. Wagner, Mike, w, Poplar St. 
30. Woodruff', W. C, w. Main St. 
30. West, Jeanette, c, Quinby St. 
30. Wood, Louis, c, 35 Main St. 

30. Williamson, Fred., c, 35 Third St. 
30. Willette, Eliza, Shelby County. 
30. William.s, County Jail. 
30. West, Anthony, c. 

30. Williams, Caroline, c, 79 Poplar St. 

31. Wells, Francis, 185 Front St. 
31. Woodsworth, Mr., w, B iss Ave. 
31. Woodsworth, Mrs., w, Bass Ave. 

31. Williams, Nannie, c, 13 Alabama St. 
31. Wildberger, John, w. 
31. Woeller, L., w, country, 
liept. 1. Warren, Jennie, Main St. 

1. Washington, Lucy, c. Hill St. 

1. Woodward, Mr., iBass Ave. 

1. Walker, Alfred, c, 6 Turley St. 

1. Wright, Willie, 8 Tiiird St. 

1. Wiuford, Thos., Elliott St. 

1. Wilson, Mrs. M. M., Poplar St. 

2. Widrig, George J., w, Pi.geon Roost Road. 
2. Wilson, Mrs. M. M., w. Poplar St. 

2. Williams, Ed., w. City Hospital. 

2. Wilson, Miss Mollie, il3 Main St. 

2. Washington, Charles,c, 303 Washington St. 

2. Williams, Charles, c, 197 Jert'erson St. 

2. Watkins, Eliza, e, 77 Commerce St. 

2. Woodward, A. B., w, 63 Adams St. 

2. Walker, Mrs., 6 Third St. 

2. Williams, Eddie, c, 15 Bradford St. 

2. Watkins, Belle, w, City Hospital. 

2. Wright, Poplar St. 

2. Weidlau, John, 178 Alabama St. 

3. Windling, Frank. 

3. White, B.'rtie, w, Peyton Ave. 

3. Wildberger, Stella, w, Hernando Road. 

3. Wray, John H., w, 442 Beale St. 

3. Wiley, W.,w, Memphis & Charleston R. R. 

3. Walls, Henry, Madison St. 

3. Williams, Mollie. c, 2K North Turley St. 

3. Walker, Martha, c, cor. Washington and 

High Sts. 
3. Whitter, Mary, 108 Vance St. 
3. Walsh, John, Randolph Road. 
3. Wales, Hannah, c, Madison St. 

3. Wood, Lizzie, c, 662 Main St. 

4. Walker, George, c, Vance St. 
4. Watson, H. (;. 

4. Waldron, James, w. 160 Main St. 

4. Watkins, Ed., c, 36 Second St. 

4. Wallace, Minnie, c, 130 St. Martin St. 



Sept. 4. Walker, George, c, cor. Tennessee and 
Vance Sts. 

4. Wray, Mrs., w. La Salette Academy. 
i. Wrttstcm, .losepliine, w. Poplar St." 

5. Waldr.m. I'dlly, c. Fourth St. 

5. Wiiglit, Tom, 21 E.xciiange St., extended. 

5. Williams, Mollie, c, 36 Bradiord St, 

5. Williams, Walter, c, 191 .li Heixin St. 

5. W illiains, ( aniline, c. Id Uowanl Row. 

5. Wilson. .Viulixu , c. 14^ Poplar St. 

0. Williams, Dan., c, 1.52 I'oplar St. 

5. Weathers, Richard, c. 16:i Jellcrson St. 

5. Wjlliaiiis, Lizzie, e, 260 Madison St. 

6. Williams, Frank, c, 153 Main St. 

6. Williams, Billy, c, cor. Jert'erson and 

Third Sts. 
0. AVoods, Josephine, 44 Promenade St. 
6. Williams, I.oiiis, c, loS Alabama St. 
6. Williams, Margaret, alley, bet. Main and 

Front Sts. 

6. White, Matilda, cor. Wellington and 

Union Sts. 
0. Walker, Jim, 1C6 Winchester St. 
6. Walker, ScoK. c, 345 Court St., extended. 

6. Walker, Winiani, c, New Raleigh Road. 

7. White, 1). L., w, Si condSt. 

7. Williams, Dr. R. B., w, Peabody Hotel. 

7. White, W eston. 

7. Williams, Edward, e. 

7. Wheeler, A. J., w. 

7. White, D. F.,192 Second St, 

7. Watson, Hernando Road. 

7. Windier, Frank, w, 178 Alabama St. 

7. Windier. John, w, 178 Alabama St. 

7. Wolf, Mrs. Anna, w, Carolina St. 

7. W'arnecke, Mrs., )v, Jones Ave. 

7. Woh', (ins ave A.,' w, Carolina St. 

7. Weiiicli (cliild or Mrs.), w, Dunlap St. 

8. Willhait, Miss. w. 

8. W'infred. Henry, w. Market St. lufirmarv. 

8. Wilson, Henry, 139 Vance St. 

8. Wilson, N. II., w. City Hospital. 

8, Withe, Mrs. W., w. 

8. Woods, Mrs., w, Cily Hospital. 

8. W'oodran, Annistead, 22 De Soto St. 

8. Wilson, David, o, Monroe St. 

8. Walden, Jack, Monroe St. 

9. Woods, Zinnie, c. 
9. W'tibh, Thomas. 

9. Ward, Lillie, w. Market St. Infirmarj, 
9. William.s, Annie. Clay St. 
9. Williams, Henry, c, 80 De Soto St. 
9. Walsh, Thomas, w. Dunlap St. 
9. Warnecke, Caroline, w, Jones Ave 
9. Windex, Andrew, w, cor. Main aui\ l*cia- 
totoc Sts. 

9. Westfield, A. G. H., w, Tenr.essee St. 
9. Washingion, Boswell. w.2.i7 Monroe St. 
9. Wilson, Mrs., w, near Lemon's Place. 
9. Wetherington, cor. Tliird and Madison 
Sts. 

9. Watkins, Ida, c, cor. Main and Georgia 
Sts. 

9. Williamson, Mr., c, 71 Madison St. 

9. Wise, Minor, SalTeidiiS St. 

9. 'Washington, U W., c, cor. Mill and Sec- 
ond Sts. 

9. Wagoner, Second St. 

9. Winant, M, , c. 
10. White, Robert. 
10. White, Lon.,c. Wellington St. 
10. White Mary S., w, South St. 
10. Wilhelmina, Sister, w, Market St. 
10. Walker, Beckie, w. Linden St. 
10. Wnite, Ellen. 
10. Woodl'all, Henrv. 

m. Wilder, Hattie, ioT. Seventh St. and Broad- 
• way. 

10. Winter (child), cor. Hernando and Vance 
Sts. 

10. Wilder, Mr.. .35 Second St. 
10. Watkins, S., c, Monroe St., extended. 
10. Watkins, John,c, Monroe St., extended. 
10. Whitfield, Thomas, w. Steamer City oj 

Aiigit.<tii. 

10. Williams, A.,c, 510 Shelby St. 

10. Winston, Laura, c, 148 Beale St. 

10. Whitemore, William, c, Shelby County. 

10. Winn, Fred., w, Louisville, Ky. 



I 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 237 



Sept. 10. Wor.shiiir,, Clifford, w, Louisville, Ky. 
11. WilUieit. E.. w, JUiiii St. 
11. Wiini, Tlie.idiJie F.. w, Beale St. 
11. Williams, Nannie H , «. Main St. 
11. Wnnberly, A. H., \v, Union St. 
11. Wilson, LiHira C. 
11. Winters, Ciiarley, c, Avery St. 
11. Wilson, .Tames. 
11. Wisely, Julia, w. City Hospital. 
11. Williams, George, c.'city Hospital. 

11. Webb, Nauuie, City Ho.spital. 

12. Woeru, Loni.sa. 

11. Wind, Charles, e, "Wineliester St. 
li White, Peyton Ave. 

12. Wilson, Naney. 

12. Wilson, W. W., w. Citv Hospital. 

12. Woods, Mary, 602 Main St. 

12. Walsh, Brid'yet, w, :!4 iNlulberry St. 

12. Warring, B., Market St. Infirmary. 

12. While, Louisa, w, 113 Orleans St. 

12. Williams, H., e. 173 De Soto St. 

12. Wells. Alfred, (12 Georgia St. 

12. Wright, Henry, w, ISO Johnson Ave. 

12. Wadley, Frank, c, Winchester St. 

12. Wasehe, Heiirv, w. 

13. Woodward, Dr. J. D., w. 

13. Wardlaw, David A., w, Howard Infirmary. 

13. Wishe, A., w, Jackson St. 

13. Williams, w. cur. Seventh & Jackson Sts. 

13 Warren, c, 59 Jackson St. 

13. Wells, John, w, Cilv Hospital. 

13. Webb, Mattie, c, 66 Beale St. 

13. Waechter, Charles E., 1S2 Main St. 

14. AVilliams, Sarah, c, Walnut St. 
14. Walsh, John, w, Madison St. 
14. Williams, John, c. S.j Soutli St. 
14. Wealey, R., City Hospital. 

14. Williams, Ben., c, cor. St. Martin and 
Soutli Sts. 

14. Warring, H. L. , w. Hunt's Building. 
14. White, Donnv. 
14. Ward, James C, w, 270 Beale St. 
14. Wishe, Mrs, A., w, cor. Sixth and Jackson 
Sts. 

14. Wiley (child of John). 

14. Wasehe, Mrs. Caroline, w. 
l."). Worsham, E. R. T., w. 

15. Willis, William, w. North Court St. 
15. Ward, Horatio J., w. 

15. Walsh, Katie, w, Dunlap St. 
15. Welsh, William, 

15. Winter, Charles, w, Randolph Road. 

15. Walker, Annie. 

15. Wiley (child of John), c. 

15. Wliite, Mary, c. Hernando Road. 

15. Wood, Mrs., w, Rocco Alley. 

15. Whitemore, James, c, Shelby County. 

15. West, J. M., ^\■, Market St. Infirmary. 

15. Ward, Marv, on bluff. 

II). Waggoner, W. S., 572 Shelby St. 

16. Williams, Fred., c, Risk & Johnson's 

["■oundry. 

16. Walker, Calvin, c, Cow Island Road. 
16. Williams, Wash,, c, 167 Second St. 
16. Walsh, Andrew, w, IK Stewart Ave. 
16. Williams, Sara., c, 217 South St. 
16. Whiteside, C, c, 321 Carolina St. 

16. White, M., w, South St. 

16 Weller, Henrv ('lay, w. 

17. Willheit, Adolph, w, 235 Main St. 

17 Washington, Millie, c, cor. Alabama St. 

and Jones Ave. 
17. Williams, George, c, 378 Jlain St. 
17. Whiteiaw, James, 150 Broadway. 
17. Waggoner, J. H , Sr., 2.52 Tnrley St. 
17, Wor^mick, Mrs., w. City Hospital. 
17. Walfon, William, w, Rnvliurn Ave. 
IK, Wilson, Helen B., w, 392 Main St. 
IK. Walker, Isaac. 
IK. White, Marv, c, Front St. 
IK. Worth, PL, "w. Fifth St. 
IK. Weager, Annie, 41 Fifth St. 
IK. Williams, Robert E , w, 107 Vance St. 
19. Whisou, S., vv, Randolph Road. 
19. Walker, Laura, c, Georgia St. 
19. Walker. E Idie, o. 172 Vance St. 
19. Wilker, John, 42 Causey St. 
19. Wilson, Nathan. 
19. Ward, Clinton Halst., w. 



I Sept. 19. Winson, Mrs., Randolph Road. 
20. Walker, George. 
•20. Witte, Wilhelni, w, Madis:jn St. 
20. 'H'ilsnn, Wood, Georgia St. 
20, Worsneck, Josepn, w, Citv Hospital. 

20, Williams, Isabel, w, 33 Kutli St. 
2(1. W ard, Virginia, c, Wellington St. 

21. Williams, Nancy, c, Charleston Ave. 

21. Williams, Hatch, c, Adams St. 

22. Warnecke, Fritz, w, Jones Ave. 
22. Wright, Mrs., w, Librarv Building. 

22. Walker, S. F., w, Ralei.si'h. 

23. A\'ard, Lillie, w, Leatli Orphan Asvlura. 

23. Williams. Sarah (i., foot of Broadvvay. 
24 Wright, King, c, Hernando St. 

24. AViUiams, Bussey. 

24. White, Gottlieb, w, Plietz's G;irden. 
24. White, Dr. J. M. S., \v, Main St. 

24. Ware, J. H., i^. South St. 

2.5. Walsh, Aggie, Gavoso House. 

25. Wood, Jonathan, w, 311 Vance St. 
25. Weston, Richard, c, Carolina St. 
25. Wash, Loonev Switch. 

25. Whitford, .Mrs. C. L. , w, Hnling St. 

25. Walshe, Martin, w, C'ltv Hospital. 

■2.5. Walker, Mrs. M. B., w,"llO Linden St. 

25. Wilcox, S. H., w, 79 Madison St. 

2.">. Wood, John. 

25. Wilson, John. 

2.5. Walker, Delia. 

2a. Westmiller, Mrs. 

25. 'VVebb, George S. 

25. Wright, Casper, w, 76 Clay St, 

28. Williams, Davie, w. Market St. Infirmarv. 

2.8. Williams. Caroline, c, Shelby (.'ouiitv. 

28. Winchester, Floy, cor. Alabama and' Kob- 

in.sou Sts. 
28. Walshe, Dennis, w, Stewart Ave. 
28. Wells, Mr., w, Hernando St. 
2K. Wilburne. Ned, c, Walnut St. 

28. Williams, Mrs. E., c. 

29. Wolfe, Mr., w. 

29, Whitemore, Mr., Hernando Road. 
29. Woods, Martha, c. 
29. Wiley, William, Market St. Infirmary. 
29. White, Mrs. Julia, c, Pontotoc St. 

29. Wilson, Mary Ella, w, Hernando Roail. 

30. Woodfold, James, w. Wolf River Feiry. 
30. Willard, M. E., w, Hernando Road. 

30 Walshe, John, w, Stewart Ave. 
30. Whit, Julia, c, 1.".4 Pontotoc St. 
Oct. 1. Warner, David E., w, Hernando Road. 

2. Williams, James, c, cor. Jackson and Front 
Sts. 

2. Will, e, Horn Lake Road. 
2, Wilson, Mrs., w. 
2. Woodfold, B., c, near Elmwood. 
4. Whelan, Andrew, w, cor. South and Her- 
nando Sts. 
4. Wallace, B., c, 70 Poplar St. 
4. Webb, William, c, 19 Madison St. 
4. Woods, George W., w, Carolina St. 
4. Waldron, Elmira. 
4. Welch, Charles, w, Gayoso House. 

4. William.s, Charles, c, Linden St. 

5. Weheren, Annie. 

5. Washington. Mrs. E. D., w, Raleigh Road. 

5. Williams, Walker, e, Exchange St. 

6. \\ hile, Mrs. E. A. 

6. Wliipple, Mrs. E. A., ^v, M. & C. R. R. 

7, W'illjurne, Jane, c. Jones Ave. 

7, Woods, Mrs. W. S., Shelby County. 

9. White, M., w, Vance St. 

9. Warner, F , w, Valentine Ave. 

9. Wright, Mrs. Jessie, w, Jackson St. 
10. Winder, FrancLsa, w. 
10. Williams. W. T , w, 206 Tennessee St. 
10. Williams, Peter, w. President's I.sland. 

10. White, Heiiilerson. Carolina St. 

11. Wells, Mrs. N, w, Hernfindo St. 

11. Waliier, Joshua, Jr., c. Central Point. 
II. Woods, Massie, c, Gill's Station. 

11. Whitesides, H., w, Carolina St, 

12. White, Fannie, c, Unicm Ave. 
12. Warrener, Philip, 205 Pop)lar St. 
12. Wainer, Carrie, w, Valentine Ave. 
12. Wiggin, James, w. Jackson St. 

12. W.-il.sh, .lohn, Jr., w, Winchester St. 

13. Webb, Macon, w, Vance St. 



I 



238 



A HISTORY OF THE YKLLOW FEVKn. 



Oct. 



23. 
28. 
23. 
21. 
24. 
24. 
24. 
2.'j. 

ifi.' 

2.S. 
29. 
29. 
29. 
31. 

Kov. 1. 

1. 

b. 
17. 
17. 



Williiims. jrrs., r, Sdiith .Jnclcson St. 
Wcii.irtliii, DiritlRT. w, MiirkftSt. 
\VI)Hi', .Mm tliM, r. Cllllinun .St. 
Wlieiitley, P. 11. \v, McLiMiiure Ave. 
Webber,' Efhviir l, \v, Monroe St. 
Wupperman, A., w, Poplar St. 
Wrl'-;lit, A,, «', K.iiulolph Road. 
WliiUii'lil, Wm., w, Country. 
\\ dodrurt', Andrew, c, Horn Lake Road. 
Williams, .lane. 
Walsli, Patrii lc. \v. Country. 
Wfllman. Ciir.'y. \v, Excluinae St. 
Winchester, Louisa, \v, Poplar St. 
Wiiiteniore, Charley, c, .letfer.son St. 
Wellman, M. C, w, E.xehanire St. 
Williams, Chas., w, mouth of Wolf River. 
William.s, M. W., \v, month of Wolf River. 
Williams, Jane, c. Short Third St. 
Williams, Wallaee^w, Court St. 
Wellfonn, Scott, e, Court .St. 
Weatlierby, William, w. Hernando Road. 
Woocis, Emma, \v, LS'i Causey St. 
Wood, Mattie C, w, Broadway St. 
Wheatley, Hugh, w, McLemore Ave. 
Weaver, Sam. 
Wright, Hardin. 
Williams, Emma, w. 
White, Raymond. 
Ware, J. N , w, Orleans St. 
W'ard, S. J., w, Moseby Ave. 
W'illiams, Addie, c, Turley St. 



Nov. 


IR. 




20. 








21. 


Sept. 


oO. 
4. 




*i. 




H. 




9. 




12. 




]:■.. 
13. 
13. 




13. 
17. 




22. 
2(i. 




29. 


Oct. 


2. 








]:.. 
21. 




28. 


Aug. 


1.-). 


Sept. 


G. 




1.1. 




].}. 


Oct. 


5. 







Wnsrhe, Louise, w. 

Whl[ ord, Mrs, A. S.. w, Horn Lake Road. 

Wilson, ,Iohn, Third St. 

WalUer, Melinda, c. 

Wilson, Henrleita, o, JIain St. 

Young, Ed., e. 124 PoiilarSt. 

Young, Fainiie, 17 Second St, 

Yates, Frank, Raleigh Road. 

Young, M.. c, iio De Soto .St. 

Younger, Addie, e, 6."i Gayoso St. 

Young, Annie, W, 13r) Cuiisey St. 

Yancey, Lou., w, Mndi.son St. 

Young, Tliomn.s, w. Citv Hospital. 

Yates, Esther, c, iri9 (iavoso.'^t. 

York, Will. Q., w, 3 Tr. /.evantSt. 

York, F. P., w, 3 Trezi'vant St. 

Youii'i, Thomas, w. City Hospital. 

Yearger. Walter. 

Yonkcrs, Mrs., \y, Bass Ave. 

Yi ager. Tillie. 

Young, .Tohn, w, Randolph Road. 

Yegge, Louis, w. Front St. 

Yerby, A. N , w, Horn Lake Road. 

Zanna, Mary E. 

Zoanne, lia)>tiste, w, Grant St. 

Z inmerman, Sojiliy. w, Gayoso House. 

Zimmerman, w. Gayoso House. 

Zoycr, Tillie, w. Ma'rley Ave. 

Zanona, Mary X.. Pigeon Roost Road. 

Zeliring (child of Jolinj, \v, Slielby St. 



CITIZENS OF MEMPHIS WHO DIED ABROAD, 

The following list embraces? the n.tmes of citizens of Memphis who died while refugees from 
home during the epidemic, the dates of whose death we have been unable to obtain ; 



Armstrong, .T. S., Covington, Tenn. 
Alexander, Mrs.. Frayser'a Station, Tenn. 
Albert. Jfr., River, Teini. 
Atkinson, .-V. C., lialeigh, Tenn. 
Baker, Mrs. Mattie R., Capersville, Tenn. 
Belcher, Crabtree. Tusenrabia, Ala. 
Cunningham, .JauK'S, Brownsville, Tenn. 
Conrad, J. W.. S.)merville, Tenn. 
Clayton, Ed., (^ornersville, Tenn. 
Carhpbell, D. C, Hernando, Miss. 
Carter, Miss M A., Cedar Grove, Tenn. 
Coleman, Willie, Raleigh. Tenn. 
Coleman, Maggie, Raleigh, Tenn. 
Callihan, Ned., County, Tenn. 
Cunningham, Mrs. H., Brownsville, Tenn. 
Cl-are, Posey, Raleigh, Tenn. 
Clare, Mrs. Posey, Raleigh, Tenn. 
Dixon, Hon. L. V.. Abingdon, Va. 
Drury, W. C, McKenzie, Tenn. 
Dixon, James, Raleigh, Tenn. 
Kcjrd, J. B., Hernando, Miss. 
Flaherty, .lames, Hernando, Misa. 
Flaherty, .\Iis<, Ilern uido, Miss. 
FVayser (child of R D ), SomerviUe, Tenn. 
Feldstadt, .lohn, Hernando, Miss. 
Forbes, Charles, river. 
Graham, Miss Blanche, Lookout Mountain. 
Graham, Lira B.. Cincinnati. O. 
Groves, Robert, Humboldt, Tenn. 
trreen, John A., country. 
Hickey, James, Raleigh, Tenn. 
liarry, Capt., River. Tenn. 
Halner, Nancy C, Raleigh, Tenn. 
Hallows, Joseph, Country, Tenn. 
llenuiug. T.. Wythe D -pot, Tenn. 
Hooks, Mrs. H. "C, Brownsville, Tenn. 
Hobson, Dr. H. R., Murfreesboro, Tenn, 
Henniug. E. IC, Wythe Depot, Tenn. 
Hill, W. P.. Cherry Station. Tenn. 
H.irder, Miss Elleii, Hernando, Mlsa. 
Harder, Miss Aniue, Hernando, Miss, 
Haack, Julius, Hernando, Miss. 



Havs. A. J., Eailev's Station, Miss. 

Haskell, Mr., Cincinnati, O. 

Hutchinson, Mrs. Ida F., McKenzie, Tenn. 

Iglaner, L.. Cincinnati, 0. 

JeHerson, Mrs, M. 8., Fayette Co., Tenn. 

Kortrecht, Hon. Charles, Bartlett, Tenn, 

Kenden, Mr., Raleigh, Tenn. 

Liiigrecn, Mr., Raleigh, Tenn. 

Leidy, Eugene, Jr., Holly Springs, Miss. 

Lewis, John E., Hernando, Miss. 

Loewenthall, L , Raleigh, Tenn. 

Lowell, S.am., Raleigh, Tenn. 

Maury. J., Louisville, Ky. 

Moore, H. J., Germantown, Tenn. 

Moon. Miss Mollie B., Logrange, Tenn. 

Moore, Lloyd, Hernando, Miss. 

Maury, Miss Mary, Hernando, Miss. 

McNees, Mrs. Sarah, Hernando, Miss. 

Morris, Mrs. John, Rossville, Tenn. 

Moon, NeKon, Horn Lake, MLss. 

McKeon, John E., Raleigh, Tenn, 

McClanniihan, J., Raleigh, Tenn. 

Moore, F,d., river. 

Pleitz, William, Cincinnati, O, 

Pettus, L. 0., Brownsville, Tenn. 

Pillow, Gen. Gideon J., Philliiis County, Ark. 

Ritter, Mrs A. E., Louisville, Ky. 

Ri'inig, Cif.sar, Raleigh, Tenn. 

Reiiiig, ^^rs. C, Raleigh, Tenn. 

Reed, Ben.. .Somervilie, Tenn. 

Ringwald. Stella, Cedar Grove. Tenn. 

Ralston, Sarah A., Raleigh. Tenn. 

Ralston, W. Walter, Raleigh, Tenn. 

Resney. Owen. Raleigh, Tenn. 

Stewart, C, Young, Hernando, Mls.s. 

Stewart, Mrs S, M., Hernando, Miss. 

Stewart, Butler P.. Hernando, Misa. 

S ■iillv, R., Louisville, Kv. 

.Scudder, C. D.. luka. Miss. 

Siefker, Mi.ss .\lena, Hernando, Miss. 

Sneed, Arthur, Buntvn, Tenn. 

Scruggs, Hon. P. T., Buntyn, Tenn. 



A HISTORY OF TITR YET.I.OW FEVER. 



239 



S. merville, R. B., Mason, Tcnn. 
.SiuidersuM, John, river. 
.Sullivan, Miss, Raleigh, Tcnii. 
Sniilli, Henry, Raleigh, Tenn. 
^niilli, Mrs , "Raleigh, Tenn. 
Taylor, Mary E., Raleigh, Tenn. 
wriliams, .1. P., Grenada, Miss. 
Wi'.sson, Walter, Trezevant, Tenn. 
Wil^u'^, .Jesse P., l-agrange, Tenii. 
\Vulsi(in, John, Germaiitown, Tenn. 
Weaver, J. B., fX'dar Grove, Teiui. 
Weaver, Mrs. J. B., Cedar Grove, Tenn. 
Weljb, Mrs., Somerville, Tenn. 



While, James M., Leighton. .\la. 
Willett, J. H., St. honis, Mo. 
Woodward, A., St. Lonis, Mo. 
Walker, W J., St. Louis, Mo. 
Wliite, M., Milan, Tenn. 
Woods, J. K., Grenada, Mi.ss. 
Woods, Mrs. Carrie N, ilernando. Miss. 
Walker, S. 1<\, Rixleigh, Tenn. 
Winters, Emmet, Raleigh, Miss. 
Vallentine, C. O., New Jensey. 
Vondran, Peter, Hernandi), iMiss. 
Vondran, Mrs. Peter, Henuindo, Miss. 



TENNESSEE. 



BarllPtt. 

Ward, H. J. 
Weaver, J. B. 
Weaver, Mrs. J. B. 
'.'arter, Mis-^ 
(traves, Mrs. J. 
Le Fere, P. A. 
.Sleidger, Fritz. 
I' liaion, Miss Hattie. 
Hill, Nancy. 
Williams, Fatinie. 
Voegele, Mrs. H. J. 
Voegeie, H. J. 
Kingwald, Miss Stella. 
Forgev, John W. 
Wright, A. L, 
King, James. 
Dinicau, Mr. 
.Mefjiiu'ivn. Alfred, 
'^'lionias, James. 
Tate, Mary. 

Bell's Depot. 
Hunter, Dr. John. 
Parker, John. 

Bethel Springs. 

Yarbo, J. J. 

Bolitar. 

Coleman, A. A. 
<'«leman, Lizzie. 

€liattanooga. 

Austin, J. A. 
-Vdcock, Joe. 
/Vckerman. Miss Hattie. 
.\iicil, John. 
-Viioil, Mi-s. 

liiitler. Mi's. Margaret. 
Butler, Robert. 
Butler, William. 
Bi.spliiiglioff, Chas. 
Bnrke. James. 
Burke, Mrs. James. 
Bell, Mrs. 
Bel!, Miss W. M. 
Bell, Wm. M. 
Baird, Dr. E. M. 
Barr, Dr. R. X. 
Birr, G. N. 
Burlchart. Rosa. 
Bosley, Wm. 
Brown, Mrs. 
Brenner, Rev. G. H. 
Bean, Annie. 
Burge, Mrs. Mary. 
Hurge, Vincent. 
Burge, Wm. 
Curry, C. W. 
Carlisle, Hon. Thos. J. 
Conley, Mrs. Nancy. 
Conley, Harry. 
Cash, John. 

Chamberlain, Mrs.Delia. 
Chamberlain, Mrs. M. C. 
16 



I Chamberlain, Miss C( 

t'orev, Joseph. 

Corey, Mrs. S. H. 

Connelly, Mrs. 

Calder, Mrs, J. 

Crandell, Jlrs. Delia. 

Carlin, D. B. 

Drake, Miss Ethel. 

Dietz, Mrs. Oswald. 

Erwin, Wm. 

Ewing, W. J. 

Farmer, Mi.ss Sallie. 

Farmer, Miss Kate. 

Flemniiiig, Mrs. Pat. 

Goldstein, S. 

Goodwin, W. G. 

Griffin, Arthur. 

Gleason, Oscar. 

Graham, Miss. 

Ciledhill, G. H. 

Harder, Mrs. Mary. 

Hartman, L. 

Hartman^ .Margaret. 

Hartman, John. 

Hartman, Mrs. J. 

Hartman, Thomas. 

Hartman, J. H. 

Henly, Mrs. Lena. 

Harau, Mrs. Mary. 

Hiinnieutt, Mrs. 

Hunnicutt, Walter. 

Hall, Mrs. Sarah. 

Ffammel, Albert. 

Harkncss, C. D. 

Jones, Ed. J. 

Jones, E. L. 

Jennings, J. B. 

Kaufman, Mi-s. 

Kenny, Mrs. Julia. 

Kenny, Jessie, 

Kiesle, Charles. 

Kiesle, Ed. 

Legras, Edward. 

Lumpkins, Thos. 
j Movie, Mrs. 
; Matin, John. 
I McAfee. J. A. 
I Mcintosh, R, 
j Marsh, Howard. 

Miller, Jessie. 

Merricke, Albert. 
[ Morgan, W. T. 
; Morgan, Eliza. 

Maloney, Pat. 

McMillin, Daniel. 

McMahon, John. 

O'Donnell, Mrs. 

O'Neal, John. 

O'Neal, Mary. 

Price, Mattie. 

Price. Maggie. 

Perryman, Reuben. 

Parham, A. K. 

Parker, John. 

Ragsdale, B. F. 

Rjigsdale, Mrs B. F. 



Robinson, Ed. H. 
Ryan, Father P. 
Ro.se, Porter. 
Keclor, K. S. 
Singleton, Thos. 
Singleton, Harry. 
Singleton, Mrs. Mary. 
Singleton, Mrs. Thos. 
Sclinciilinan, Jacob. 
Schueidman, Sue. 
Scbneldnian. Louisa. 
Saltcrs, John. 
Sweeney, Mary, 
Sriileissinger, E. 
S^chiiee, Geo. 
Stanliekl (child), 
.'^taiilield, Fannie. 
Snllivan, John J. 
l^avage, Henry. 
Scheveir, Henry. 
Schevcir.'Matt." 
Swortbrd, Ed. 
Slewart. 
Stewart, Mrs. E. 
Spencer. Mrs. 
Schwalzenburg, Mrs. 
Tabler, John. 
Tally, Hugh. 
I'nderhill, W. D. 
Varillo, John. 
Warren, Kate. 
Warner, Andrew. 
Weiiinecate, Chas. 
Weinaike, Andrew. 
Wilkenson, Mrs. P. A. 
Wiltze, Ralph. 

Whiles 137 

Colored 56 

Total r.)3 

C'ollierville. 

Bowman, M. R. 

Bowman, Mrs. M. R 

Manguin, S. D. 

Mangiim, Mrs. S. D. 

Person, Jiminv. 

Webb, Mrs. P. A. 

Webb, Miss Willie. 

Jones, Fall. 

Perkins, Dr. P. A. 

Perkins, Mrs. P. A. 

Madi.son, Cliarles. 

Raymond, Cliarles. 

McEhvee, Charles. 
I M(d';iwee, S. J. 
I Leon, Mrs. 

Hayes, Mrs. G. 

Haves, Mr. G. 

Scott, G. W. 

Lake, Mi-s. Sam'l. 

Davis, Mayor G. H. 

Estes, T. L. 

Bovd, Mrs. 

Ho'lland. A. J. 

l\<iger.-. Harry. 



I Rogers, Miss Flora. 

JolULSon, Peter. 
I Harris, ,J. T. 

Galvin, Mrs. John. 

COLORED. 

Branch, Oliver. 
Hatch, Love. 
Porter, L. .\. 
Zach. 
Logan. 

Bonner, Joseph. 
Ross, Elbert. 
Owens, Thomas. 

Coviiijifton. 

Wiseman, W. J. 

F.i-in. 

Bradlev, Mis. L. 
<irigsby. Dr. J. P. 
Hnmplirev, C. S. 
Nichols, W. B. 
Reviiolds, J. H. 
Rushing, R. \V. 
Staiifield, M. M. 
Simpson, (i. W. 
Stanticld, Mrs. M. M. 
Stanfield, Mr.s. 
Stanlield, Mr, 
Stanfield, M. M. 

Frayser's station. 

Alexander, JIis. 
Caraway, Mis>. 
Erskine, (ieo. 
Pipe, O. H. 
Watkiiis. James. 
Young, John. 

<»a<ls<Ien. 

Cornatzar, CJeo. M , Jr. 
Finder, Win, F. 
Richardson, ('apt. 
Saunders, R. 
Smith, Julia. 

OallOH a.v. 

Amos, Mrs. 

(ireer, Nannie, 
i Hodges, J. W., Jr. 
I Hodges, Lovie. 

Humblette, Mrs. 
I Moore, Mrs. 
I Perkins, Mr.s. 
, Tarry, Dr. Thomas H. 

I Gardner's Slalioii. 

Scobey, Mrs. 

(iierBnatil<i>vii. 

Allen, Miss Nellie. 
Blister, J. C 
Carpenter, Sidney. 
Carpenter. Sidnev. Jr. 
' Clark, S. C. 



240 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Clark, Mrs. S. C. 
Edmonson, Jilltn. 
Gorman, James. 
Gorman, Nellie. 
Hnrt, B. F. 
Hurt, Mrs. B. F. 
Hnrt, W. S. 
Hurt, Julian. 
Hurt, Robert Lee. 
Hurt, Tlios. 
Johnson, Jennie. 
Kelly, Bettie. 
]Mallock, Mrs. Carrie V. 
McKay, Dr. K. il. 
Miller, Mrs. W. E. 
Jliller, Laura W. 
Jliller, V. K. 
Moore, H. J. 
Mooremun, Randall, col. 
Neal's two cliildreu. 
O'Neil, Wm. 
O'Neil, Mary. 
Rogers, J. H. 
Rhodes, L. A. 
Rhodes, Mrs. Cornelia. 
Reneau, Sallie E. 
Rainev, Lee B. 
Roberts, J. S. 
Robinson, America, col. 
Shepard, Sallie B. 
Spivev, Jack, col. 
St. Clair, Dr. 
Simmons, Rev. R. S. 
Simmons, Mrs. R. S. 
Simmons, Matlie Lou. 
AValston, Jolm C. 
Walker, Sallie W. 

Oill'N Station. 

Pullen, Mrs. Ben. K. 
Gi-nixl Junction. 

Boyd, Hilliard. 
Ball, C. W. 
Bellew, Mrs. R. \V. 
Bass, W. W. 
Bledsoe, Mrs. Mary. 
Brook, Sam. 
Brook, Henry. 
Beaty, Dr. J. H.- 
CuUigan, Julia. 
Clampett, Robert. 
Clampett, Mrs, Mollie. 
Clampett, Harris. 
Clampett, Chalmer. 
Campbell (child of Mrs.) 
Fiannery, Dennis. 
Flamiery, Mrs. Dennis. 
Flanuery, Mary. 
Hewitt, Miss. 
Hawkins, Prank. 
Hagard, N. P. 
Haves, Bettie. 
Handy, C. G. 
Jenkins,, Mrs. Susan. 
Jones, F. 
Jones, Thos. E. 
Loyce, George, 
lyavinder, Frank. 
Lavinder, Harry. 
Laviuder, Jasper. 
Moore, Miss M. B. 
Milam, R. P. 
Netherland, James, Jr. 
Netlierland, Parviu. 
Owens, N. J. 
Owens, Mrs. 
Owens, Mrs. N. J. 
Patterson, N. S. 
Patterson, Smith. 
Patterson, Mrs. Virginia. 
Prewitt, C. V. 
Prewitt, Earnest. 



Prewitt, Dr. N. W. 
Prewitt, Miss Niuinie. 
Prewitt, Dr. J. H. 
Prewitt, Mrs. J. H. 
Prewitt, s, E., Jr. 
Prewitt, Mis. Mary. 
Prewitt, May. 
Stinson, Mis. A. 
Stiiison, Miss Eugene. 
Stiii.'-un. A, F. 
stinsiiii, Samuel. 
Stiiisiiii. < 'iiarles. 
Siiiitli, .\lr.s. M. 
Smith, Beauregard. 
Swanii, Booker. 
Tucker, Mary. 
Tucker, Susie. 
Thompson, Ella. 
Thompson, Evan. 
'I'liompson, Albert. 
Woods, W. J. 
Woods, Mollie. 
Woods, Annie. 
Woods, Willie. 
Woods, Katie. 
Woods, James. 
Unknown, 3. 

IIiiiitiiD^dlon. 

Simpson, Mrs. James R. 

jracUson. 

Hadaway, James. 
Rearilon", Mrs. 
Wilson, Andrew. 

Mason. 

Brannon, Yonng. 
Lannahan, John. 
Nicholson, R. G. 
Parish, Mrs. 
Parish, Ella. 
Pippcn, Henn'. 
Pippen (child of). 
Rice, Rev. Dr. 
Spane, Tliomas. 
Somerville, Col. R. B. 
Sturdevant, A. J. 
Sturdevant, Mrs. Peter. 
Sturdevant, Miss. 
Sturdevant, N. 
Unknown, 6 col. 

IHcKciizie. 

Branch, W. P. 
Crutchfield, J. H. 
Cartis, C. 

Moscow. 

Allen, Mrs. B. 
Allen. Emma. 
Allen, Bertha. 
Cowan, John. 
Cowan (infant of J. S. R.) 
Calaway, Marshall. 
DeAniiion. Mrs. Dennie. 
Epp, Mrs. Wm. 
Epp, Mrs. E. A. 
Epp, Fred. 
Epp, Tealey. 
Franchman", A. 
Goley, Fred. 
H:izlewood, T. B. 
Hill, Dr. J. S. 
Kite. Mrs Lucy, col. 
Lavton, Willie. 
Lay ton, W. J. 
Layton, Mrs M. C. 
Marsh, Ed. (col. nurse). 
Mans, Mrs. H. 
McConnel, Mrs. C. W. 
Morris, Edward, col. 
Oharro. 



O'Harel, Jlichael. 
Smith, John. 
Steger, Jack S. 
Steger, Mrs. E. A. 
Stover, Mis. R. B. 
Stover, Mattie. 
Stover, jMiss Deiniie. 
Simmons, Mi^s Nannie. 
Siminons, .Miss Ainue. 
Storm, Fritz. 
Staun, Hairy. 
Sturm, James. 
Smitli,Dealey,infant,col. 
Thomas, Geo. 
Thompson, J., infant, col. 
Wade, Sidiiev Y. 
Wliite, Mrs. R. B. 
White, Mrs. K. 
Wiieeler, Dr. J. M. 
Wright, Lucy. 

M II r f r eeskoro. 

Hopson, Dr. IL R., of 

Memphis. 
Hicks, Dr. at Memphis). 

Xasliville. 

Atkins, Mrs. 
Eastman, John XT. 
Haggard, Wm. 
Laurent. Emile C. 
Loonev, Wm. Z. 
Martin, Mrs. M. P. 
iNfaurey, Edward. 
McGaughey. 
Sheelz, H. C. 
Thompson, N. B. 

Nubbin Ridge. 

Walker, Thos. J. 

Paris. 

Arnold, Mr. 

Beeler, J. H. 

Carroll, Ed. 

Chester, Price, col. 

Ernest. Mrs. 

Foley, Pat. 

Kendall, Alf., col. 

Lewis, W. J. 

Layton. 

Law ton, Mr. 

Milam, Dr. E, E. 

Nance, J. W. 

Steed, W. H. 

Tedro, Mrs., col. 

Tedro, J. H., col. 

Tedro (child of Mrs.), col. 

Warren, E. F. 

Williams, Emma, col. 

Rnlcigrh. 

Cleere. Emma V. 
Cleere, Mrs. W. P. 
Goodman. 
Gear, Dosea. 
Heiner, Mrs. 
King, Amanda. 
Lembnrg. 
Newberg. 
Ringwaid, Jesse. 
Ralston, James. 
Ralston, Walter. 
Shovenall, Mrs. 
Shovenall, Miss Lena. 
Taylor, Miss Mollie. 

Kossvalle. 

Gwynn, W. H. 
Graves. Jlrs. P. 
Graves, Alonzo, Jr. 
Graves, Mr. A. P. 
Morris, Mrs. John. 



Warr, Amerlcus V., Jr, 
Siielby Depot. 

Stewart, J. R. 
Sacket!, Eddie. 
Sackett, Walter. 

Somerville. 

Plummer. Capt. P. B. 
Bowers, Mr. 
Bowers. Miss Annie. 
Weatherby. Wm. 
Wcatlierby, James. 
Webb, Mrs. 
Small, F. T. 
Gilliam. W. A. 
Hiihsoii, Dr. 
Lattiu, Miss. 
Wiiiva. Mis. 
Pulliam, (ieo. 
Olbreeht, Mrs. 
Scruggs, Amy. 
Etta, .Mr. 
Eartharn, E. J. 
Calieler, L. F. 
Bowei>. Mrs. 
Coiiiad. Mr. 
Plummer, Mrs. P. B. 
Sell war. Rev. M. 
Scliwar (child of Rev. M) 
Gilliam, Jlr. 
Bowles, Mr. 
Lattin, Jno. T. 
Freeman. Jno. 
Priveite, D. H. 
Moore, Knox. 
Cabeler, Mrs. 
Howell Rev. Mr. 
Pulliam, Jiihus, 
Greeuwav, W. W. 
Ford, Dr. E, C. 
Harris, Dr. E. W. 

COLORED. 

Humphreys, Eliza. 
Jones, Robert. 
Unknown boy. 
Ross, Serena. 
Jones (child of V.), 
Jones (child of B.). 
Halloway, Esther. 
Williamson, Spencer. 
Reed, Benj. 
Herndon, Jno. 
Reed, Jane. 
Cloyd, Rose. 
Eraser, Henry, 
Shaw, Henry. 
Williamson, Alice. 
Taylor, Wash. 
Berry, Mrs. Gus. 
Cabeler, Zach. 
Jackson, E. 

Union City. 

Curlin, Amos. 

Willistoii. 

Black, L. M. 
Bryals, Thomas. 
Crawfore, W. M. 
Crawford, W. M. 
Dobbins. Dr. A. M. C. 
Garvin, Dr. Joe G. 
Garvin, R. W. 
Koonce, R. M. 
Wilson, John, Sr. 
Wilson, Joe. 
Walker, Jake H. 

Withe nepot. 

League, W. H. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



241 



Tennessee. — Brownsville. 



Owen, H. 

Heard, Stephen, col. 
Mclutdsh, Mrs. 
Lee, ElUora. 
Bailey, Ben., col. 
Unknown white man, 
i'liknown eol'd woman. 
Huglies, Frank. 
Uoran (cliild of Mr.). 
Pettns, L. O. 
Mcintosh, Mrs. 
(fordon, .liimes. 
Bennett, Major \V, K. 
Williiuns, .Mrs. 
Youni?, .\le.K, ,Jr, 
Younn, JIartlia. 
Hill, Mrs. .1. E. 
Miller, Ferdinand, 
Bradford, Miles. 
Reynick, A. C. 
Logan, John. 
Osbenchain, J. T. 
Osley (boy), col. 
Beard, Mrs , col. 
Butts (child of A.). 
Dunlap (child of Sue). 
Caldwell, Mrs. John. 
Scott, R H. 
Williams, Vina. 
Wills, Dr. W. T. 
Tomlin (child of G. M.). 
Pleitz, Willie. 
Pleitz, Mr. 

Westbrook, Col. W. Iv'ie, 
Walker, James, col. 



Bvrtim T. G. 
Drennan, Mrs. E. C, 
Turner, Elder. 
Ililyer, Et\. 
Martin, Tliomas. 
Martin, Mrs. 
Martin, iMiss Tillie. 
Keatlv, Mrs. 
MrBriile, Charles. 
\\'oo(.ls, Pat. 
McFarland, Mrs. 
Kavner, June. 
Taiixit, Willis. 
Si'Vier, Peter. 
(.'Iiandler, Mr.s. 
Hawkins, Miss Emeline. 
Ware, Dr. John J. 
Turner, Mrs. Harriet. 
JleBride. Mrs. S. F. 
Turner, Miss Harriet. 
Kiley, John. 
Wood Emma. 
Haskins, Gns., Jr. 
Wood, Spencer R. 
Haskins, Mrs. Gus. 
Byars, Billy, col. 
(t'untlaeh, Mrs. 
Wills, Alfred, col. 
Warrington. W. H. 
Whitelaw, Richard. 
Ware, Miss Maria. 
lOdwaiTls, B. F. 
Jones, Jacob. 
Caldwell, Miss Jessie. 
McFarlaud, Miss Kate. 



Moses (child of John). 
'■'(Jrove, Cog. 
Klice, A. J. 
Selig, Simou. 
T'nknown col'd m.an. 
Ilemlerson, Julia. 
T'nkiiown col'd woman. 
Oldham, Charles. 
Cuthbert, E, B. 
Bond, Jeff. 
Dunlap, Eugene. 
Jackson, Miss Florence. 
Keeley, James. 
Cunningham, Mrs. Anna. 
Lane, J. W., col. 
Thomas, Ed., col. 
Townsley, Sam, col. 
Winston, Ed , col. 
Heatheoek, Mrs. 
McDonald, Carrie. 
Beard, Henry, col. 
Beard, Mr., col. 
Ashe, John J. 
Kendall, Anthony. 
Callumn, Jas. Dick. 
Howell, Miss May Belle. 
Mann, Mr.s. Joel. 
Pressly, Mr. 
Goss, Horace. 
HoUjrook, M. V. 
Bond, Hon. Lewis. 
Moses. Nancy. 
Lewlin Henry. 
Mann, Eliza, eol. 
Willis, Wesley. 



Beard (child of Stephen). 
Graham, ('has. 
German, Henry. 
Boss, R G. 
Beard, Eliza. 
Oljenchain, Mrs. J. T. 
McBride, Mrs. 
Kinney, D. M. 
I nknown col'd woman. 
Taylor (child of Joe.). 
I'ldniown col'd wom.m. 
Young, Alex. 
Unknown while man. 
Aldridge (child of Mr.). 
Unknown colored man. 
I'nknown col'd woman. 
Sturdevant, Mrs. 
Pearson, Reed. 
Clark, George. 
Rogers, Gid., col. 
Starks, Henry. 
Haskins (infant of Gns.). 
Walker, Man.son, col. 
I'lietz, Mrs. and son. 
(iiintlach. Dr. 
Drennan, E. C. 
Bond (child of Mira), 
col. 

Hammons, Lewis, col. 
Sherman, Dock. 
Russell, Win. C. 
Reeves, (child of Mr.) 
Logan, John. 
Smith, J. C. 

Aldricli (child of J. B.). 



••'In a delirium, after being deserted by his nurse, turned the lamp over, set the house on tire, and 
was himself burned to death. 



242 A HISTOKY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



II. 



Mississippi. — Vicksburg. 



Murphy, Thomas. 
]5iyan, Henry N. 
Mc'Callum, .lames, 
Townseiid, Franklin. 
i:toltz, P.iul. 
Thompson, T. J. 
Kiitigan, Frances. 
Levins, John, 
.lones, Fanny. 
Baurdo, Frank. 
Sagona, Frank. 
.\rnoloi, Mr. 
(Jonway, Mrs. Bridget, 
(loiiway, Joseph 
<iiovanini, Dominlco 
Burns, James. 
Woman, unknown. 
Shelby, Howard. 
.Murpiiy. Geo. 
Conlan", Chas. 
Ha\irdo, Mamie. 
Sehwink, L. T. 
Stangel, .las. 
(ierard, Ellis. 
H uirdo, Mrs. 
ffebhanr, Maggie. 
Ellis, \V. J. 
Ivnntz, Louis. 
I^yneh, Mary. 
.Sagona, Peter, 
(iuy, Geo. 
Marrian, J. 
( 'on way, J. 
Kaufman, A. 
Man, unknown. 
Allen, Minnie. 
Fowler, G. 
I'iercc, Katie M. 
Bnrd, G. M. 
Stutz, Frank. 
Delaney, Michael. 
Lehrins, Chas. 
i-iiuvanini, Mrs. 
(iibbs, C. H. 
Fleming, \V. S. 
IIunlehan.T. 
Ro2she, Lizzie. 
I'elton, Mrs. 
liussell, W. R. 
BAurdo, Chas. 
Burrell, Mattie. 
Francis, Amelia. 
Klein, Frank H. 
Hayes, James. 
Smoker, John. 
Morrow, David. 
Golden, Jas. 
Wintield, Morris. 
Downs, Rose. 
Bertoni, A. A. 
Brown, Annie. 
Weyer, John. 
Petro, Felice. 
Kellar, Louis. 
Wright, Anderson. 
W'elsh, Mrs. E. A. 
Bahb, Marv L. 
Brooke, Frank T. 
Sehwink, Jacob L. 
Savard, Chas. 
.fohnson, Mrs. J. E. 
Dohler, C. E. 
liussell, Mrs. J. 
Johnson, Annie. 
Russell, G. A. 
H;gleston, Robt. E. 
Foley, Margaret J. 
Cooper, Belle. 
Rivers, Mary. 
Mullen, Nicholas. 
Ryan, Mary. 



Italian, unknown. 
Fisher, Frank C. 
Devlin, Chas. 
Roberson, Bettie. 
Thrift, Mrs. Elizabeth. 
Vocinkle, Louisa. 
Anter, Wm. M. 
Roost, Caroline. 
Bowen, J, J. . 
Kennedy, David P. 
Allen, Thos. 
Berry, Geo. 
Guise, Thos. 
Kendall, Thos. 
Hundermonk, .\llce V. 
We.<t, Mrs. 
West, J. H. 
West, JL C. 
Green, Pompey. 
Bodine, John. 
North, W. V. 
McManus, M. 
Davis, Annie. 
Porter, Wm. 
McCoy. Mollie. 
Barnett, Miss Addie. 
Brown, M. 
McKenna, .\nnie. 
MclCenna, Hugh. 
M;iri>na, Joseph. 
Moltedo, Tarnatore. 
Cioss. JIaliso. 
lirown, Harrv. 
Stubble, A. M. 
Schiller, M. M. 
Frainor, Thos. 
Gomes, Antoine. 
Dixon; Lizzie. 
Sims, Robt. 
Gerard, Lummie. 
Simons, A. 
Duggan, C. F. 
Han ley. Isaac. 
McNamara, M. 
Enlow, Clarence. 
Haines, T. 
Williams, Bettie. 
I'^egilno, Jos. 
Pagans, Ike. 
Tvler, Scott. 
Methua, J. S. 
Spengler, Willie. 
Mason, Luke. 
Coleman, Sam. 
Haines, Willie. 
Thornton, E. 
Iloman, Geo. 
Ivalmbach, K 
Meyer, Maurice. 
Jones, Joe. 
Ware, P. A. 
Martihant, Daniel J. 
Cooper, J. A. 
Hardwiek, Fred. 
Huener, Ida S. 
Rice. W H. 
Middleton, A. H. 
Mi(idlelon, Margaret. 
White, Mrs. 
Davis, Annie. 
Tinney, J. T. 
Manlove, A. R 
Salley, C. 
Blanchard, J. S. 
Harlan, Gustave. 
Arther, Louisa. 
Mathias, Maggie. 
Fishback, Calvin. 
Williams, Henry, 
Walsh, R. 
Davis, D. 



Zimmerman, Jake. 
Ferguson, J. F. 
Whitehead, Dr. P. Y. 
Miles, Wm. 
Ward, Martha. 
Cokman, Frank. 
Roach, John D. 
Karney, John. 
Horn, Miss Mary L. 
Carter, Charles L. 
Hnndermarl;, Robt. A. 
Anderson, R. 
Graham, Hannah. 
Langford, R. 
Entcl, Mary. 
Duffner, Miss Lena. 
Schmidt, Louisa. 
Vincends, Arthur. 
McCleiidon, Miss JIatJie. 
Leofold, Maggie M. 
Hennesy, Chas. 
Wheat, Susie. 
Dunbar, Fay. 
Whitehead, John. 
Moon. 

Parker, .A.nnie. 
Craw l( ird .Miss Margaret. 
Fitz|i;i trick, Mi.ss Marv A. 
McElroy, Mi.ss Martha. 
Wilson, Lucy. 
Hubbard, Philip. 
Carr, John. 
Levie, J. R. 
Pellrin, C. 
McHenry, W. 
Adams, Green. 
Williams, Sarah. 
McKenna, Louisa. 
Stewart, Augustus. 
Caldwell, Sarah. 
Tindall, R. 

Grant, Sister Mary Regis. 
Bnrlz. 

Fends. Mrs. Ann. 
Ryan, Mrs. Edward. 
Metzlcr, Thos., Jr. 
Unknown. 
Fitzpatrick, J. C. 
Cullen, John. 
Rose, Clias. M. 
Guscio, Louisa M. 
Carter, Fulton. 
Ciark, Emma. 
Burns, Geo. 
l\Ict;rady, W. L. 
Hancs, iEJettie S. 
Fitzpatrick, Thos. 
Parvangher, C. 
Benson, R. C. 
Carroll, Mary. 
Edwards, Albert. 
Roost, Jacob. 
Murpliy. Jerr)-. 
Melvaney, E. 
Brown, Dolly. 
Walnisley, Francis P. 
Jacobson, M. 
Murray, Sister Mary Ber- 

nadine. 
Fields, Sam. 
Mosvel, E. 
Potts, Mrs. S. C. 
Robinson, Isaac. 
Child. 

Zncker, Mrs. Gnssie. 
Dardinnac, J. B. P, 
Harri.son, W. S. 
Camillo, N. 
McGintv, G. W. 
Diggs, Robt. 
Wallace, Mary. 



Brown, Rev. CaUnn. 
Perry, Martha E. 
Margneritz, E. 
Glass. Nancy. 
Burns, Peter, 
Wilson, J. C. 
Jlorton, Richard, 
Orris, ilary F. 
Lassell, Mrs. Minnie. 
Guscio, Pcler W. 
Connors, E. F. 
Rose, Walter C. 
Brown, H. F, 
Shorter, D. 
Davis, Frank. 
Shields, D. A. 
Chaml)ers, Rov.al, 
Thorn ten, Luke. 
Jones, Oscar. 
Atwood, Lizzie, 
McCann, John, 
Smarr, J. W. 
Crayton, Emma, 
Miller, Fred. 
Mas<in, Mary. 
Jloore, J. 
.McField, J. 
Coleman, D. 
Lavius, Wm. B, 
Sally, C. 
Conway, Jas. 
Simpson, John. 
Lowenberg, Abe, 
Haining, S. M. 
McCoy. Hngh. 
Hudson, Justice. 
Schnlcr, Rosa E. 
Warrington, Jas. 
Conklin, Mrs. C. 
Ferrell, Wm. 
French, Robt. 
Brown, Minty. 
Moore, Jas. 
Hannelia, Antoine. 
Lawrence, Henry, 
Fousse. Carrie, 
.\uter, Jo.sie. 
Berg, Alfred, 
Murphv, Letitia. 
Frank, Eddie. 
Duffner, Ella, 
Di.xie, Mollie, 
Burke, A. 

Delanev, Josephine, 

Slarks, H. 

Maloy, Belle Lee. 

Sappiiigton, Dr. 

Carter, E. 

Porterfield, Jeff, 

McGrnth, Sister Mary 
Colnmba. 

Frank, Matthew. 

Johnson, Thomas, 

Gallagher, Katie, 

Harmcm, Dave. 

Wilson, R. 
I Ihke, John, 

Hubbard, J. W. 

Mitchell, James, 

Donaldson, Sam, 

Donaldson, Jim. 
j Johnson, Antonia. 
I McKenna, James. 
I Smillii, John. 

O'Rourke, W. H. 

Arnold, Maggie X.. 

Mahin, Joseph, 

Johnson, Lucy. 

Revnolds, James. 

Kendall, Chas. T. 

Dyke, Virginia^ 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVKU. 



24:5 



Graff. J. TT. 
Rebay, Mrs. E. 
Maberry, Saraii. 
Green, Bell, 
(•(ilemaii, L'lnr.i. 
French, Hiriim. 
Fishback, Josephine. 
Whermau, Ott.> 
■VVherra m, Lizzie. 
Bridge, Geo. 
T.ilfe, ('has. F. 
O'Connor, Miss Mary. 
GriiLStead, VVm. 
Stringer. Abe. 
Harrison. Edward. 
Ge.iry, Mi s Mary. 
Potts, Dr. 
Blichfeldt, Dr. 
Glowery. Primas. 
Owens, Frankie. 
Ejling, Albert. 
Yerger, Julia. 
Walker, Thos. B. 
MeMellan, MissMag3:e. 
Gully, D. A. 
Wagner, I 
PUimp, Mary. 
Briscoe, Mary, 
(trammer, Mrs. Ella. 
Harris, John. 
.Saunders, Katie. 
Oiirter, Piicebe, 
Brown, John. 
Riishell. 
JpoUte, P. 

Haiiiing, Miss Minnie. 
Holmes, Willie. 
1) irvrart.Floi ence Anna. 
Sharp, ('lias. P. 
Moodv. Kva J(. 
Kothschild. Eddie. 
Aiignste, Miss Virghii.u 
Dulfuer, Hattie. 
Scott, Harriett 
Kankius, Orelia. 
Aritold, Geo. VV. 
Wood, G. V. 
Carr, C. M. 
McCleudoii, Matt, 
Gr.iff, J. W. 
Wilson, Roliert. 
Kellogg, C. W. 
Jamison, J. IX 
Me(Jitire, K. E. 
Jones, Thos, H. 
Dyer, Olirer. 
Edwards, Thoma-s. 
11 wis, Margaret. 
Morris, l'"'ranlv, 
Doyle, Nellie. 
Hainiiig, Mrs. 
Harrison, Mrs. C. B. 
James, F. B. 
Eiigle, Nat. 
Jihiison. W. 
Thcmipkins, La Rue C. 
Johnson, J,)hu. 
Muh-ihill, Miss Bridget. 
Gmnon, Wm. 
.Swaff.ird, Le Grand. 
MiiUeu, Miss .\I itti ■. 
Edwards. Fr.'em<tn. 
Maiiroe, Daisy. 
Walnisley, Julia A. 
Dalloy. Sister Mary Goii- 

z ig.L 

Sterling, Sandy. 
McMorrow. John. 
H lining, Katie. 
Shelliday, Sauford. 
West. Clotilda. 
Morrison. Elizi J. 
Hossley, Josephine M. 
O'Siilli'van, I). 
Haiies, Florence A. 
Vitola, Rev. John. 
Flowerree. Conway. 
Gannon, (5eo. 
Marble, Robert. 



Sallev, Lelia. 

McCiibe, Miss Ella. 

Thomas, G. M. 

North, (feo. M. 

L 'Wis, H. E.. Jr. 

Hoggatt, Philip. 

Sniiih, Matilda. 

Boswell, Mary E. 

Ryan, Edward. 

Biake, Anthony. 

.Vnderson, James. 

('hii]iraan. 

Uigby, Thos. H. W. 

Green, Jim, 

Porter. Calvin. 

Vincents, Gramilla. 

Brown, Jennie, 

Angustin ', John. 

Russell, Jolin. 

B iltoii, Henry. 

Green, Charlotte L. 
' Ilaiiie.s, Lewis H. 

Williams. Carter. 

Credon, Mrs. 

Bitterman, Miss Annie. 

Rivinae, Pierre. 

Rebay, George. 

Snow", John. 

Sliaw, r. (;. 

E Irington, W. H. 

.Masscngale, E l. 

Bi-id-es, Mrs. M. A. 

Marble, E. V. 

Walmsle.v, Geo. S., Jr. 

Jingles, A. 

B_'resforii, James. 

I'ridges, A. L. 

Cully, Mrs, M. A. 
I Maun, Lelia. 

Di;usliell, Philip. 

.Smith. James. 

<-'ox, .fames B. 

Austi u, Poladore. 

D.'iii irchi, Thomas. 

Wood, Annie M. 

Ilasie, Clias. 

Ouffiier, Lena. 

Bonizio, Carniinio, 

Thompson, Rev. JefF. 

Jingles, Marv. 

Mitchell, Frank. 

-lohiison, Stephen. 

Geary, 

Jfunroc, John W. 

J.icksoii, Violet 

Golden, Mike. 

Brady, Taylor. 

Vand uiburg, Mary A. 
'< Gearv, Morris. 

Wolfe, Miss Mary J. F. 

Jone.s, W. R 

H.immoud, Wm. 
I Hunt, Noriuiii. 

Laughliii, 'I'erreiiee. 

(Jhat.iui, John. 

Russell, W. 

Allen. Marv. 

Marcus, Violet. 

D,'nnett, A. VV. 

Scott, Sim. 
I Shepp ird. Elizi. 

Huuer, Ida W. 

laicett, Catherine. 

Mendel, Herman. 

Sehendal, Marcus. 

Bingham, Clias. 

Cox. Snsnn. 

Harris. Kate. 

Schemlal, Maurice. 

Anderson, Ja.mes. 

B icon, Mrs. Mattie E- 

Drnshell, Minnie. 

Blackmail, Dr. M. 

Hammett, E. H. 

Bacon. Arthur N. 

Williams. Sam. 

Terrell. H"iirietta. 

Arnold. William (J. 

Walker, Fred. 



Kalml>acli. R. 
Powell, Bessie K. 
Powell, Henry. 
Dixon, Irwin. 
Spengler, (.lliarles C. 
Grey, Lizzie. 
Bogle, Barney. 
Marks, Gus, 12. 
Woods, Mrs. Sophia W. 
Mendel, Minnie. 
Lewis, .James. 
Davenport, Isham. 
Jaeksou, James R. 
Fate, Housi(Hi. 
Collins, P.itrick. 
Davison, E. B. 
King, Jolm. 
King, Lafayette. 
Weyer, Josi'ph. 
Cre'cey, Julia. 
Zollinger, Alois. 
Hapholdt, Dr. 
Worthey, B. 
Minor, Betsy. 
Floyil, Annie. 
Ranm, Augusta. 
Jordan, B. N. 
Owens, Charl(>s. 
Willingham, Ellen, 
Bacon, Willis J, 
Gray, .Mrs. E. L. 
Hassell. Samuel J. 
Winbusli, Lncelia. 
Brackett, ,l(>lin W. 
Haven, Sopliia. 
Feibleinan, Jo.seph. 
Latcher Barbara E. 
Sehaffer, Louis. 
Yerger, George S. 
.reiinev. 

Porterlield, Floyd. 
Siiead, Horace H. 
C^ox, George C. 
Cook, Levie. 
Goldlierg, Mrs. C. 
Love, Frank E. 
Benner, Lieut H. H. 
Tilitz. Helen. 
Bobb. .\iitouia G. 
Grifliu, John. 
LniToix. Miss Carrie. 
DaltcHi, J. M, 
Liugblin, Mike, 
Smith, Percy, 
Graves, Louisa. 
Hall, Will. H, 
Curran, Julia. 
Miles, Freddie B. 
Augustii.s, Clayton. 
Steele, Sam. 
Dorse v, Delia. 
Hill, R, J. 
Hall, Edwin B. 
K:dd. Virginia. 
Cox, Jlilchell. 
Hogg itt Stacey A. 
Katzeiimier, Jacob L. 
Rang >m. 
Smith. Ida. 
(Jilland. Dr. Lewis. 
Peale, Marv lielle. 
Willis, Capt E. B. 
Eilwards, G. W. 
Line, N V.. Jr. 
O Neal. Edward. 
Meyer. Mary E. 
Brown. A lex. V. 
La Katzeiimier, Mamie. 
Jacobs. E. 
Hammett, Bessie S. 
Tinknown white nnn. 
( '(irkerii. Major J. B. 
Smith, .Vda .\. 
Lahen, John. 
.Saaguinetti, Charles. 
Wall, John M. 
O'Hara. Clara J. 
Richarils, Andrew 
Smith, Marshall. 



Conway, Moses. 
Corkerii, Mrs. J. B. 
Lawreni e. Mrs. Marv E. 
Hillvard, Mead. 
Tucker, B. O. 
.loiies, Mi.ss Henrietta. 
Howard, Halsie. 
('uuninghaiu. James. 
Filzgerald.Mrs..Ieiiiiie X. 
G Neal linfaul of M.). 
Raney, James P. 
Biickiey, Sandy. 
Kaiiard', Martin. 
Alexsoii, C. 
Smith, Tom. 
Lewis, Frank. 
Armstead, William. 
Mossiiiger, Mis.s. 
Careon. Nora 
Kabii, !>;imuel. 
Thomas, Belle. 
Hughes, Mary, 
Cooley, Mrs., and two 

children. 
Fitzgerald, Clifton. 
M;uinell, John. 
Heflinger, George. 
Alenlice, Joseph. 
(Jraff, Mary E. 
Brown. Mrs. Fannie. 
Tanner, Miss.Sa!Iie L. 
Tanner, Miss Annie R. 
Rivinae, Cornelia. 
Owens, Bessie. 
Snow. Robert, 
Piiilz, Will. 
Hi'uegaii, Patrick. 
Martin, .liiines. 
Golden, Willie. 
Spengler. Joseph. 
English, James. 
Dntfiier, Bernard. 
Lambert, Mrs. Cyrille. 
Leiniani, Rose. 
Ragaii, Mi.'is Rosanna. . 
Harris, Mi>;. F. J. 
Aiken, Mary. 
Ri.dey, Bill. 
T.iylor, Henry. 
Monroe. L. 
William.s, Lewis. 
( Vileman. Emeline. 
Smith. Mattie. 
Canieron. Angus. 
Itiedell, Mrs. 
Wadswiirth. Miss Clara, 
(ioodrieli, F. W. 
.^chiller. W. J. 
Moli iiinis, Annie. 
\\'aison. 

Mct'alte, Miss Aunie. 
Lewis, Frank C. 
Sutherland. Clias. 
Fairchild. Wm. A. 
Da^'idson, John .V. 
Duifey, Andrew. 
Pierce. Faiiiiv. 
Rotlischild, Albert. 
Moorehead, .Sandy. 
Kezer, A R. 
Baggctt, T. M. 
Washington, Fannie. 
Clark. 

K e:ii. Mary C. 
.Mitchell. W. 
Jackson. Henry. 
Thomas, Mack. 
■Vdams. 

ruknown colored man. 
Wertz. Jlrs. 
Fort, L. 

Jenkins, Lucinda. 
Hene.ssv. Marv. 
O'Neal, Patrick. 
Young, John. 
Matox, Thomas. 
Cook, Henry W. 
Flowers, Fred. L. 
Hedrick, A. W. 



244 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEK. 



Klein, Annie M. 
King, Willie M. 
Onsley, Melissa. 
Frank, Rosa. 
Henne.ssev, Maggie. 
Russell, Thos. C. 
(-'oUins, Rosalie. 
Toohey, Mary. 
Morgan. Annie L. 
lioss, Albert. 
Turner, Louis. 
Vandeuberg, Jlinnie L. 
B iswell. Jame.s J. 
Meyer, Isadore. 
Roekwood, Win. M. 
Reede, Chas. 
(;ook, Lucy W. 
Potts, H. 
(.'ameron, Mrs. 
Roacli, Dr. J. S. 
B.'imett. 
Dugan, Albert. 
.Sehlottman, (lias. B. 
Augustine, Mr.s. 
Harris, Milton. 
MoClenon, Mattie. 
Marcus, Jolm. 
JIarcus, Hannah. 
O'Brien, Benny. 
Green, Minnie. 
Weaver, Sister Agnes. 
Kingspight. 
Drushell, Philip. 
Taylor, Bettie. 
Jlount, Stephen E. 
Williauis, Lou. 
KUich, John. 
Neal, J. A. 
AVasliington, G. C. 
Schendal, Mrs. 
Sagona, John. 
Sehendal, Minnie. 
Hennessey, Kate. 
(Joldeii, John. 
Dohler, Richard M. 
Black, D. R. 
cl.-u-k, IClisha. 
Siddlcr, L, 
Fcelau, Wm. J. 
Geary, Willie. 
Kultz, Thos. 
Stith, Oscar N. 
Willingham, Matt. 
Davenport. 0. F. 
Zollinger, Valentine. 
Reynolds, Chas. M. 
Brown, Marks. 
Taylor, Zack. 
Jingles, Robt. 
Susm in, Julius. 
Ford, Jiiss Laura. 
Puueky, Mrs. Mary M. 
Mayer, Isadore. 
W'iiliams, Carrie. 
Fox, James J. 
McGiunis, James. 
Butler, Alex. M. 
Jurdau, Mrs. M. L. 
O'Leary, Ignatius. 
Mendle, Israel. 
McGinty, W. J. 
Scanneil, John M. 
Flowers, Albert A. 
Weatheriv, Willie. 
Dwight, C. W. 
Smitli, Marv A. 
Schiller, Daniel. 
Jones, Robert. 
Scheiid.il. Bertha. 
Adams, Mrs. R. C. 
O'Neal, N. 
Moore, Maigie. 
Wesi-h ■, Hennan. 
Evans. Mrs M. A. R. 
Russell. Mrs. (.! irrie T. 
Miller. Henry A. 
Genella, Oscar F. 
P 'oples, W. H. 
A'.c.Kander, A. 



Sokolosky, Wolf. 
Holmes, Joe. 
Sutbrocker, Antoinc. 
Boweu, John. 
Litcher. John. 
Devlin, Chas. 
Kauth, Michael. 
Brown, Geo. F. 
Duval, Emma. 
French, Mrs. Fann;e V. 
Stevens, .Samuel. 
Walsh, Jas. J. 
McNamara, Thos. 
King, Alex. E. 
Hirsh, Henry. 
Marks, R. 
Demarclii. Angelo. 
Tucker, Lillie. 
Walker. Jno. 
Ryan, Sallie L. 
Johnson. Frank. 
Fox, Philip. 
O'Brien, Tim. 
Guutz, Peter. 
Clary, Cecelia. 
Schmidt, Adam. 
Black, A. 
Williams, R. 
Travers, Katie. 
McCabe, Michael. 
Folz, Sam. 
Allen, Marv. 
Burrell, Mrs. M. A. 
Robinson, J. A. 
Spillaiue. Juo. 
Parlen, M. G. 
Parker, Chas. 
Jones, C. E. 
Pieroni. 
Ponito, Vito. 
McEver. J. N. 
Unknown man. 
Bryant. Lewis. 
Thomas, Stella. 
Jones, C. 
Elliott, Geo. 
Moore, Daniel. 
Dexter, Geo. 
Walters, Mrs. Margaret. 
Owens, Thos. 
Brown, Bruce. 
King, Albert. 
Haves, Mary E. 
Little, Willie K 
Lamkin, Mary. 
Neely, Rosa. 
Smith, W. H. 
Davis, Kate. 
Schwartz, L. 
Parker, Albert. 
Miller, E. H. 
Page, A. 
Semple, Jas. 
Coakley, Mary. 
Thomas, S. 
Williams, Mattie. 
Tucker, Henry. 
Grav, H. 
Hardy, J. 
Mvei'S, Sallie. 
Tiifuiii, Ida. 
B<ioth, Dr. D. W. 
Huteheson, Geo. W., Jr., 
Searles, E. H. 
Cambridge, R. 
Rylie. M. 
Wehrman, G. 
Curtis, C. 
White, Joseph. 
Schumacher, Beni. 
Whitehead, C. 
Hill, M. .M. C. 
Dickson, Sallie. 
Dent, Frank, Jr. 
Wilson, M. A. 
Kinnev, Patrick. 
Owen,"H. 
Winston, Juo. 
Carter, Geo. 



Gloeson, Jno. 
Gordon, G. 
Quinu. Thus. R. 
Sneelau. W. F. 
Strong, Wash, 
l-iassell, S. 
Hir.scli, Leon. 
Barber. Dr. L. R 
Myers, H. 
Jones, J. 

Freeman. Lizzie B. 
Wehrman, .Mrs. M. 
Noland, Tlios. 
Fisher, L. 
Bradley, Patrick. 
Ross, S. 

Moore, Hattie. 
Reynolds, Matt". 
Hennegan, C. P. 
Allen, J. P. 
McGuire, Mollie. 
Spengler. .\lbert. 
Doyle, Bridget. 
Ryan, Annie L. 
Sperry, Henry. 
Stringer, Jno. 
Simpson, Alfred. 
Walters, C. 
Conners, M. 
King. Henry E. 
Murphv, Jerrv. 
Bottcher, Fred. 
Eggleston, .lohn F. 
Toohey, P. J. 
Keller, E. 

Fitzpatriek, Annie E. 
Miller, Jno. 
Bursley, A. A. 
Netherland. M. E. 
Bowman, Mrs R. H., 
Clements, W. H. 
Podesia, .Angelo. 
Neville, MoUie. 
Watt, Helen. 
Ransom, S. 
Jenkins, Julia. 
Hueiier, Wm. W. 
Rouen, Pete. 
Perrv, Lizzie. 
Mitchell, Robt. 
Gant, E. 

Winstiin, Brown, 
Crump, David. 
Nason, Henry. 
Casli. Lit. 
Rutlev, Harrv. 
Tlieller, Cecelia. 
Johnson, Jlary. 
Feno. Dr. 

O'Doniiell, Martin. 
O'Brien, Jerry. 
Travis, Mrs. Ann. 
Lamb, Patrick. 
McManus, Father J, H. 
Ilainiug, Louisa. 
White, Maggie. 
Bradley. Charles. 
Parmer. Jno. 
Box, i. P. 

McKenna, Mrs. Delia. 
Gillan, Hugh. 
Morrow, Delia. 
Nathan, C. H. 
Burt, Masgie. 
Jolley, J. W. 
Aiex.nider, Jliss Jessie. 
Doll, Joseph E. 
Camillo, Mis. B. C. 
Woodruff, J. W. 
Clark, Ellen. 
Joixlan, E. 
C;ooper, Milton. 
Rice, Lee. 
James, Henry. 
Moore, Geo. 
Roe. Philip. 
Scott, Wm. 
Jackson, Wm. 
Scott, Clariuda. 



Clayer. Chas. 
Grav, Sanih. 
Alvis, J. W. 
Rosenthal, Ralph. 
Codv, Honora. 
Kvle, David. 
Ellis, A. K. 
Harris, Maigaret D. 
Butcher, Wm. 
Boswell, C. S. 
Methua, A. 
Lafayette. 
C'askey, A. B. 
Giljson. 
Baum, Bettie. 
Dougherty, Mary E. 
Russell, Calvin. 
Peacock. 

Box (infant of Mrs.). 
Meny, Henry. 
Roost, Caroline. 
Lirgot, Jacob. 
Kelly, Jno. 
Roost, Rosaline. 
Cass, Lewis. 
Keary, Martin. 
Dayinond, Emma. 
Read, Francis. 
Rooks, Mamie. 
Moore, W. G., Jr. 
Tvargosky, Delia. 
Cnrringlon, H. 
Wheat, Albert. 
Mack, Charlotte. 
Jackson, Wm. 
Cash, Wm. 
Roeshe, Chas. 
McDonald, W. 
Jones, Jim. 
lirowii, J. C. 
Powder, S. 
Geary, Jas. ^Y. 
Lewis, C. 
Butler. Katie. 
Mays, Robert. 
Thomas, John. 
Reifl, Burrell. 
Goldon, James. 
Norris, Dr. J. B. 
Colovan, Chas. 
Knight, Mrs. C. C. 

Warren Coiin<y. 

Collier, Miss Bettie. 
Collier, James. 
Collier, Miss Alice. 
Trindle, Eola Maud. 
Trindle, Wm. Geo. 
Trindle, Margaret Belle. 
Axelson, Miss Agnes. 
Axelson, Cornelius. 
Axelson, Henry P. 
Standard, Mr,s.'M!irv. 
SUindard, Mrs. Millie. 
McHam,S. W. 
McHam. G. B. 
McHam, Mrs. S. H, 
McHam. Miss H. G. 
Ryan, Mrs. 
Ryan. 

Solomon, Morris. 
Loyd, Wm. 
Loyd, Sophie. 
Loyd, Freddie. 
LoVd, Miss Annie. 
Loyd, Albert, Jr. 
Warnaph, C. A. 
Beall, Miss Bettie. 
Gibson, Miss Katie. 
Gibson, Miss Emma. 
Wosterberg. 
Kline, Mrs. Patience. 
Nailor, Mrs. D. B. 
Kline, Ninion E. , Jr. 
Vickstron, Larson. 
Holl, Lewis. 
Oberg, A. 

Mouelte, Mr.s. Sallie. 
Mouctte, Miss Annie K. 



A HISTOKY OF THE YEI.LOW FEVER. 



245 



Jfonette, Gibson. 
Larson, C. A. 
Pettit, Mrs. Sophia. 
Moiiette, Dr. Win. E. 
]'>atherstnii, Mrs. M. E. 
Fcatlierstnii, \Vesley. 
Fcatlierstun, Miss Laura 
Featherstun, .Vliliie. 
FeatliLTStuii, Willie. 
KuiKk'U, Miss A. A. 
Cleland, W. B. 
rielanci, Bobic. 
Billiiinslea, Jlrs. Sarah. 
BiiUocI;, Win. 
Will;iiis. Jont'S. 
Jolinston, Joe. 
Johnston, Mrs. Joe. 
Johnston, Miss Annie. 
Tavlor, DicU. 
Taylor, Eddie. 
Tribble, George A. 
Tribble, Mrs. George A. 
Gotthelf, Dr B. H. 
Gotthelf, Morris IL 
Hlrealy, Miss. 
Strealy, Jerry. 
Davis, Bin. 
Davis, Mrs. Ben. 
Davis, Judge. 
Keller, .Sally. 
Oalis, Jaurdie. 
Oitis, Addison. 
Oatis, Leslie. 
Oatis, Warren. 
Oatis, Laura. 
Oatis, Amanda. 
Oatis, Fannie. 
Oatis, Willis. 
Ferguson, Laura. 
Obrien, Jlr. 
Obrien (son of Jlr.). 
Finch, Mrs. J. W. 
Biglow, Milton. 
Chapel, Robert W. 
Meyer, Isidore, 
Cameron. A. G. 
Cameron, Benny. 
Fox, L. Cameron. 
Roberts, Mrs. • 
Mcliinis, J. A. 
Mclniiis, Mrs. Laura, 
Mctiiiiis, Mary Belle." 
I'owell, Aleck B. 
I'owell, Clareni'e. 
Kewman, Augustus. 
Isewman, Mrs. Sallie. 
Newman, Mr.s. Dr. J. C. 
]5rabston, Mrs. C. N. 
Binisong, Dr. Geo. T. 
Dart, Mrs. Ben. 
D.irt, Julius. 
Cook, Maj. J. Reese. 
Willis, Capt. E. Bryant. 
Shannon, Louis N. 
Marvin. 

Nesmitb, Dr. Wm. J. 
Edward.s, Mi.ss Matilda. 
Wall, S. B. 
Spears, Willie. 
Weaver, Mrs. 
Lanier, Lawrence. 
Brooks, Aaron C. 
Holt (child of Mrs.). 
Loreb, Adolph. 
B iker, H. 
King, L. 
King. John. 
Cusiiinan, W. R. 
Cnsliniaii, W. A. 
Ciisliiiian, C. B. 
Ciisliman, Mrs. jr., and 

two children, 
Keiriall, Mrs, JI, E,,and 

child. 

Ciishman, Mrs. W. R., 

and cliild. 
Clark, Jlrs. D. W. 
Four children of Jlrs. 

James Higgins. I 



Jones, Mrs. J. C. 
Ketzeiimier, J. L. 
.Martz. Mr. 
JIartz, Jlrs. 

Wcrtz, Mr., and two 

children. 
E( I wards, B. T. 
ICiIwanls, Miss JIutilda. 
\\:ih\, S. W. 
Staiiilard, Jlrs. Jessie. 
Jones, Henry. 
Wilson. 
Wilson, Jlrs. 
Jobn.son, Jlrs. JLargaret, 
Hull, Henderson. 
Hall, Tiiomas. 
Hall, Jlrs. JL A. 
Brown, Mrs. A. 
Ferriss, Dr. 
]''erri.ss, Mrs. Dr. 
Ferriss (son of Dr.). 
Riddle, Charles V. D. 
liiddle, Lottie Tulcy. 
Ri.ldle, Thomas. 
Hollnian, Charles. 
JcmersDU, Jlrs. J. C. 
JlcCarty, Ale.x. 
JlcCarty (infant of Jlrs.). 
Watts, .James C, Sr. 
German gardener. 
Dye, James, 
Brown, Jfrs. Ada. 
Siiyiler, Jlrs. Lillie. 
Snyder, Jli.ss Sallie. 
Wilson, Jlrs. 
Wilson, Jliss Cora. 
Wils.m, Jlollie. 
Wilsiiii, Willie. 
Ferry, Jlrs. Dr. 
Ferry, Douglas. 
Join s, H. T. 
JIacE\'cr, Wm. 

Holly S^gtri tig's. 

Downs, E. L. 
Lake, Jliss. 
Goodrich, A. W. 
Wilsbire. A. T. 
Jfackin, Wm. 
Taudler, Isaac. 
Cliism, James. 
Brown (child of A. F.). 
JlcCroskey, H. A. 
Ganter, Frank. 
JIcLaiii, Robert. 
Fort, James. 
Nuttall, Jlrs. James. 
Oliver. B. P. 
Bateman's 2 children. 
Knaiip, Jlrs. Stephen. 
H<igaii, Wm, 
Thomas, Jlrs E. A. 
Smitli, Gus. 
Snider (child of H.). 
Nabeis, B. D. 
Jloore. A. F. 
Leak, Jlrs. 
Todd, W. R, 
Chenowitb, John. 
Abernatli.v, Sam. 
Crockett, Sam. 
Crump, B S. 
Bonner, Dr. Charles. 
Walker, James. 
Glassy, ('has. 
Nuttall, James. 
Bonner. Sam. 
Watson. U. L. 
Waite. Jli'-s Julia. 
Blank. Jlrs. 
C;impl)ell, R. Cr. 
Falconer, Tlioraas \. 
Wing, George, 
Lynch, Virginia. 
Ross. V. H. 
Criiinp, Wm. 
Douglierly, Mrs. J. R, 
Record, Jliss Curilla. 
Johnson, Hal. 



Read, Clem. 
Smith, Victor. 
.Marelt, W, ,1, 
Pryor, Jlrs. S, H. 
Wooten, Wiilie. 
Chenowitb, (.'harle.s. 
Brinkley (child ofE.T.). 
Seyple, Ale.^. 
Potter, J. C. 
Fort, R. W. 
Armstrong, A, A. 
Davis, Clarissa, 
Oberti, Father, 
Schneider, Charles, 
Featherston, W. S., Jr. 
Daniel, Mrs. Richard. 
Daniel, Richaril. 
Lynch, Jliiierva, 
Read, .Miss, 
Epps, Henry. 
Epps, Scott. 
Brannon, Jfr. 
Brinkley (child of E. T.) 
U|ishaw, E. W. 
Potter, Jlrs. John. 
Hasting, Jlrs. R. 
Kimball, Sam. 
Kimliall, (ieorge. 
Casey, Ben. 
JlcGnire, Pat. 
Demmey, Laura. 
Thonijison, Lewis. 
Dunn, Jlr, 
Kean, James Jf, 
(Jiiiggins (child of O.J,). 
Kiinliall, Mrs. Geo, 
Jliller, Jlrs, E D. 
Watson. Jlrs. R. L. 
Webber, I'eter. 
Stewart, Jliss JIary. 
Featherston, Jlrs.'W. S. 
Foreman, Jlrs. John. 
Weljber, J, W. 
Stone, J, 11, 
Kuable, Jlrs, JIartin. 
JIcGary, Jane, 
Knaiip, Stc|ihen, 
Thoin|)-on, Jlrs, Louis. 
Walter, ( ol. H. W. 
Brinkley, K T. 
Fennell, Cajit. John. 
Manning, Dr. 
Butler, i\liss Lizzie. 
Falconer, Howard, 
Winburii, Hugh. 
Stojowski, Julia. * 
Stanislaus, Sister. 
AValter, Avant. 
Larouche, John. 
Leidy, Eugene, Jr. 
Allen, Jfiss Liza, 
Stone, Jfrs, 

Falconer, Maj. Kinloch. 
-Allen, Miss Jhirtliula, 
Allen, Jliss Naucv, 
Fennell, Dr, F, Jl. 
Henderson (child of T.). 
Glassy, JIargaret. 
Mc.Williains, Jlrs. Cora. 
Nellums, Tede. 
JlcWilliams (twins of 

Jfrs. R. A.). 
Hebdon. Thos. 
Gaitley (son of Jfrs.). 
Castello, Willie. 
Fennell. Dr. J. W. 
Power. Joliii. 
Stewart, Jliss .\iinio. 
Hiitcbinson, Jlrs. 
Harrington, Jlrs. 
Yancey (cbild of Wni.). 
Wells," Jim. 
Lewis, Dr, 
Y.uicev, Jtrs, 
Hunt, James R, L. 
\Valter, Frank, 
JIcGoweii, Jlrs. Jeff. 
Walter, Jimmy. 
Gouldon, Allen. 



Stella, Sister. 
Heniplon (.son of). 
Lumpkins, J. JL 
Joliiiston, Jfr. 
Fant, Glenn. 
Banks, John. 
Hastings, John. 
Gholston, Mr, 
O'Gray, Jlrs, Kate. 
Wells, Jlrs, Jim. 
Straus, Jlrs. -Archie. 
Ro-w, Cowan. 
Wucie, Tho.s. 
-McGhery, Jlrs. 
Hobenwart, Alex. 
Saunders, Austin. 
Jb Guire, Jlrs. Crown. 
Fort, JILss Lucy, 
Margarette, Sister. 
Thomas, JIartin. 
Virginia. Jlollie. 
\\'alker, Eli. 
Featherston, George. 
Walker, C. H. 
Jbd'Cinney, Dr. W. 0. 
JIcDermott, Jlrs. 
V'nknown lady. 
T'nknown person. 
Oliver, Dan. 
Parish, L. P. 
German, John. 
Pearson, John. 
Strauss (infant of). 
Herr (infant of), 
Carlson, Jliss Christina. 
Herr, Jlrs, C. J. 
Parish, Jlrs. 
Heiirlersoii, A. C. 
Tieriian, Mike. 
JlcKissack, Haywood. 
Cowan, Henry. 
Herr, Joseph. 
I'urish, Jlrs. 
Siineman, I'eter. 
Jlaughan (chilil of). 
JIcKeugh. H. J. 
Knable, Jfurtin. 
Webber (cbild ofi. 
liowman. Augustus. 
Walker, .Martha. 
Roberts, Jlrs. Julia. 
1 1 ess. Col, A, J. 
J'ant. Seidell. 
Jlyers, Jlrs, B, A. 
Daily, Jfr, 
(.'rump, E. II. 
Jlalci, Jliss Lizzie. 
Henry, James V. 
Yictori. Sister. 
Jliller, Jlr. 
Diller, Jlr. 
Allen, Jli,ss. 
Jlalci, Jack. 
-\danis, Jas. G. 
McHugh, Jas, 
I'arks, George. 
Harris (child of Chas,). 
Haley. Jlrs. 
Loreiilia, Sister. 
Miller, Jlrs. James. 
Thomas, G. 
K rouse, Jacob. 
Lane, Jlrs. 
Brim, EfUvard. 
.''^koesburg (son of). 
Wat.son, Joshua. 
Lackey Jo.scpb. 
Lane, Dennis. 
Calvin, James. 
Conniiigton, Burton. 
Edwards, Willis. 
Vandive. Henry. 
JIartin, Polly. 
King, Robert. 
Yowell, Squire. 
Lesseur, Lulu. 
Mooney, Mr. 
Gealar (son of Peter), 
t'omptou, Jlrs. 



L4() A HISTORY OF THE YEI.LOW FEVER. 



Prcslrr. Th. 
I'ompton, Dr. Wm. 
Kimbroiigli. John. 
TiiTiuni, John. 
Holland, W. J. L. 
MrKinney, Mrs. IJr. 

< ;hei-'lan. 'Mrs. Pcli-'r. 
I Jiitheries, Mrs. 
Bvers, Mrs. 

I 'uftin, Mrs. Sam. 
.^rnistead (child of Mr? 

Henry). 
.\dams, Robert. 
(-:o(^kran, Eugene. 
Corinthia. Sister. 

IStry Grove. 

Stubbs, Mrs. Phoebe. 
Callendar. Hiram. 
\Villiams, Mr. Dan. 
Williams. Walter. 
Williams, Henry. 
Stewart, Hngh. 
Stewart, Jas. H. 
Stewart, Nettie. 
French, Geo. C 
Cherry, Frank. 
Clowers, Mrs. 
<.:oker, Miss Marj'. 
C'aston, Miss Editli. 

< 'astoii, Charles. 
(Iriffin. Calvin. 
Jolmson, Mrs. Mary, 
niekson, Dr. Geo. 
Klowellen, Miss Jane. 
Flewellen, Zellu. 
.Mor,!;an, Mrs. 

Wall, Thomas. 
Kyle, Miss, 
riiknown printer. 
Terry (two children of 

Augnstus). 
St\ibbs, Jack. 
Callendar, Lulu. 
Williams, Mrs. Dan. 
Williams, J. Calvin. 
Stewart, Jas. 
Hurton, Miss Nellie. 
Stewart, Arthur. 
Douglass, Mrs. Sarah. 
Douglass, Miss Netta. 
Caston, Wm. T. 
Coker, Miss Jennie. 
Caston, Miss Beltic. 
Caston, Wiggins, 
('oker, Miss Bettie. 
Johnson, Mrs. Amanda. 
Johnson, Maggie. 
O'Brien, Emmet. 
Flewellen, Mrs. J. H. 
Flewellen, Sarah. 
Morgan, Charles. 
Kyle, W. D. 
(>)0k, Mrs. 
.Morgan, George. 

I^ebaiion I>i<<trict, 

.1 \cobs, Joseph. 
Jiiobs, Mi-s. J. 
Harrison (child of A.). 
Jacobs (im'ant of Ben.). 
Ward. 
.Moses, Mrs. 
O'Brien, Mrs. 
O'Brien, Emmet. 
.Monell, Mrs. 
McNair, Robert. 
McNair, Eddie. 
.McNair, David. 
McNair, L. D., Sr. 
JIamillon, Mrs. Jas. 
Allen, Mrs. 
Edmondson, Jlrs. E. 
Jacobs, Ben. 
(iibbes, A. 
Ward. 

Mo.^cs, J. jr. 
McNair, Miss Bettie. 



Roberts, Miss Emma. 
Jacobs. Joseph, Jr. 
McNair, L, D., Jr. 
Jacobs. Mrs. Ben. 
Rn^^i-ll. .Miss Essie. 
McNair. .Mrs. David. 
jMcD^-rriKai, Pat. 
Nobie, Mrs. Fannie. 

"I'azoo t'ily. 

Littlejolin. Rev. W. B. 
Harris, .Mrs. S. ( '. 
Harris, Capt. Hal. C. 
Zenobia, Sister. 
Corona, Si.ster. 
Monton, Father J. 
Kelly, James. 
Lawrence, Sister Mary. 

Wa<er Valley. 

Becton, J. E. 
Pennington, L. M. 
Gross, 51. A. 
Williams. Peter. 
Bartlett, W. L. 
Lees, Kenny. 
Reems, Waiter. 
Gartine, N. U. 
Jones, W. H. 
McClure, John. 
Murphev, A. B. 
Walker, Tom. 
Hall, James. 
Donahue, D. 
Howard, Jack. 
Strong, G. W. 
Townsend, Robt. 
McMillen. Clay. 
Crops, James Si. 
Holme.s, Gns. 
Goodwin, Wm. 
Summers, C. E. 
Flv, J. H. 
Pate, Mark E. 
Taylor, Mr. J. B. 
Hendricks, J. O. 
Buibrd, Mns. A. G. 
Gartine, Mrs. 
Reed, Mrs. 
Edstrom, Mrs. 
Miller, Miss Jane. 
Jliller, Ligc. 
iMiller, Jell'. 
\Vhite, Wm. 
Brewer, B. W. 
Siitlnions, A. V. 
Block, E. 
Freeman, IT. W. 
Reese (child of H.). 
Smith, Mrs. E. F. 
Smith, Miss Mollie. 
Thorns, A. C. 
Trainer, Mrs. Tom. 
Pennell, P. W. 
Prophit, Mrs. Robt. 
Reasons, Thomas. 
Mattson, John. 
Edstrom (child of Mrs.) 
Long, R. A. 

Canton. 

Henry, Mrs. Rachael. 
McKie, Dr. Nath. W. 
Henry, Miss Elizabeth. 
Ilenrv, Miss Lizzie. 
Garrett, Mrs. S. D. 
Fulton, Mrs. D. M. 
Steele, Miss Annie. 
Fulton, Col. D. M. 
Benthall, Miss Sallie. 
Mann, Miss Minnie. 
Maim, Ben. F. 
Fcldman, Dedrick. 
Wickham, James. 
Vance, Mary. 
Conway, Mrs. C. 
(;onway, Edwin 
Cap\n ro, Peter. 
Harter, Mike. 



Demarchi, Fred. 
Noe, Geo. 
Botto, Louis. 
Otic, .Mr.-. D. H. 
Otto, Wvlie. 
Shaw, David H. 
Mc.Micken, Col. M. B. 
Cogan, Feather P. 
.McKie, Dr. M. J. 
McKie, Miss Zoe. 
Bentliall, Josie. 
Jelt'rics, St. t'lair. 
Welsh, Wm. 
Reid, John. 
Reid, Mrs. D. Wm. 
Gouh, B. C. 

Fitchett (child of J. V.). 

S/ales, Jennie Belle. 

Peyton. Mrs. P. 

Demarchi. ]>ouisa. 
' Harter (chi'.d of Jake). 

Monn(jhan, Mary. 

laickctt, o. A-. .U: 

McCoskev. liarncy. 

Lee, .Mrs,' A. S. 

Leonard. James. 

Joue.s, Wm. 

Benthall. Daisy. 

Kenncdv, M.,and child. 

Scheifler (child of J. B.). 

Catlett (child of). 

Billings, Mrs. 

Scheitler (son of Mrs.). 

Collins. C. T. 

Smith, Monti. 

Stone, Perry S. 

Montgomery, John. 

Montgomery, Mrs. Jno. 

Smitli, Mrs." Jas. A. 

Smith, Miss Mittie. 

Josepli, Mrs. Mark. 

Panl, Frank. 

Van Buren, George. 

Magruder. Dr. J. T. 

Leitch, Mrs. 

Peyton, Pat. 

Morris, Robt. 

Demarchi, F^rank. 

Arnold. August. 

Johanna, Sister. 

Leonard, Miss Mattie. 

Leonanl, Freddie. 

Scales. Pinkcy. 

Hill, Miss Mary. 

Capnrro, Mrs. P. 

Richards, Joe C. 

Canalli, C. 

Clavarri, Chas. 

Coplin, Jas. A. 

Cage, Dr. A. H. 

Petty (child of Mr.). 

Boersig, J. 

Ijangley, W. A. 

Kennedy, Miss Bridget. 
I Lindernian, Mrs. 
I Smith, Eddie. 

Benthall. Mrs. W. H. 

Smitli, Mrs. 

B!anchard(child of Joe). 
DufFev, James. 
Durfey, R. W. 
Young, Daisy. 
Ford. 

Ernesi, Jno., Sr. 
Campbell. 

Chavivari, Gniseppe! 
Alswortli, Mrs. Be n. 
Thompson, Mrs. E. L. 
Scheitler, Mrs. 
Wilcox, iMrs. 
Leonard, Mrs. Robt. 
Green, Chas. 
Peyton (two children of 

Tom). 
Shackelford, Susie. 
Garv, John. 
Bcnwell, H. R, C. 
(;ary (cliild of John). 
Leonard, Mrs. James. 



Casspll. Willie. 
Kellv, Marv. 
Benwelhchildof H R.C.) 
Strohecker. Mrs. Lucy. 
Liigne, Edward. 
Bam. s, Mr.';. B. 
Chambeisichild of Wm.) 
Henrv, John M. 
Logue, B. 
Leit. h, D. 

Fulton ison of David). 
Latimer, Mark. 
Semmes. I-'itz. 
Benthall, Mrs. Minerva. 
Engle. 

Wilson, Mrs. M. A. 
Harter, Geo. 

Oi-eenville. 

Mobray, Miss. 
Perry. 

Finnegan, Pat. 
i\I;.Tshall, Wm. 
Byrne, E. J. 
Simpson. John. 
Brooks, D. E. 
Morris. Mrs. D. 
Pryor, Miss. 
I'crrv, Fred. 

, :Maria. 

Bathke, C. 
Brooks, Mrs. Fanny. 
Perry, Mrs. J»imes. 
Chiesa, J. A. 
Lee, Sow (Chinaman). 
Scott (daughter of R.B.). 
Fox, Josephine (child). 
iSIowbry, Mrs. Tlios. 
Stowell, Lyman. 
Sanford, Mrs. Geo. 
Ballard. Mrs. J. S. 
Smith, Mrs. F. P. 
Stream, George. 
Shorey, Mrs. 
Bird, George. 
Ballard, Miss K. A. 
I'rvor, Fred. 
Staflbrd, Dr. 
•Aleck (butcher). 
Caifall, Willie. 
Pogle, Mrs. Jiilia. 
Unknown blacksmith. 
Maskev. Louisa. 
Perry, Sirs. T. P. 
Smith, Abe. 
Wctherbpe, Eva. 
Dodge, Elliot. 
Dorman, George. 
Sutton, Steve. 
Butler, Walter B. 
McLean, Thomas. 
Wagner. Frank. 
Putnam. H. (boy). 
Haycraft, W. A. 
Shanahan. Mrs. D. 
M(jrris, Mrs. M. 
Barnett, Philip. 
Scott, Miss Willie. 
Jones, Jlilton. 
Jlorgan, Col. C. E. 
Perry ^boy). 
Cox," Mrs. 
Perry, James. 
Tclfer, Wm. 
Duvall, Emm.i. 
Huntley, Charles. 
Ratchlitz, Julius. 
Walker. J. 

McCuUough, Richard. 
Corney, James. 
Young, Mrs. 
Cafl'all, Edward. 
Cafl'all, Louis. 
Radjeskv, Louis. 
Beck, Mrs. 
Fleischer, Mrs. 
Trammel. Jlrs. 
tTabiclit. Theodore. 
Wcthcrbec. Mrs. L. P. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER, 



247 



Ilassbers, Mrs. B. 
Quicic, Waltor. 
SteiiiljL'iL;, E. 
I'latt. Mrs. 
Ehier (bov). 
Piitn;im. H. B. 
Uliler, Mrs. 

AleXiURler, Dr. V. F. P. 
(.'ooper, R')liert. 
McCanu. Jiimrs. 
Marsluill. R ipliuel. 
Minzies, Jiiines. 
fjreeii. Rev. Huiioau. 
Furrester, (ins. 
(; illiinhcr. Fi:uik. 
B.illanl (infant (if .lolin). 
It.idjcsky, .1. 

HdU !( 'hinainan). 
l)i.L;i;s, llcnnie. 
Tavlor, Will. 
B.iilaril, Mrs. 
BiiswicU, Clia.s. 
liuekner, ,T. H. 
Davidson. .I.'irnes. 
• ireen, 8leplien. 
C'liiinell, Jomc?. 
Kyle. 

I'rvor, Mrs. F. 
B:Ulike, Mrs. Iloiiriottu. 
Bid wick, J(ie. 
Bigekiu' (child). 
Habiclit, Mrs. 
Lauroiis, Henry. 
Pliillips, LeiiuarJ. 
Wall, Abe. 
Manlv, W. .1. 
Perry, T. P. 
.'Sylvester, Tnm. 
Williams, rlias. 
Diggs, Fanny. 
.Slianahan, D.ui. 
Barnhurst, Mrs. J. S. 
Morris, Dave. 
Duffy. Micliael. 
Wheeler, Alljert. 
Sliaw, Mrs. T. B. 
Small, Mrs. 

Simphondorlier, John. 
Wieseiifeldt, L. 
Barnhurst, .lolin. 
Lockman, Julin.s. 
'I'ramiiiel, George. 
McLean, James. 
ilcAllister, Gu.s. 
Morgan, L. E. 
Bvrnes, Pat. 
French (child of W. J.) 
Youcum, Sophia. 
Brazicnr. George. 
Tillev, W., Jr. 
Speaks. T. B. 
Wiesenfeldt, Mrs. L. 
Nelson, John H. 
Kress, Eliza. 
Shaw, Helena. 
Wetherbeo, Wes. 
L'Uiglev, L. M. 
Mitchell, Mrs. 
Kleiber, Minnie. 
Statt'onl. Jlrs. 
I 'age. Rev T. 
James. Harry, 
l/imkin, .Miss .\unie. 
Hamnioml, Sam. 
Brown, Mrs. Sam. 
Rivers, 0. C. 
Manaizerdnlantof Mr.s. 
Sievers, Mrs. M. 
P^att, Anna. 
I'nknown man. 
< 'onghler, Gns. 
Kiiilav, Helen. 
Smith, Frnnk P. 
Frenndt, Henry. 
I'olle, Mrs L. ' 
F.hlers, Wm. 
Porter, W. L. 
J', illard, John R. 
\V..ite, Willie B. 



Warden, Nellie. 
Ralph, John. 
Nelson, N. J. 
Morris, M. 
Kretscliniar, W. P. 
Kintsler, J. 
Trigg, A. B 
Yerger, Arthur R. 
B?rry, Anna. 
Fleischer, Adolphe. 
Wetlierbee, L. P. 
Kintsler, Amelia. 
Vaughn, Harry. 
Peri-y (ciiilil). 
ICellv, Fanny. 
Gossett, J. 
Scott, (iarrett. 
I'"k'ischer, A. 
Elliott, Mrs. G. W. 
.Manifold, John. 
Haniliurger, Alje. 
Prvor (ehilrt>. 
Meisner, C. F. 
R idjeskv, Raehael. 
Ward, iirs. A. 
Ileinnm, Lena. 
Bvcrs. Jake. 
McCall. Dr. 
Johnson, M. W. 
Iierr\'. Walter S. 
James, Mrs. Muttie. 
Elliott, G. W. 
.Vridier, Dr. 
Wetherbee, Ma.hel. 
Mori is (child of Dave). 
Greentieh), Mrs. E. C. 
Meyer, Wni. 
Clarke, George R. 
Hamilton, John, 
Coltrell, John. 
Chillis, Emma. 
Ah Wa.vs (Chinaman). 
(ieriH'lle, Adeline. 
Burdette, Marsh. 
Crockett, Sam. 
Brown, Katie. 
I 'oliurn, J. 
Mathers, Mrs. 

xoja'i«i>"i'ii<»«Mi of 

(jiroeii viilc 

Monk, Henry. 
Lemler, Henry. 
Snowliergi'r, lilanclie. 
.Morzinski (childj. 
Morziiiski, M J. 
Hartman, Mrs. Marcella. 
Winter, Jack. 
McAllister, C. K. 
Brashear, Watt. 
Montgomery, IMrs. Wm. 
Winter, Shirlev. 
Stone, D. L. 
(ierdine. Dr. A. S. 
Gaddis, Dr. 
Kleiljer, Mr. 
Winter, Mrs. C. A. 
McCune, I'at 
McLean. Mrs. Feli.x. 
.Me.Mlisler, Mrs. C. 
Montgomerv, Wm. 
Everett, .1. E. 
Kirljy. Dr. 
Joints. Ill, FreiL 
.lolinson. Thomas, 
tirilhii, Dr 
Winter, T. E. 
Crockett. 

JnrUsoii. 

Savle, Josi ph. 
Sw'ett, Will H. 
McCallnm, Wni. 
( ir.inberry, Junius 
Gr.inlierrv, Cico. C. 
Ledbetter. J. H. 
Reiiiheinier. Lewis. 
Taylor, Wm. 
BriiiLson, Alonzo L. 



' Cusmani, C. 
Graiiberi v, Geo. 
Johnson, Mrs. W. II. 
Wilson, Andrew, 
Graiiberrv, .Miss Ida. 
Barrett, Wm. 
< 'usmani, Mrs. 
McCallum, .Mrs. 
Muller, Wm. 
Ewiiig, Will. 
Esclielimiii. Daniel. 
Mcliinis, Fannie. 
Eschelmiin, Henry. 
Clark, Matt. 
Parker. Wm. L. 
Black, Robert. 
Clancy, Daniel. 
Walteisoii, P. M. 
McDonald, 'I'ony. 
Pierce, Har\ ey. 
Clancv, Mis. 
Baile.v, Eilwar.l. 
Muller, Josc|ili. 
Marion, Mrs. Thomas. 
Divine, Bcttie. 
Bayol, J.ihn F. 
Barrett. Minnie. 
O'Leary, Patrick. 
Sizer, Henry E. 
Johnson. C. ]!va. 
Da ugh try, Mrs. P. C. 
Roacli, P. J. 
Tavlor. Miss Louise. 
Kolb, P. 

(Uennon, Ben. F. 
Ryan, Mr.s. I'liil. 

Oroiiiula. 

Feild, Mrs. 
Feild, Harry. 
Feild, Thomas. 
Feild, Mattie. ■ 
Shepiiard, Katie. 
^\"ilsfMl, Mrs. 
David.soii, .Mrs. 
B.ikewell, Mrs. Irene. 
Doak, Mis. 
Doak, Miss Lnln. 
Beauchiimp. W. T. 
McMillian, Mrs. 
French, Mrs. L. 
Peacock, T. E. 
Peacock, Miss Mamie. 
Dcjarnett, Mr. 
De,jarnett, Sallie. 
Cromwell, Geo. 
(.Cromwell, John. 
Mole, Jliss Maria. 
Lake, Geo. W. 
Lake, Mrs. Geo. W. 
Lake, Jliss Annie. 
Lake, Delia. 
Sadler, Mrs. 
Sadler, Miss Ro.sa. 
Sadler, Walter. 
Sadler, Jos. E. 
Sadler, Amos. 
Sadler, Robt. 
Avres, A. W. 
Ayres, W. I. 
.A.yres, Miss Jennie. 
.\yres, Jliss Lizzie. 
H"us;hes, Dr. E. W. 
Htiglies, Mrs. E. W. 
Hughes, Mrs. 
Hughes, .Mrs. J. E. 
Coirman, R. 
Coft'maii, Mrs. R. 
( 'offniaii, ( 'lias. 
Colt'nian, Miss Kate. 
Derrick, II. 8. 
Derrick, Mrs. H. S. 
Huflingtoii, Miss M. 
lluilington, M ss S. 
HnHiuiitfin, iMiss M. 
Hutliimton, Miss M. 
Lacock, Mi.ss .M. 
Lacock, Miss Alice. 
I Bishop, Jliss Addie. 



Bishop, Miss Belle. 
Bishop, Eugene. 
Bishop, Mrs. J. M. 
Shiinkie, Mrs. E. 
Kirby, Mrs. Pete. 
Kirby, Pete. 
Sliaiikle, Wm. 
Shaiikle, Robt. 
McLean, Mrs. 
McLeiin, Miss Lulti. 
Bristol, D. C. 
Bristol, Miss Emma. 
Clark, Miss Kate. 
Coiiley, M. 
( 'arl, Price. 
Carl, Ella. 
(Jcriiian carpenter. 
Wilkings, Dr. J. R. 
Irwin, Mrs. K. A. 
Young, Robt. A. 
Young, Mrs. Robt. A. 
Kenilrick, Mi.ss Lulu. 
Mayhew, Bob. 
Angeviiu', S. S. 
Aiigcvine, Miss M. 
Poiie\eiii, Jacoli. 
Poitevent, Mi.ss M. 
Poitevelit, Mrs J. 
Rediliiig, Wvatt .M. 
Marsha II, Ti'mi F. 
Leedv, Miss Sallie. 
Kettle, Mrs., and child. 
Hall. Charlie. 
Rafalsky, Alex. 
Morrison, Mrs. J. A. 
Gillespie, Dr. 
Irwin, R. A. 
Knox, J. M. 
Kendall, SamneL 
Marshall, Saiiimie. 
liason, John P. 
Ciini)ibell, G. W. 
Mitchell, Frank. 
Wolfork, Dr. 
I''etiiier, Fred. 
Bowles, R. S. 
Scanlin, Wis. 
Ringgold, Mrs. Dr. 
Beaiichamp, J. W. 
McMiliiaii, Mr. 
Cod'man. Mrs Clias. 
McDonald. Mrs. 
Virson, E. E. 
Newell, Chas. 
Williams. J. A. 
Phillilis. Tom. 
Wolte, Mrs. 
Cole, W. T. 
Cole, Mrs. W. T. 
Davis, Clayton. 
Hughes, Miss Mary. 
Gillespie, Mrs. 
Postell, Mattie. 
Ringgold, Dr. 
Armstrong, Colman. 
Lacock, Miss Helen. 
Doak, .Foliniiie. 
Mitchell, John. 
Lehman, Mr. 
Applegate, Mr. 
Garner, Abb. 
Aiider,--oii, B. P. 
Heshbiirg. Herman. 
Hoiisinaii, ( has (Sardis), 
Powell, Tlios. 
Haddick, Ree. H. T. 
Hall, Dr. W. W. 
IImII, Mrs. W. W. 
Hall. Rev. J. G. 
Hall, Mrs. J. G. 
Stokes, Mrs. J. C. 
Stolces, James. 
Stokes, ,Iohn. 
(iray, .Indge J. C. 
Grav, Mr.s. J. C. 
Grav, J. N. 
Gray, Ed. 
Ingram, Mrs. 
Ingram, Eugene. 



248 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



Ingrain, Jliss Florenee. 
Welsh, Frof. 
Welsh, Miss Sidney. 
Wile, M. 
8iraiiL', Mr. 
\\ ile. Eiiiaiiiiel. 
rskriilye. \V. C. 
Esl;ii(l-e(childofW. C). 
Eslcriiige, Walter. 
EsUriduc, Fox. 
JIiiV, Mrs. W. B. 
May, Ur. VV. Ji. 
Haukiiis, Dr. 
Hull kins, Mrs. 
I'eeples. Miss Fannie. 
Kal'alskv, Henrv. 
Rollins, 0. B. 
Eollins, Marshall. 
Gage, Ben. 

Gage (2 cliiklrenoi Dr.). 
Doak, B. M. 
HdOks, Mrs 
Hodks, I >:ivi<l. 
Blu ke, .laiues. 
yeanliii icliilil of Mrs.>. 
Cliaiidler, Wm. 
Collins. R. A. 
Irby, Tom. 
Jloure, D ive. 
Rivers, Mr. 
Milton, Dr. .T. L. 
Morrow, John. 
Rose, Barrv. 
Hall, F. K." 
.Graham, Hngli. 
Sliermaii (inft. of H. B.). 
Stevenson, Robt. 
Hart, Uarrv. 
JS.irnes, T. P. 
Thomas, .John. 
Jones, H. M. 
Williams, R., Sr. 
Moore, John T. 
Morrison. Joseph A. 
Gerard, A. 
Siguaigo, Mrs. Alice. 
Walton, Judge Tom. 
Ketulall, Thomas. 
Flippin, Samuel. 
Davis, Hugh R. 
Downs, S. L. 
D.ivis, Cally. 
Barker. JIis, I. S. 
S.ittL'rfield, Miss Jennie. 
Friedman, M. (N. O.). 
Smith, Mrs. 
Wood, 1. K. 
MeCampljell, Rev. J. 
Marshall, Samuel. 
C:ary, Mr. 
Sanders, A. P. 
AVeigert, Chas. 
Belew, Mrs. W. A. 
Holly, Frank. 
Armstioiig, Rev. .T. K. 
Hummel, Ludwig. 
Cawein (eliild). 
Shaw, Mr. 
B.iik'V, Mrs. 
Yates, Chas. 
Laeoek, Mary. 
Coon, G. 'r. 
Tel. air, JMrs. Sallio. 
Fliiipiii, S i]]i. 
Flippin, .Mis., and child. 
Bvck, Will.e. 
Jliller, .>^allie. 
Tinnei', Mrs. Aleck. 
Sanders, <1. P. 
S.iikU'IS, .Mrs. 0. 1'. 
Wri'.dit ^rhild of John). 
Kowell, Mrs. 
Mitchell. Marv. 
Mitchell, Chas. 
Boatright, Mr. 
jSIeadiir, James. 
Burt, Miss K. 
U'hompson, E. F. 
Barnes, Sallie. 



Collins, George. 
Williams. Isaac. 
Long, Mrs. \V. E. 
Shaiikle, VV. F. 
Crowder, R. D. 
Eli, E. G. 
Eli, Mrs. Eliza. 
Latham, Wm. 
Wright, Mack. 
Hosbiii, Martha. 
Rosscr. Ida. 
Fitzgerald, Dr. P. F. 
Sanders, MoUie. 
Spencer, Jlrs. 
Rush, Mrs. MoUie. 
Nowell, Joseph. 
MIicIkmI, James. 
Rosser. Hattie. 
Jieasly, Mrs. 
Burt. Henry. 
Sliaiikle, Robt. 

Barrot, C. L. 
B irrot, Mrs. Paul. 
Barrot, Paul. 
Burnet, Miss Sallie. 
Bertrou, Rev. S. R. 
B imghton, John. 
Broughton, Jimmv. 
Bcrtroii, Mrs. J. c! 
Brumky, Dr. 
Crowley, John. 
Daugherty, Wm. 
Dempsey, Andy. 
Daugherty, Jlary. 
Daiighertv, May. 
Day, Willie. 
Day, Joseph. 
D.iy, Charlie. 
Disherooii, Miss Alice. 
Dishertxm, William. 
ICvans, Lindsey R. 
Evans, Mrs. L. R. 
Faust, Mr. 
Faust, Mrs. 
Fairlv, Maj. J. D. 
Fife, Butler. 
Fife (child of Wm.). 
Fife, Eliza. 
Fife, Wm. 

Gorilon, W. R. (son of R. 

F. Gordon.) 
Green, Miss Lizzie. 
Green, Miss Gayoza. 
Grilling, Emma. 
Green (daughter of AV. 

A.). 

Guess (child of Wm.). 
Greer Estelle. 
Green, Joseph. 
Greer, Jlrs. Mary. 
Gilchrist, Malcomb. 
Greer, Lavinia. 
Greer, Eugenia. 
Harris, .Simon. 
Hall, Rev. Geo. 
lluber. .Mis, 

Healev, Mrs. T, C, and 

two children, 
Hawkins (inlantofT.S.). 
Hawkins, Tommy. 
Humphreys, Eva. 
Huinplirevs, Ben. 
Humphreys, Mrs. D. B. 
Haeley, Jacob, 
lleiiderson, John. 
Ingram, Mrs John, and 

child. 
Jones, T. E. 
Jones, Eliza. 
Johnson, Miss Fannie. 
I Kilcrease, Dorsey. 
Kelly, Thomas. 
Kavanaugh. Jlrs. Thos. 
ICirkbride, Jlrs. S. M. 
Louder, And. J. 
Little, Samuel. 
Leisker, Geo. 



I Lei.sher, Frank. 
Mackey, Mrs. Samuel. 
Leislie'r, .lohn. 
Leisher (iidant of E. E.). 
Lynch, Mrs. Mary M. 
Leonard, Janie. 
Lee, Johnnie. 
Lilly, Tyre. 
McCann, Billv. 
McCliiitoU, R. H. 
Mason, Miss Jciiiiic. 
Martin, W. H. 
Mo(..rc, Dr. Wm. 
Mi«ji-e, Ella. 
Jlooie, Duncan. 
Jlurpluy, James. 
McCiuie, Snupson. 
Newman, .Mrs. L. T. 
Newman, Bernard. 
Newman, Sidney. 
Newman, Corinne. 
Nolan, Patrick. 
Nance, James, Jr. 
(J D.iy, Mik..'. 
O X'oiincU, Katie. 
O'Connell, Mrs Dan. 
Purnell, Bcrlion. 
Pattoii, Mrs. R. S. 
I'.atnii. II. S., Jr. 

Plic:', .bi.M'],h. 

Price, iiobcrt J. 
I'rice, Mrs. Eliza. 
Price, J. A. 
I'lice. 

Peoples, Mrs. John. 
Samnielson. Aug. 
Simonsoii, Mrs. H, J, 
Strowbridge, Mrs. Dr. J. 
G. 

Shreve. Chas,, Sr. 
Shreve, Chas,, Jr. 
Shreve, Mrs. Chas. 
Strowbridge, Dr. J. G. 
Stewart, T, N. 
Scharff, Geo. 
Scluirft; Mis, Geo, 
Snodgrass, Dr. H. 0. 
Shafer, A. K., Jr. 
Sprott, Dr. W. D. 
Sylvester, Philip. 
Thaler, Adoliih. 
Thaler, Mrs. Adolpb. 
Thaler, Rudolph. 
Thaler, Toliias. 
Thaler, John. 
Thrasher, Judge JohnB. 
Trevelliaii, Mrs. T. (;. 
Tiiomas, (, asey. 
Tucker, Mrs. 
Uiigcrer, Fritz. 
Vertner (infant of Gen. 
J. D. 

Whcekss, Miss Jfarv. 
\Vheeless, ( apt. II. S. 
Woods, John. 
Weeks, Charlie. 
Weeks, Jimmv. 
Walker (inlaia of N". S.). 
Young, Dr. Thomas. 
Young, .Mrs Dr. Thos. 
Hasie (child of Major). 

Ethridgc, John. 
Pri.'SLOii, Will. A. 
Tauuart, Mrs. John. 
Mc(^'lu^ti'r, R. 11. 
(Jwens, Mrs. JIary. 
lyipsciaiilj, Mrs. M. J. 
Sadler, Wm. L. 
Si Ilk lair, Robt. 
McLean, ( has. T. 
Tucker, Edward. 
Vail. B. M. 
Bragg, Mrs. Ellen. 
Raney, Miss Ella. 
Lawrence, .-\lbert, 
.loncs, Josiah. 
TallidKt, E. II. 



Pulhr.m, Dosl.ia. 
JIarsliali, Nancv. 
Theikaard, S. C. 
Fieank, J. C. 
Williams. Mrs. Ben. 
Williams, R. T. 
A\ hitc, George. 
Prcstridge, ilrs. J. M. 
Habercoiu, 1, F. 
Miher, Mis. JI. E. 
1 etcrs, J. C. 

Lawreiii c, JIis, Allert. 
Terry, T. ,1, 
Tarver, \\ m. S. 
Laugluoii. J. G. 
Terrell, Jiuiies. 
Mosley, Robt, J. 
Ward, John. 
Tatt, Miss Mattie. 
JIcLeau, Wm. T. 
Riley, Jiiss Mary. 
Owens. Wm. Henry. 
Owens, Lela Lovelta. 
Habercorn, Edwaid. 
Ranev, Wm. V. 
Tarvt-r, Mrs. S. J. 
Gould, Mrs. Dr. L. 
Mo.sky. Beiij. Frank. 
Robin.-on, Emma. 
Rogers, Thos. 
Ea.sly, Capt. E. V. 
t tiiric, .\. A. 
Heiidei'soii, John. 
Holler, Wm. 
Sinclair, Lutie. 
Broach, Jlrs. W'. P. 
Enslen, Henrv. 
Ethridge, JIark. 
Smith, Eria JIay. 

ICoeky Spring's. 

Cessna, Love. 
Goosehorn, Tom. 
Goosehorn, Sallie. 
Elv, Nannie. 
Diivall, Jlrs. 
Duvall, JIahala. 
Emerick, Lilly. 
Emeiick, .A-leck. 
Wallace, Jlollie. 
(ioza, C'COige. 
JIcdA'aii, George H. 
Ilaring, Ellen. 
Harper, Emilv. 
Lum, Ed. O. 
JIcLeniore, Laman. 
Henderson, Susan. 
Goza, Jlrs. George. 
Thomyison, L. .V. 
r.oggs, Jlrs. JIaiy. 
Harper, J. J. 
Brock, W. W. 
Parker, Rev. D. A. J. 
Parker, Jlrs. D. A. J. 
Foster, Alice. 
Harper, JIattie. 
Harper, Jlrs, 0. B. 
Emerick, Dan. 
Wright, James. 
Wright, Jlrs. JI. M. 
Floweis, A. E. 

JHercisKinIo. 

West, Jlrs. R. R. 
Hililebrand, Jlrs. 
JlcNccse, Jlrs. S, P. 
Hickling, R, 
Dein heart, Jlrs, Adam. 
Pullin, Jliss Ruth W. 
Connelly, Jlichacl. 
Voudran, E. J. 
Avera, Col. J. C. 
keid, Mrs, S. 1. 
Gore, Robert. 
Waller, Jlrs. A. 
Swartz, Jlrs. 
Johnson, Jlrs. Bertha. 
Powell, Dr. J, W. 
I Hickling, Jlrs. R. 



I 



A HISTORY OF TIIK YELLOW FEVER. 



249 



Deinhoart, E'l 
PuUiii, Miss Ell.i. 
Couiiollj', sirs. Midiaol. 
Vondraii, Mrs. E. J. 
KclloSK', O. jr. 
<;i(iiiioM, ij. p. 
Xilcs, Mrs. 

CO],OEED. 
Tliompsoii, A. D. 
]/:'.u'.an, Pat. 
T.-nioi-, Mrs. Ilynry. 
Wise. Bob 
Wasliiii'-iton, Murv. 
Taylor, iteury. 
\V:illcer, Robert. 
Cjgliill, Jaclisou. 

MEMPHIS REFUGEES. 

Campbell, D. C. 
Voiiilraii, Peter. 
Flaherty, James, 
llaaek, .Julius. 
Soelfker, Miss Jlena. 
Hariler, Miss Annie. 
Feldsti.lt, .ToViii. 
Aiirlersoii, Jlrs. B. P. 
Voniir.in, Jlrs. Peter. 
Flaherty, Miss. 
Murray, Miss Mary. 
Harder, Jliss Ella. 
F'iril, John B. 
Woo l, Mrs. 

Bay St. I.ouis. 

Arnold, Alice. 
Adams, .Julian. 
Breath, Charles. 
Barthe, Henry. 
B irnard, Frazier. 
Campe (ehihl of). 
Combel, Wilfred. 
Cameron, Hnbbard. 
Dovle, Mrs. 

Dovleidnunhterof Mrs.). 
DeWolf, Jliss. 
D.ivis, Eliza. 
D.)re, Mrs. 

D)re (daughter of Mrs.). 
Estapa, Alphonsine. 
Estapa, Ji'raueis. 
E-tapa, .Josephine. 
Etiena, .Sister, St. Joseph 

Convent. 
Fischer, Lena. 
Frederiel;, B n-nedina. 
Frederic, B irb.ira. 
Foster, Jlary. 
Foster, Pusie. 
Fairehild, Harry B. 
Fairehild, Ella. 
Franklin, Stephen. 
Gonzales, Joseph. 
Henderson, Malcomb. 
Howell, Henry. 
Henders ni, John, col. 
Johnston, .s illie. 
Johnston, .Jiinie.s. 
Krost, Mrs. E. 
Klein. Mr 
E st, W. B. 
Liwler, Ellen. 
I>awler, Emma. 
I^au-ler, D in. 
Liss I (adopted daughter 

of Sim in), 
Lnm)nrant, P:iilman. 
l.ass ilie, VieKjr. 
Eass i!)e, D dpliinc. 
Lass:ibe, B Ttrand. 
Eawlor, Miss. 
Mayo, (feorgi\ 
Mndge, Ep'iraim C. 
Muller chil'l of). 
Jlavfi 'M. Helen G. 
Jlay, Cr. S. 
Ma!;'.;iore, Antoine. 
Jlittenberger, Odile. 
Nicaise, Abel. 



Nicaise, Ficbceca. 
Prestel, Caroline. 
Piestel, Nicholas. 
Pierre, Antonio. 
.Snarcz, Jlrs. Helen. 
Kuarcz, Retina M. 
Sylvester. Walter. 
Sancier, John J. 
T iylor, Caiit. I. L. 
Taeoni, Alfred. 
Tacoui, Jules. 
Tarrant. Salvador. 
Terzia, Stelfauo. 
Vassal i, P. 
Vassal i. 

Valeonar, Francois. 

Vicelli. 

Vicelli. 

Vicelli. 

White, Jlrs. 

M'alters. Stella. 

Williams, (ieorie. ool. 

Well If, .Annie S. D. 

Nine unliuown. 

Broi katt, Jfrs. W. B. 
Brockati (ehihl (.f). 
C irter, fol. .M. A. 
JIayer, Fred 
JJayer, .-Vlljert. 
Rowland, Jlrs. 

Morisan Vity. 

Clare, Samuel. 
Farrell, Jli.-s. 
Ileune.ssy, James. 
JIartin " (daugliter of 
Wm.) 

■\Varchiell, Daniel W. 

Thomp'^on, Alice. 
Ross, Miss Elizabeth. 
Ross. Jesse S. 
Wiley, Jlinerva. 
R :).ss, Melissa. 
R o.-s, W. N. 
Murcliant, Jfrs. Amy. 
JIatliews, JJrs. Nancy. 

Bos toil. 

Shields, Peter. 
i\Ivrick, Jlrs. R. A. 
Myrick, E. K. 
Walton, Miss Annie. 
JIcKay, Miss Ida. 
Alexander, Mis. Dr. 
Peebles, Jlrs. I.la. 
Peebles, Clifton. 
Schwartz, M. 
Walton, George. 
^Ve!ls, Henrv.and child. 
Slii.lner, W. E. 
I'owel), Mrs. Allie. 
Fitzgera'd, Jlrs. Jennie. 
Pepper, G. C. 
Pepper, Jlrs. JIattie S. 

Friar's Point. 

Alcorn, Geo. R. 
Alcorn, Mrs Geo. R. 
Dwyer, J. W. 
Rucks, Judee Jas. 
JIayiiard, Jos. 
Wood, air., Col. 

HacBiIshoro. 

Andrews, Daniel. 
Bailev, Matilda. 
Blacklidge. John G. 
Cleary, JIary Ann. 
Cnllivan, John. 
Cullivan, Walter. 
Hempstead, Edward. 
Lyon, Dr. J. E. 
JInrphv, Mrs. J. 
JfcB-v, Alex. 
McBey, Mrs. D. ' 



JI.-Bey, Mrs. E. 
Odom, Charles. 
J'oleicho, jr. 
^'ierling, (ieorgia. 
Waycott, Jlonica. 
Zundt, Joseph. 

Creagei-. C. W. 
Davis, Mrs. Jlira. 
Dean, Mrs. D, L, 
Diekev, Dabnev. 
Dickey, JIattie. 
Dickey, George. 
McGehee, Jlargaret. 
Parker, Mrs. Cora. 
Sanders, jris. A. V. 

Stev<'iison*s PSaiiii. 
tatioDa. 

Stevenson (child of J. 

A., Jr.). 
Vinson, Jrr. 

Sim II mat. 

GrifTiu. 
<;,-il1iu. 
(irillin. 
Willhoft, Jlr. 

SnaJpSatir Springs. 

Caldwell, Wells. 
Frentil, .John. 
J(mes, Louisa. 
Ivennedy. Jl. 
Schaeffer. 

SnjBiilowpr. 

Badford, A. V. (sheriff). 
Bookout, Capt. Ben. C. 

Bigelow, Jlrs. W. H. 
Cainerou, D. A. 
Chaiipell, R. W. 
Featherstone. Laura 'W.- 
Fox, Jlrs. Joseiih J. 
Gray, Jlrs. J. W. 
>rclunis, John. 
Powell, J. W. 
Smith, jrary E. 
Sliaunou, S. W. 
Wilkins, Capt John. 
Wuvm an, Dr. 
Po\vell(children o( J.N.). 

KieoJtoe. 

JIarlose, S. 
Sccailh's Statioas. 

Brooks, Aaron. 
Jewel, JI:s. 

SSosteville. 

Brown, Ida. 
llvrne, J no. 
Burdett, Walsh. 
Bnrdelt, Miss. 
I'.nrdett, Nathan. 
Crockett, S.nn. 
Diwkens, Geo. 
]>avis(ihree children of). 
Evenittz, J. E. 
Folev. B. F. 
Gerdine. Dr A R. 
Gaddis, Dr. Thus. 
Griffin, Dr. 
Hill, J. W. 
Hartman, Jr. 
Jones, Henry. 
Kirliv, Dr. 
Kleiber, Jacob, Jr. 
ICleibi'r, Jacob, Sr. 
K imsler, Adolph. 
Lemler, Henry 
Jyiimkin. Jlrs. Nancy. 
Jlonk. Henry, 
jrooziuski, M. J. 
Moozinski (child of). 



I JIcAlister, C. IC. 

JfcAlister, Mrs. A. W. 
I Montgomery, Jlrs. Win. 

Montgomerv, Dr. Wm. 

McLean, Pliil. 

Jlelvin, Jlrs. Rebecca. 

McKeon, Pat. 

JIcDoiiald, Andv. 

Oden, Dr. 

O'Brien, Thos. 

C)!son, Dan. 

Priest, Sr. 

Priest, Jr. 

Quinn, P,.t. 

Stever^on, James. 

Stone, D. L. 

Snowberger, Blanche. 

Spears. 

Shannahan, Dan. 
Walker (smi of J. B.). 
\^'ii]ters, Eddie. 
Winters (ehild of). 
Winters, Jack. 
Winters, Jlr. C. A. 
Wingfield, Willie. 
Wingheld, Walter. 

Korsi ILake. 

Collins, Wm. 

Terry. 
Grayson, Lisa, col. 
(irav.son, Jane. 
Godmau. Dr. H. R. 
Samson, Joe, col. 
One unknown. 

Os.ytta. 

Addison, JIrs- John. 
Baramon (child of). 
Bnllion (daughter of). 
Bardalis, Jt uiiie. 
Bom Is, JIartin. 
Bonds. Mrs. Jrartin. 
Borus, Frank. 
Bonis, Edward. 
Butcher, Willie. 
Cortney, Jlrs. 
Cahn, Adolph. ' 
Cutrer (child of). 
Cerf, Isaac. 
Cerf, Jranuel. 
Donois, Wm. 
Dreyfus, Lehman. 
Eastman, Jlr. 
Feitlitn, Jirs. 
Ford (four sons of Dr.). 
Human, Isaac. 
Hart, Mrs. Hyraan. 
Jones, Willie. 
Keating, Henry. 
Loeb, .Mrs. 
.Jlillor. JIargaret. 
Ctt. J. A. 
Relnirst, Henry. 
Reliorst, Joe. 
Ricks, Bill. 
Redmond, Charles. 
i;aonl, (iritfiu. 
Si|>ple, JIargaret. 
Sehnider, Caroline. 
Schnider, Tom. 
Smithner, Jacob. 
Vernado, Jlrs. 
Vernado (son of). 
W<nl, Charles. 
Wei lis, Augnstu.s. 
Wolf, Jfever. 
Wolf, Ilenrv. 
Wales, Ben. 

Oepan S[»rSiigHj. 

Charles, Fatiier. 
Ryan. Joseph. 
Strout, Col. 

Pearl ill S't on. 

Carre. R. B. 
Graves, Polena. 



250 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



l.ake. 

Crowson, Mrs. Amanda. 
Crowson, W. E. 
T;ite, Frank. 
KcotI, Lfe C. 
MrCallinn, Dr. Geo. C. 
Ev.TS, Will. H. 
.MfFiirliUifl, Hugh G. 
T ite, Dr. J. J. 
Wilkius, Leroy B. 
<M iv, John. 
Cr./sliv. Willie J. 
D ivism, Robt. 
'i'al •, Simpson. 
Yon il;, M ithew. 
II iskins, Mr.s. W. S. 
1. iwry, Mrs. 
L iwry, Gea. F. 
Yarbron^h, .1. S. 
Rhea, Jlrs. Tom. 
Evcr.s, Miss M;imie. 
Siiead, Jlrs. J. P. 
Conch, John. 
Yarbrout;h, Mrs. J. S. 
Evers, Miss Carrie. 
Lowrv, Miss Luin. 
Evers", Mrs. W. H. 
MoFarland (child of 

Charlie). 
McCallnin (child of 

Marv). 
Keii'.nedy, S. D. 
Conch, Jas. M. 
(Jrosby, Jno. H. 
lying, Jesse. 
Burse, Mrs. Sarah. 
McFarland. Mrs. Bessie 
Saunders, P. 
McCallum, Mrs. M. 
S lunders, Mrs. M. P. 
Saunders, Miss Fannie. 



Ivennedy. Mrs. S, D. 
Tate, Miss Bena. 
Mcl'arland (child of 

Mary). 
Evans (infant of Mrs ). 
Shackleford, J. N. 
Burge, Miss Ella. 
Scott, Mrs. Kittie. 
Long. Oscar. 
Ho.skins(infant of Robt.). 
Weaver, Willie. 
Adams, Miss Lvda. 
Ritter, L. 
Ray, R. A. 
Bnrge, Rachael. 
Long, A. 
Weaver, Jno. R. 
McGraty, Barney. 
Adams, \V. J. 
MeCallum. Miss Kate. 
Burge, Richard. 
Stewart, Mrs. James. 
Wells, Mrs. Sarah. 
McCallum, Charley. 
Weaver, Lafayette. 
Ste wart(daiigh ter of Mrs. 

James). 
Weaver, Toramie. 
Tate, Bob. 
Nichols, Wm. 
Burge, Miss Stelle. 
Burge, Miss Nettie. 
Burge, Richard, Jr. 
Wells, Jno. D. 
Burge, Miss Julia. 
Tate, Miss Ann. 
Lee. Mrs. 

Burge, Miss Pinkie. 
Biloxi. 

Dunn, Miss. 



Gregory. John Henry. 
Gerson, Reuben. 
Guillotte, Ed. J. 
Hogan. Mari;aret. 
Lambricki. Diinilry 
Min-phy, Mrs. 
Weingart Jolin. 

BeaelilniKl. 

Bullock, Wm. 
Biblingstene, Mrs. 
Brodsing, Dr. 
Feaiherstone, Laura. 
Featherstone, W. W. 
Featlierstone, Mrs. 
Featherstone (gr'dchild 
of). 

Finch, John W. 
Flowers, E. 
Fox, Mrs. L. 
Gottheir, B. N. (Rabbi). 
Holt, Mrs. 
Johnson, Jfrs. Jos. 
Johnson, Mrs. J. B. 
Johnson, IMrs. M. 
Leach, H. 
Lorch, Adolph. 
Meyer, Isadore. 
ilcEnnis, J. N. 
McEnnis, Mre. L. 
Newman. Gus. 
Powell, Clarence. 
Powell, Alexander. 
20 M. E. of Vieksburg. 

Winona. 

Blaekston, Benj. 
Camphell, Wm. 
Harris, Francis, col. 
Kilfrell, Jo. C. 
McGeure. 



Mingo, col. 
Ourv. (ieii. 
Oniv. I,\le. 
Ree:,e. Mis. 

Valley Home. 

Blac k, Jlrs. 
Berrv, Sum. 
Grcise. Mr. 
JInrphv, Smith. 
JIarither. M. 
Montgomery, Lena. 
Jloulgcmery. H. 
Payne, Wm'. 
Paviie. (ieo. 
Russell, Jlrs. 
Thompson, John. 
Thompson, Jlrs John, 
Thompson, A. J. 
Thompson, Betlie. 
Tnrnipsei d, Dr. 
White, Jlr. 

Winlervtlle. 

McAllister, A. W. 
McAllister. C. K. 
MeKeoii. Pat. 
Montgomery, Dr. Wm. 
Montgomery, Mrs. Dr. 
Wm. 

Shannahan, Mrs. Dau. 
Winters, Jack. 
Winter, Sam. " 

Carrolllon. 

Liddle, J. JI., Jr. 
Cay n^i. 

Griffin, Gen. T. M. 
Griffin, JIis. Tom. 
Hack, Jlr. 
One colored. 



III. 



ARKANSAS. 



Augusta. 

Freeman. 
Hendricl;s, Jlrs. 
Joliiison, Wm. 
JIulready. 

Plummer, Wm., col. 

Oulilen Lake. 
No report. 

Ilaynes' BIulT. 

Ferry (son of Dr. R. H.). 
Ross, Jessie. 



Snyder (two daughters). 
Helena. 

Jliller, J. B. 
Withers, Gertrude. 

Ilopelield. 

Bailey, Jlrs., col. 
Bailey (boy of , col. 
Bruce, Mrs. 
Burrie, Mrs , col. 
Carpenter, Julm. 
Connelly, Jlrs. 



Costello, Austin. 
Drake. Ari'hie, col. 
Everett, W. E. 
(iiillirie, Jlichael. 
Guthrie, Jeiry. 
Hawkins, Jlrs. 
Leonard, Jlrs. 
Jluinie. Mrs. Sarah. 
Quinlan, Thomas. 
Stack, Jerry. 
Stack, Jlrs. 
Stuart, Bill, col. 
Unknown man. 



Terrene. 

Abraham (two childreti 
of). 

Cohn, Johnny 
Keely. John. 
Loeb, Louie. 
JIayson, Dr. 
Shelbv, John, col. 
Zadec'k (child of Ben.). 
Zadeck, Jlrs. Ben. 
Zadeck (child of). 
Zadeck, Ben. 



IV. 

ALABAMA. 



Atlions. 

Rodgers, Alexander. 
Rodgers, Elizabeth. 

I'oiirtland. 

Newsom, A. 

Decatur. 

Avers, Jlr. 
Cramer (son oQ. 



Edwards. 

Fennell, Jliss Sallie. 
Gill, Mrs. D. 
Gilson, Mr. 
Henrv, J. 
Honk, R. 
Houk, Mrs. A. 
Heavitson, Mr. 
Howard, Mrs. M. J. 
Johisjn, Thomas. 



JlcCarty, Jlrs. 
JlcCartv, Miss. 
Polk. Jirs. C. 
Williams, Jlrs. J , col. 
Whitten, Rev. Joel. 

Florence. 

Brown, James. 
Bernhiird, Mr. 
Cox, James. 



Cox, Joseph, 
("row, Josie. 
Cain, Jane. 
Grob, Jlr. 
Lambert, JI:s. 
Price, J. H. 
Perry, T. M. 
Pellv, Johnnie. 
Pelty, Mrs. 

Pelty (two children of), 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVER. 



251 



Rodg^rs, Thnmns. 
K I'^s lali', Jdliii. 
Ra-,'S(lal(', < 'l.iudla. 
llire, Will II. 
Ricf, Miss Nora. 
RMd, Jolm S. 
Tinbei'k, Mr. 
Wade A. C, child. 
Twenty-si.x colored. 

Ilmiiilsvillo. 

ISroclc, .Joim. 
lirodie, Mrs. Jno. 
Bootli, T. J. 
Clark, W. A. 
Edwards, Ida. 
Edwards, Frank. 
Eiigering, Frank. 



Fisher, .Imiathin. 
Goheii, Faiiiiie. 
Gdhen, Margaret. 
Rea-iii, W. R. 
Sniuiiiiins, Pa\iline. 
Yoiikha, .Margaret. 
Zulenka, Maggie. 

Mobile. 

liotli. Rev. Victor. 
Fort, K. B 
JIarley, Father, 
riikuowu woman, col. 

Stevenson. 

Rose, Porter. 
Welch, T. J. 

I 



Child I'romOerniantown. 
Tn<sdiinl>;!i. 

Williams. Charles. 

.Jones. Miss B. 

.Stamps, Mr. & Mis. 

>rauuch, Mr. & Mrs. 

Belcher, C. 

Rather, Geo. 

Jones, Mrs. 

Ross, Mrs. 

Christian, Miss C. 

Warren, Mervin. 

Hnprez. Dr. 

King, Mr. 
I Downs, iM i.ss Bettio. 
I Yonng, Mr. 



t^nknown German. 
Front, Edward. 
Smoot, Mrs. 
.Smoot, Miss. 
Gilljert. Mrs. 
Clark, Mrs. 
Monlton, Thomas. 
Osborne, Sandv. 
Entress, Ella " 
Unknown boy. 

'ITiisealoosa. 

Rhiuchart, Alex. 
Rhinehart. .siilney. 

WhiNlIer. 

Marley, Rev. Father. 



I Thomas, .T. 0. 
Thonnis, T. W. 
Thomas, Thad. N. 
Thomas, Margaret. 

Jordan .Slation. 

Alexaniler, .\riss Belle. 
Prather, l>r. Hugh. 

I><tMiNViIIe. 

Able, Gabriel. 

Berryman, Eddie, 
j Coleman, Sam. 
j Ca.sey, Jlike. 

Croglian, David. 

Coflee, Patrick. 

Conneli, J. B. M. 

Davis, H. R. 

Drylns, Sanmel. 

F^riiest, Geo. M. 

F^rnest, Mrs. Geo. M. 

Fisher, Charles. 

Flvini, Meta. 

(iarv. 

Galienher, N. G. 
Hollahan, Mary. 
Hei'lelbnrs;. Louis. 
Haskill, Ben. 
Hali'meister, Johanna. 
Hellrig, Rudolph. 
Howard, Jolm. 
Jones, Sebastian. 
! Laurie, Mary A. 
Leake, W. L. 
Lawton, R. H, 
Lutz. 

Moore. Richard. 

McKenna, Mrs. Annip. 

Jtancy, James. 
I Jlorriss. James P. 
\ Mudd, Nathaniel. 

Plunkctt, Charles. 

Rvan, .Mrs. JIary. 

Ritter. Alice R. 

Riwes, Mrs. Geo. 

,sinxw, Wm. 

Samuels, Henry B. 

Shannalian, Maggie. 

Seal ley, M. E. 

Sellar, John. 

Sellar, Therese. 

Sal ta 1 a m a c h i e Fra n Ic. 

Tedro, Mrs. Annie. 

Winn, Fred. 
I Worsliam, Clifford. 
; Voss, .Ann. 
j Voss, Ernest, 
j Two colored. 

I Ti'eiiCon. 

Hord, C. C. 



V. 

KENTUCKY. 



Bowling Green. 

Cough, Mrs. Jack, 
('urren, Mr. 
Fitzpatrick, Jo.seph. 
Hespin, John. 
Hogan, John. 
Houghton, Mrs. M. 
.MeCarty, Jlrs. Tim. 
Murphy, Wm. 
Palmer. John. 
Ritter, L. R. 
Sullivan, Ellen. 
S^^hafer, Mrs. II. 
Weaver, Wm. 
Williamson, C. M. 

I>an ville. 

Craft, John Young. 
Fnlion. 

Bennett, Mrs Sam. 
WoDldridge, Amanda. 
Boaz, Dr. C. D. 

II irk man. 

Amberg, Miss Irene. 
.Vmlieri, Joseph. 
.\mberg. Miss Vic. 
Anders in, Dr. J. M. 
Anderson, Miss Bjlle. 
Bearger, Herman. 
B^arger, John. 
Bsarger, Miss. 
Bearger, Mrs. John. 
Brevard, W. A. 
Baltzer, Philip 
Bailev, Edward. 
Huckner, W. T., Jr. 
B Ian ton. Dr. 
Buncho, Andy. 
Biincho, Mrs. Andy. 
Black, Joseph. 
Bright, David F. 
Birnes, Do(^ 
Barnes, T. D. 
Barnes, Will. 
Reaster, W. II. 
Bindnrant, Mrs. J. J. C. 
Hindu ant. Miss Jennie. 
Bjndurant (child of). 
Belts, Wm. 
Buck, T. C. 
Barry, Mrs. John. 
Coffev. Wm. 
Catlett, Dr. H. C. 
Cole, Miss Lotta. 
Cobb, Chas S. 
Corbett, Dr. W. D. 
Corbett, Mrs. W. D. 
Cook, Dr. J. L. 



Dozier, Thomas C. 

Donevant, Geo. 

Oavis, Mi.ss Lulu. 

Davis, Gus. 

Dodds, Robert. 

Dale (son of Wm.). 

Echard, Eliza. 

Eclierf, Miss Lou. 

Farris, Tom. 

Fortune. B. W. 

Frenz, W. J. 

Funk, Fred. 

Farris, Dr. J. W. 

Gleason, T. E. 

Glea.son, Burt. 

Gleason, Hallie. 

Gardner, Mrs. C. 

Gardner, W. H. 

Gardner, Meta. 

Greenup, John. 

Gibli. Frank. 

Glaser, R. 

Glaser, Joseph. 

Hendricks, Mrs. 

Hendricks, Miss Louisa. 

Hendricks, Miss Anna. 

Hendricks, John. 

Hendrieks(2children of). 
[ Heatherly, Mac. 
I Hertweck, Max. 
j Hertweck, Mrs. Ma.x. 
j Harness, N. P. 
i Holt, R. D. 
I Hancock, W. W. 
j Ilolmim, Mrs. 
I Ilallyburtou. Mrs. Cora. 
1 Hallyburton (son of). 

Jones, Thomas M. 

Kingman, A. D.. Jr. 

Kingman, Katie. 

Kingman, Muff. 

Kreiger, Miss. 

Kreiger, Miss. 

Kreiger(two children of). 

Kitchison. 

Kesterson, C. H. 

Kirger, Mrs. 

Keistner, M. 

Kiircher, Miss Mary. 

Karcher, Miss Josie. 

Kiircher, Miss Eva. 

Luttrell, Miss Cappie. 

Luttrcll, John. 

Luttrell, Mrs. 

Lacy, Mi.ss. 

Lane, T. J. 

McCain, Wm. 

Morrow, Lutha. 

Metheny, Robbie. 

Manuel (a baker). 

Monroe, Lewis. 



Mangle, Ed. 
Mangle, Mrs. Eil. 
Miller, Frank. 
Miller, Mrs. Frank. 
Miller, Joseph. 
Millett. John. 
Mn.se, Miss .\nnie. 
Maggie (at hotel). 
McConnel, James. 
Mason, Charles. 
Nelson, N. L. 
Nelson, Mrs. N. L. 
Neal, Michael. 
O'Neal, Mike. 
Overton, Mary J. 
Overton, Maggie. 
Pralher, Dr. K. C. 
Privthor, Dr. Hugh L. 
Pralher, G. B. (mayor.) 
P<illard, Ed. M. 
Parham Miss. 
PiU'kett, Geo. W. 
Pohm, Mrs. 
Person (child of). 
Pcr.son, Louisa. 
Ray. 

Reasoner, Wni. 

Roiilhac, George G. 

Reid, R. J., Jr. 

Simons, John. 

Sherron, Thomas. 

Sherron, Joseph. 

Sherron, John. 

Smith, O. P. 

Seagrist, F^rank. 

Seagrist. Mrs. l-'rank. 
1 Seagrist, Otio. 
I Si'agrist sou of), 
j Stoner, Kate. 
! Stoner, Fred. 
[ Shoemaker, .lohn. 

Shoemiiker, A. 

Sohui. Mi.ss FvUreki).. 

.Sohm, Willie. 

Sohni, John 

Sohm (chilli). 

Stone, John. 

Scherbe, Emil. 

S imse, S. 

Samse, Mrs. Ida. 

Samsc, F. 

Samse, Chas. 

Samse, Mrs. F. 

S ini.se, Henry. 

Scharfe, Emih 

Sampree, Ida. 

Stephens, Mrs. I". 

Sollis, Henry. 

Sollis, Mary. 

Titus, Nelson. 

Thomas, Miss S.illi.'. 



A IIISTOUY OP THE YELLOW FEVEXl. 



VI. 



Louisiana.— New Orleans. 



Arbei-ies, Giovfiul. 
Antonio, Miiriid. 
A<hnirall. Isabella. 
Antonio, Mary. 
Aiuljers, Daniel. 
Ackernuin, Joseph. 
Arcliidell, Antonio. 
Adams, L, 
Adams, James. 
Arms, Harry. 
Antoine, Male d'. 
Asclienbrenner, O. 
Antcu, Anna A. 
Amendt, Flor. 
Anderson, Christian. 
Anderson. Ida. 
Avery, James. 
Anderson, F, B. 
Aborg, Mrs. 
Augor, L. E. 
Aubin, George S. 
Adams, Jeanle. 
Artigue, Fred. 
Anastapiades, A. 
Adams, Lonis. 
Adams, George. 
Adams, II. D. 
Arnold, E. 
Armstrong, E. L. 
Anthony, "F. M. 
Alonzo, X. 
ArnbuU, Peter. 
Alderni in, E. J. 
Auer, Julia \V. 
Allen. Lebe in V. 
Aiigbeeker, An^. 
Adams, W. N. 
Aiigustin, J. A. 
Adams, Flor. G. 
Aikens, Jolm W. 
Aliern, Patrick. 
Anlonia, H. L. 
Alber, J. N. 
Apffel, Glib. 
Ahlburn, Henry. 
Adler, \Vm. S. 
Assanti, J. DeP. 
Allen, Mary J. 
Appley, Blanche. 
Augustine, Joseph. 
Anderson, Martin. 
Ayrand, Bascal. 
Adams, Teresa. 
Adams, Aleck. 
Ames, Laura. 
Alexander, F. 6. 
Ault, Alvls. 
Adele, Aloysius. 
Andry, Charles J. 
Allen, Nich. 
Astrado, Antoniette. 
Antelny, Leonce. 
Artus, jiarid. 
Abram J. J. 
Allen, W. D. 
Abtte, Johanna S. 
Abbot, Clara. 
An.sberv, Hugh. 
Arnett, F. C. 
Archallenberg, F. 
Armas. D'Aniia, 
Argentum, A. G. 
Abner, E. D. 
Anseman, Ernest V. 
Areott, Lizzie. 
Armstrong, S. H. 
Arin, Bjnedicto. 
Anderson, Charles W. 
Arthurs, Wm. E. 
Ai iuiuU, Genel. 
Apken, Joseph. 



Alito, Francisco. 
Adelton; Wm. 
Andrien, Jules. 
Ajbers, John A. 
Anthony, Francois M. 
Alonno.Autonie. 
Arnault, Peter. 
Arnold, Edivard. 
Armstrong, Ellen L. 
Acker, Zavier. 
Avaril, Camille. 
Abadie, Henry. 
Adler, Jennie". 
Adamzig, Jacob 
Ankar, Bessie. 
Albert, Sister Josephine, 
Aranes, John P. 
Avery, James. 
Andrews, Eli. 
Anmto, t'orneto. 
Anderson, Augustine. 
.\ntonio, Andre. 
Arasiase, Mrs. Alex. 
Adams, Mrs. Eliza. 
Andeek, Joseph. 
Arnold, Mrs. J. N. 
Adlier, Albert. 
Apply, Blanche. 
Avlgustins, Joseph. 
Allen, Richard. 
Aycock, Joseph. 
Allen. Charles. 
Angela. 
Allen, John. 
Andrett ', John. 
Abadie, W'arie. 
Amitt ■ Mr. 
Abrahams, Elias. 
Addicks, Matt. 
Arbogas, .larques. 
Augusti', .Mrs, 
.\ntonini. .Vdolph. 
.\itken, EKzabeth B. 
Anders. m, Christine. 
Anderson, Sarah. 
Anderson, Martha. 
Argenton, Antonie G. 
Apps, Henrietta. 
Abodie, Jean L. 
Anthony, Michael. 
Aul'demot, Mary. 
Benedits, Salvadore. 
Briichert, A. 
Bird John. 
Benton, Rosalie. 
Burke, Jack. 
Bibren, Charles. 
Bugge, Diddeuka. 
Brady, Mary. 
Bokenfohr, "p. 
Becker. Mary L. 
Bruguiere, L . 
Brennan, Joseph. 
Brummer, T. 
Barlow, Mary. 
Benning, C. A. 
Bussa, Fred. 
Balancia, Paul. 
Brown, Mi.ss Kate. 
Betzer, Henry. 
Baer, .Joseph. 
Brown, Joseph. 
Brnneau, J. M. 
Bercier, Al. M. L. 
Broyer, L. A. 
Betancourt, J. 
Brady, James. 
Behla, Anna. 
Bonge, Wm. 
Bainsfather, J. C. 
Berges, Laurent. 



Brady, Theresa. 
Bueler. Josephine. 
Bmiisse. Odillie. 
Brllalmcl, Ernan. 
Barry, Mary L. 
Burns, Robert. 
Bernardo, Louisa. 
Becker, Paul. 
Biisil, Joe. • 
B ■ruauer, Charles. 
B'-'uarrie, Jean. 
Butts, Warren S. 
BiMw n, L, 
Bradley, Wm. 
Biri, Henry. 
Brady. 

Bumiy, Louis P. 
Bergmann, Wm. 
Baliluiii, Charles, 
Briii,i:gol(l, K. 
Baiisiiey, Sam. 
Brilton, Annie. 
Braig, James. 
Bleiii, Juliet. 
Burns, L. L. 
Bradford, C. E. 
Bathe, Mrs. Berth. 
Bridge, Wm. B. 
Brady, Andrew. 
Baker, George L. 
Bell, Laura. 
Baker, Eli. 
Bemar, Louis. 
Bernier, E. M. 
Beauman, C. 
Brecht, J. E. 
Burner, Margaret. 
Burns. Edward. 
Bersier, Paul. 
Bickman, H. F. 
Blake. Richard J. 
Bailey, Agnes. 
Bonnecarrere, M. 
Bussaui, A. 
Boshaus, Wm. 
Boyarella, Jos. 
Boiirgovne, H. V. 
Bruns, Otlo. 
Burkhardt, Geo. 
Barnes, J. D. 
Barnes. Robert, 
Beauchere, C. K. 
Bailey, Kate. 
Boyle, Ada. 
Bard in, Joseph. 
Boreau, Mrs. D. 
Bergeret, Jean M. 
Boigelle, Mrs. 
Bvrnes, James. 
Bruns, Wm. H. 
Brnmlel, Louisa. 
Ballcs, Bernard. 
Battu, James T. 
Balds, Isadori. 
Bewerung, Fred. 
Beratina, Antonio. 
Bruiniert, Augu.st. 
Boehm, .lohn. 
Budev. George. 
Barbe, John. 
Brown, Thomas. 
Berlin, R. Alice. 
Berrv, H D. 
Botlick, Charles. 
Berley, John. 
Buchnian, Gotrla. 
Bruet, Eugene. 
Boiniier, Jean. 
Bartel, Henry. 
Bachcr, Marie L, J. 
Berchcr, Fred. 



Buffier, Auguste. 
Bourgeois, H, 
Batemore. Cieorge. 
Baciagalopi, J. 
Baratine, B. 
Bonneaii, Henrj'. 
Boticher, Charles. 
]ire\vster, Mrs. M. 
Bander, .\nna. 
Bauman, Kev. G. 
Braraton, Anna. 
Batunstark, L. 
BrUce, Marie. 
Bower, Elizabeth. 
Bessier, Marie. 
Breen, Aleck. 
Barnes, W, 
Benton, Charles. 
Byrne, Dr. J. G. 
Bruccolori, Rosalie. 
Berry, Ellen. 
Bantz. Catherine. 
Bretz, John B. 
Barret, Patrick. 
Brady, James. 
Benecks, A. 
Behune, Bern. J. 
Barrett, John. 
Becocque, John. 
Boiihager, Fred. 
Browne, Jlrs. E. 
Burns, Elizabeth. 
Brans, Perre. 
Bruns, Rosalie. 
Bence, Charles, 
Bowels, G. B. 
Bowman, Mrs. Anna &. 
Brodel, Bernard. 
Brown, Mary B. 
Burns, Robert, C. 
BUgge, W. 
Barnett, John. 
Boe, Louis, 
Bache, Katie. 
Birchmnn, Katie. 
Benza, Richard. 
Bofill, Paul H. 
Bond, James W, 
Brickel, Philip. 
Batheinv, F. J. 
Blank, Charles T. 
Bogart, Francisco. 
Beuz, Nellie. 
Bermheim, J. 
Bashonnse, F. V. 
Broker, Louisa. 
Bauder, George. 
Bobo, B. A. 
Bruno, Joseph. 
Bailey, Kate. 
Barnes, Sister. 
Berno, D. F. 
Beck, Fred. 
Block, Gabe. 
Bertrand, Aug. 
Buogacre, Ed. 
Blaiichnrd, W. 
Babb, W. T. 
Boden, Emile. 
Behreus, Henry. 
Bauman, John. 
Baker, C. L. 
Bergery, James P. 
Burkman, Julius. 
Brindamour, V. 
Bernard, Maria, 
Barber, Charles. 
Bronj^es, Celina. 
Boutinaro, Peter. 
Berna, A. 
Burk, Elizabeth. 



A HISTORY OF THE YELLOW FEVEE 



253 



B;llirlarrl, Him. J. 

)XMnilk'r, Will. 

Jirniiinl, I'liilip. 

llciuliiiif, ('liiirles. 

Killiski, Wilhoit. 

Biii'lie, Anna. 

Brnily, Charles 

Ki.ljiloto. -Mary J. 

Bac'hinaii, Joseph. 

Dliiemeyer. C. H. 

Berniii.s, William. 

Bal.l.it, A. D. 

Buckliart. Bertha. 

Benzel, Alice. 

Biediiiger, Josephine. 

Erase, Julius. 

Borgns, Albert. 

Bfruer, Teresa. 

BerVaii, C. A. 

Brigetta, Sister Mary. 

Berriclis, John. 

Burns, Kranklin. 

Bridges, Abram B. 

Baker, R. J. H. 

Brady, F. \V. 

Banzaiio, Blank. 

Burke, Fritz. 

Burst, Augustus. 

Brown, .Sophia C. 

Blanco, Catherena, 

Butiier, Augusti. 

Bonrgoin. H. 

Bercier, Oscar L. F. L. 

Berelier, Fred. 

Biriiigman, John. 
Barnes, Robert. 
Barnes. Jeft'. D. 
Buckhart, George. 
Boyle, Ada. 
Beauchare, Charles K. 
Bouslcaur, William. 
Burgoyne, Henrietta B. 
Burns, Otto. 
Busnna, Antionette. 
Bogaretta, Joseph, 
Brady, Andrew. 
Baker, George M. 
Burg, Catherine. 
Brens, Ida. 
Bamatto, John. 
Black, J. W. 
Bullet, William. 
Boliiie, Dora H. 
Bloodgood, C. B. 
Birch, John. 
Beret, Marie. 
Bird, Annie. 
Buckley. Mary D. 
Betti.son, Agnes .S. 
Bouruy, Mary P. 
Banas,' .Mary W. 
Bires, Willie. 
Black, Edmund. 
Berthand, Mary A. 
Benecke, \. 
Bnurg, Philip. 
Bastino, John. 
Burgone, John D. 
Bullit, Louisa. 
Baldwin, tlulbert S. 
Biza, Adam. 
Bertucei, S. 
Bahl, Fred. 
Blucmenson, Ig. 
Beverly, Kccd. 
Bise, Cleavely. 
Belireus, William. 
BiUhelar, Mary E. 
Block, Blanche. 
Blessev, Florence A. 
Block," Alice. 
Brown, Augusta. 
Bieblizka, Anna. 
Britten, Edward. 
Block, Lucy. 
Boufettc, Charles. 
Bassett, Nicholas. 
Bawman, Aleck. 
Baldwin, Mrs. Ella W. 



Bonnetts, Mary, 
Blancn, Jean Marie, 
Baucourt, Lucene. 
lienson, C. L. 
Bell, (ieorge. 
Blnnuin, lienry. 
Haca?(, .Afarie. 
Bender. Andrew K, 
Bamford H. 
B(aiich, Mrs. Rosa. 
Bonich, Victoria. 
Beacondray. Aug. 
Brnguius, John. 
Heli; Frank. 
Bloclier, Herman. 
B-'rg, Charle.i. 
Blume, Charles. 
Buryniens, James. 
Bernhardt, John F. 
Boyle, P. J. 
Breman, Edward. 
Benz, Mary E. 
Brennan. Willie. 
Braun, Matilda. 
Begue, I'eter. 
Beunedettode, G. 
Basby, Mrs. .Sallie. 
Balla, Cu-nius. 
Blasini. Elizabeth. 
Brun, Patrick, 
Bryant. Anna. 
Buras, Mary A. 
Brown, W. J. 
Bcrniol, Aleck. 
Braselman, Guy. 
Boyne, Hubert B. 
Brewster, Annie S. 
Bordeware, Pierre. 
Beaudenas, Didie F. 
Balla, Mrs. Rosa. 
Bri< kmann, Herman. 
Barr, .VIbcrt. 
Bnrke. Mary. 
]{ossaut, Edgar. 
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Bei